Publications by authors named "Pim Martens"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Ecological Paw Print of Companion Dogs and Cats.

Bioscience 2019 Jun 22;69(6):467-474. Epub 2019 May 22.

Maastricht University, in Maastricht, the Netherlands.

As an indicator of sustainable development, the ecological footprint has been successful in providing a basis for discussing the environmental impacts of human consumption. Humans are at the origin of numerous pollutant activities on Earth and are the primary drivers of climate change. However, very little research has been conducted on the environmental impacts of animals, especially companion animals. Often regarded as friends or family members by their owners, companion animals need significant amounts of food in order to sustain their daily energy requirement. The ecological paw print (EPP) could therefore serve as a useful indicator for assessing the impacts of companion animals on the environment. In the present article, we explain the environmental impact of companion dogs and cats by quantifying their dietary EPP and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to primary data we collected in China, the Netherlands, and Japan and discuss how to reduce companion dietary EPP and GHG emissions in order to understand the sustainability of the relationship between companion animals and the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biz044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6551214PMC
June 2019

Attitudes of Young Adults toward Animals-The Case of High School Students in Belgium and The Netherlands.

Animals (Basel) 2019 Mar 11;9(3). Epub 2019 Mar 11.

International Centre for Integrated assessment and Sustainable development (ICIS), Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The social context and culture in which individuals grow shapes their perspectives through life. Early on, children learn about animals through storybooks, animated movies, toys, and through interactions with pets and wildlife, and will slowly start to build beliefs around those experiences. Their attitudes towards animals will be influenced by a number of factors, including: sex, age, nationality/ethnicity, residence area, animal-related activities and hobbies, food habits, culture/religion education, and pet ownership. A case study of Dutch and Belgian high school students (aged 12⁻21) investigated the attitudes of young people towards animals. By using the Animal Attitude Scale (AAS) and the Animal Issue Scale (AIS) questionnaires, our study shows that levels of concern for animal welfare were distinctly higher among: female participants; those who ate little to no meat; Belgian students; pet owners; and those who had been to a zoo at least once. In general, students who reported having more contact with animals also had more positive attitudes towards animals. To understand younger generations and their attitudes toward animals is to understand how future generations will look towards and treat our fellow animals, with which we share the planet Earth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9030088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466541PMC
March 2019

How Japanese companion dog and cat owners' degree of attachment relates to the attribution of emotions to their animals.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(1):e0190781. Epub 2018 Jan 5.

International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development (ICIS), Maastricht University, MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Recently, studies in the United States and European countries have shown that the degree of attachment is associated with the attribution of emotions to companion animals. These studies imply that investigating the degree of attachment to companion animals is a good way for researchers to explore animal emotions and then improve animal welfare. Although a promising area of study, in Japan, no empirical studies have examined the correlation between the degree of attachment and the attribution of emotions to companion animals. In this research, we aimed to assess companion animal owners' attribution of six primary (anger, joy, sadness, disgust, fear and surprise) and four secondary (shame, jealousy, disappointment and compassion) emotions to their dogs and cats, as well as how the degree of attachment related to such attribution of emotions from a Japanese cultural perspective. The "Pet Bonding Scale" (PBS), which is used to determine the level of bonding between humans and animals, was introduced to measure respondents' degree of attachment to their companion animals. The results of a questionnaire (N = 546) distributed throughout Japan showed that respondents attributed a wide range of emotions to their animals. Companion animals' primary emotions, compared to secondary emotions, were more commonly attributed by their owners. The attribution of compassion and jealousy was reported at a high level (73.1% and 56.2%, respectively), which was surprising as compassion and jealousy are generally defined as secondary emotions. All participants were highly attached to their companion animals, and this attachment was positively associated with the attribution of emotions (9/10) to companion animals (all p < 0.05). This study is one of the first to investigate animal emotions by analyzing the bonding between companion animals and owners in Japan, and it can therefore provide knowledge to increase Japanese people's awareness of animal welfare.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0190781PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5755896PMC
February 2018

Climate Change Effects on Heat- and Cold-Related Mortality in the Netherlands: A Scenario-Based Integrated Environmental Health Impact Assessment.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015 Oct 23;12(10):13295-320. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

International Centre for Integrated Assessment and Sustainable Development (ICIS), Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200-MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Although people will most likely adjust to warmer temperatures, it is still difficult to assess what this adaptation will look like. This scenario-based integrated health impacts assessment explores baseline (1981-2010) and future (2050) population attributable fractions (PAF) of mortality due to heat (PAFheat) and cold (PAFcold), by combining observed temperature-mortality relationships with the Dutch KNMI'14 climate scenarios and three adaptation scenarios. The 2050 model results without adaptation reveal a decrease in PAFcold (8.90% at baseline; 6.56%-7.85% in 2050) that outweighs the increase in PAFheat (1.15% at baseline; 1.66%-2.52% in 2050). When the 2050 model runs applying the different adaptation scenarios are considered as well, however, the PAFheat ranges between 0.94% and 2.52% and the PAFcold between 6.56% and 9.85%. Hence, PAFheat and PAFcold can decrease as well as increase in view of climate change (depending on the adaptation scenario). The associated annual mortality burdens in 2050-accounting for both the increasing temperatures and mortality trend-show that heat-related deaths will range between 1879 and 5061 (1511 at baseline) and cold-related deaths between 13,149 and 19,753 (11,727 at baseline). Our results clearly illustrate that model outcomes are not only highly dependent on climate scenarios, but also on adaptation assumptions. Hence, a better understanding of (the impact of various) plausible adaptation scenarios is required to advance future integrated health impact assessments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph121013295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4627032PMC
October 2015

Climate Change and Infectious Disease Risk in Western Europe: A Survey of Dutch Expert Opinion on Adaptation Responses and Actors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015 Aug 18;12(8):9726-49. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

International Centre for Integrated assessment and Sustainable development (ICIS), Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

There is growing evidence of climate change affecting infectious disease risk in Western Europe. The call for effective adaptation to this challenge becomes increasingly stronger. This paper presents the results of a survey exploring Dutch expert perspectives on adaptation responses to climate change impacts on infectious disease risk in Western Europe. Additionally, the survey explores the expert sample's prioritization of mitigation and adaptation, and expert views on the willingness and capacity of relevant actors to respond to climate change. An integrated view on the causation of infectious disease risk is employed, including multiple (climatic and non-climatic) factors. The results show that the experts consider some adaptation responses as relatively more cost-effective, like fostering interagency and community partnerships, or beneficial to health, such as outbreak investigation and response. Expert opinions converge and diverge for different adaptation responses. Regarding the prioritization of mitigation and adaptation responses expert perspectives converge towards a 50/50 budgetary allocation. The experts consider the national government/health authority as the most capable actor to respond to climate change-induced infectious disease risk. Divergence and consensus among expert opinions can influence adaptation policy processes. Further research is necessary to uncover prevailing expert perspectives and their roots, and compare these.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120809726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4555309PMC
August 2015

Climatic-driven seasonality of emerging dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam.

BMC Public Health 2014 Oct 16;14:1078. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Biostatistics and Medical Informatics Department, Institute of Training for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Dengue fever (DF) has been emerging in Hanoi over the last decade. Both DF epidemiology and climate in Hanoi are strongly seasonal. This study aims at characterizing the seasonality of DF in Hanoi and its links to climatic variables as DF incidence increases from year to year.

Methods: Clinical suspected cases of DF from the 14 central districts of Hanoi were obtained from the Ministry of Health over a 8-year period (2002-2009). Wavelet decompositions were used to characterize the main periodic cycles of DF and climatic variables as well as the mean phase angles of these cycles. Cross-wavelet spectra between DF and each climatic variables were also computed. DF reproductive ratio was calculated from Soper's formula and smoothed to highlight both its long-term trend and seasonality.

Results: Temperature, rainfall, and vapor pressure show strong seasonality. DF and relative humidity show both strong seasonality and a sub-annual periodicity. DF reproductive ratio is increasing through time and displays two clear peaks per year, reflecting the sub-annual periodicity of DF incidence. Temperature, rainfall and vapor pressure lead DF incidence by a lag of 8-10 weeks, constant through time. Relative humidity leads DF by a constant lag of 18 weeks for the annual cycle and a lag decreasing from 14 to 5 weeks for the sub-annual cycle.

Conclusion: Results are interpreted in terms of mosquito population dynamics and immunological interactions between the different dengue serotypes in the human compartment. Given its important population size, its strong seasonality and its dengue emergence, Hanoi offers an ideal natural experiment to test hypotheses on dengue serotypes interactions, knowledge of prime importance for vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4287517PMC
October 2014

Impact of climate change on global malaria distribution.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Mar 3;111(9):3286-91. Epub 2014 Feb 3.

Institute of Infection and Global Health, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health and School of Environmental Sciences, Department of Geography and Planning, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZT, United Kingdom.

Malaria is an important disease that has a global distribution and significant health burden. The spatial limits of its distribution and seasonal activity are sensitive to climate factors, as well as the local capacity to control the disease. Malaria is also one of the few health outcomes that has been modeled by more than one research group and can therefore facilitate the first model intercomparison for health impacts under a future with climate change. We used bias-corrected temperature and rainfall simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 climate models to compare the metrics of five statistical and dynamical malaria impact models for three future time periods (2030s, 2050s, and 2080s). We evaluated three malaria outcome metrics at global and regional levels: climate suitability, additional population at risk and additional person-months at risk across the model outputs. The malaria projections were based on five different global climate models, each run under four emission scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways, RCPs) and a single population projection. We also investigated the modeling uncertainty associated with future projections of populations at risk for malaria owing to climate change. Our findings show an overall global net increase in climate suitability and a net increase in the population at risk, but with large uncertainties. The model outputs indicate a net increase in the annual person-months at risk when comparing from RCP2.6 to RCP8.5 from the 2050s to the 2080s. The malaria outcome metrics were highly sensitive to the choice of malaria impact model, especially over the epidemic fringes of the malaria distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1302089111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3948226PMC
March 2014

Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dispersion of dengue fever in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Glob Health Action 2013 Jan 24;6:18632. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Institute of Training for Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Introduction: Dengue fever (DF) in Vietnam remains a serious emerging arboviral disease, which generates significant concerns among international health authorities. Incidence rates of DF have increased significantly during the last few years in many provinces and cities, especially Hanoi. The purpose of this study was to detect DF hot spots and identify the disease dynamics dispersion of DF over the period between 2004 and 2009 in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Methods: Daily data on DF cases and population data for each postcode area of Hanoi between January 1998 and December 2009 were obtained from the Hanoi Center for Preventive Health and the General Statistic Office of Vietnam. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of reported DF. Spatial scan statistics and logistic regression were used to identify space-time clusters and dispersion of DF.

Results: The study revealed a clear trend of geographic expansion of DF transmission in Hanoi through the study periods (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.34). The spatial scan statistics showed that 6/14 (42.9%) districts in Hanoi had significant cluster patterns, which lasted 29 days and were limited to a radius of 1,000 m. The study also demonstrated that most DF cases occurred between June and November, during which the rainfall and temperatures are highest.

Conclusions: There is evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of DF in Hanoi, and that the geographical distribution of DF has expanded over recent years. This finding provides a foundation for further investigation into the social and environmental factors responsible for changing disease patterns, and provides data to inform program planning for DF control.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3556563PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/gha.v6i0.18632DOI Listing
January 2013

Is globalization healthy: a statistical indicator analysis of the impacts of globalization on health.

Global Health 2010 Sep 17;6:16. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

International Centre for Integrated assessment and Sustainable development (ICIS), Maastricht University, P,O, Box 616, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

It is clear that globalization is something more than a purely economic phenomenon manifesting itself on a global scale. Among the visible manifestations of globalization are the greater international movement of goods and services, financial capital, information and people. In addition, there are technological developments, more transboundary cultural exchanges, facilitated by the freer trade of more differentiated products as well as by tourism and immigration, changes in the political landscape and ecological consequences. In this paper, we link the Maastricht Globalization Index with health indicators to analyse if more globalized countries are doing better in terms of infant mortality rate, under-five mortality rate, and adult mortality rate. The results indicate a positive association between a high level of globalization and low mortality rates. In view of the arguments that globalization provides winners and losers, and might be seen as a disequalizing process, we should perhaps be careful in interpreting the observed positive association as simple evidence that globalization is mostly good for our health. It is our hope that a further analysis of health impacts of globalization may help in adjusting and optimising the process of globalization on every level in the direction of a sustainable and healthy development for all.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-8603-6-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2945333PMC
September 2010

[Climate change and health].

Authors:
Pim Martens

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2009 ;153:A1420

Universiteit Maastricht, International Centre for Integrated assessment and Sustainable development, Maastricht.

Despite the targets for greenhouse gas emissions agreed in Kyoto under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change - again to be discussed in Copenhagen in December - climate change will still have serious effects on public health. The health effects of climate change will be noticeable also in the short run. Diseases which are transmitted by arthropod vectors will spread to more areas of the world than where they are present now. In addition, we will have to deal with allergies, deaths due to heat waves, diarrhoea and malnutrition. For this reason, every action is needed now in order to minimise the adverse effects on health.
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February 2010

The health impacts of globalization: a conceptual framework.

Global Health 2005 Aug 3;1:14. Epub 2005 Aug 3.

International Centre for Integrative Studies, Maastricht University, Maasticht, The Netherlands.

This paper describes a conceptual framework for the health implications of globalization. The framework is developed by first identifying the main determinants of population health and the main features of the globalization process. The resulting conceptual model explicitly visualises that globalization affects the institutional, economic, social-cultural and ecological determinants of population health, and that the globalization process mainly operates at the contextual level, while influencing health through its more distal and proximal determinants. The developed framework provides valuable insights in how to organise the complexity involved in studying the health effects resulting from globalization. It could, therefore, give a meaningful contribution to further empirical research by serving as a 'think-model' and provides a basis for the development of future scenarios on health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-8603-1-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1208931PMC
August 2005

The epidemiologic transition in Peru.

Rev Panam Salud Publica 2005 Jan;17(1):51-9

Maastricht University, International Centre for Integrative Studies, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1020-49892005000100010DOI Listing
January 2005

A future without health? Health dimension in global scenario studies.

Bull World Health Organ 2003 1;81(12):896-901. Epub 2004 Mar 1.

International Centre for Integrative Studies, Maastricht University, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands.

This paper reviews the health dimension and sociocultural, economic, and ecological determinants of health in existing global scenario studies. Not even half of the 31 scenarios reviewed gave a good description of future health developments and the different scenario studies did not handle health in a consistent way. Most of the global driving forces of health are addressed adequately in the selected scenarios, however, and it therefore would have been possible to describe the future developments in health as an outcome of these multiple driving forces. To provide examples on how future health can be incorporated in existing scenarios, we linked the sociocultural, economic, and environmental developments described in three sets of scenarios (special report on emission scenarios (SRES), global environmental outlook-3 (GEO3), and world water scenarios (WWS)) to three potential, but imaginary, health futures ("age of emerging infectious diseases", "age of medical technology", and "age of sustained health"). This paper provides useful insights into how to deal with future health in scenarios and shows that a comprehensive picture of future health evolves when all important driving forces and pressures are taken into account.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2572372PMC
April 2004

The European phenology network.

Int J Biometeorol 2003 Aug 7;47(4):202-12. Epub 2003 May 7.

Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8080, 6700 DD, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The analysis of changes in the timing of life cycle-events of organisms (phenology) has been able to contribute significantly to the assessment of potential impacts of climate change on ecology. These phenological responses of species to changes in climate are likely to have significant relevance for socio-economic issues such as agriculture, forestry and human health and have proven able to play a role in raising environmental awareness and education on climate change. This paper presents the European Phenology Network (EPN), which aims to increase the efficiency, added value and use of phenological monitoring and research, and to promote the practical use of phenological data in assessing the impact of global (climate) change and possible adaptation measures. The paper demonstrates that many disciplines have to deal with changes in the timing of life-cycle events in response to climate change and that many different user groups are involved. Furthermore, it shows how EPN addresses issues such as (1) raising public awareness and education, (2) the integration and co-operation of existing observing systems, (3) integration and access to phenological information and (4) communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-003-0174-2DOI Listing
August 2003