Publications by authors named "Pilar Amiano"

321 Publications

Are circulating immune cells a determinant of pancreatic cancer risk? A prospective study using epigenetic cell count measures.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, International Agency For Research On Cancer.

Background: Evidence is accumulating that immune cells play a prominent role in pancreatic cancer aetiology but prospective investigations are missing.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study with 502 pairs of incident pancreatic cancer cases and matched controls. Relative counts of circulating immune cells (neutrophils and lymphocyte sub-lineages: total CD3+, CD8+, CD4+, and FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) relative to nucleated cells, (white blood cells) were measured by qRT-PCR. Odds ratios with 95% Confidence Intervals were estimated using logistic regressions, modelling relative counts of immune cells on a continuous scale.

Results: Neither relative counts of immune cell types taken individually, nor mutually adjusted for each other were associated with pancreatic cancer risks. However, in sub-group analyses by strata of lag-time, higher relative counts of Tregs and lower relative counts of CD8+ were significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risks in participants diagnosed within the first 5 years of follow-up.

Conclusions: These results might reflect reverse causation, due to higher relative counts of Tregs and lower counts of CD8+ cells among individuals with more advanced stages of latent pancreatic cancer, who are closer to the point of developing clinical manifest disease.

Impact: We have shown, for the first time, that increased relative counts of regulatory T-cells and lower relative counts of CD8+, cytotoxic T cells may be associated with pancreatic cancer risk or relatively late-stage tumor development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-21-0169DOI Listing
September 2021

Exposure to widespread drinking water chemicals, blood inflammation markers, and colorectal cancer.

Environ Int 2021 Sep 17;157:106873. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

ISGlobal, Barcelona, Spain; CIBER epidemiología y salud pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), Barcelona, Spain; IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Trihalomethanes (THMs) and nitrate are widespread chemicals in drinking water associated with colorectal cancer risk but mechanisms are not well understood.

Objectives: We explored the association between exposure to THMs and nitrate in drinking water and inflammation markers, and the link with colorectal cancer risk.

Methods: A subset of 198 colorectal cancer cases and 205 controls from the multicase-control study MCC-Spain were included. Average concentration of THMs (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform) and nitrate in tap water at the residence was estimated from age 18 until 2 years before the interview ("long term") and for a recent period (3 years before diagnosis). Serum levels of EGF, eotaxin, G-CSF, IL-17E, IL-1rA, IL-8, IP-10, MDC, MPO, periostin, VEGF, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. We estimated the linear association between inflammation markers and exposure among controls, and the odds ratio of colorectal cancer associated with THM and nitrate exposure, and inflammation markers. A mediation analysis was conducted to identify inflammation markers in the pathway between THM/nitrate exposure and colorectal cancer.

Results: Serum concentrations of EGF, IL-8, IL-17E and eotaxin increased with recent residential levels of brominated THMs, chloroforom and/or total THM. No associations were observed for nitrate and for long-term residential THM levels. All residential exposures except chloroform were positively associated with colorectal cancer. Serum concentrations of VEGF and periostin were positively associated with colorectal cancer, while EGF was inversely associated. One protein-exposure combination (periostin-recent ingested brominated THMs) slightly mediated the association with colorectal cancer risk.

Discussion: Results suggest that estimated THM exposure is involved in inflammation processes. However, the study design was limited to stablish etiologically relevant associations between the protein levels and colorectal cancer risk. The lack of association between nitrate exposure and inflammation markers suggests other biological mechanisms are involved in the link with colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106873DOI Listing
September 2021

Polyphenol Intake and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Aug 4;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Institut Gustave Roussy, 94805 Villejuif, France.

Despite some epidemiological evidence on the protective effects of polyphenol intake on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk from case-control studies, the evidence is scarce from prospective studies and non-existent for several polyphenol classes. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations between the intake of total, classes and subclasses of polyphenols and EOC risk in a large prospective study. The study was conducted in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, which included 309,129 adult women recruited mostly from the general population. Polyphenol intake was assessed through validated country-specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, 1469 first incident EOC cases (including 806 serous, 129 endometrioid, 102 mucinous, and 67 clear cell tumours) were identified. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, the hazard ratio in the highest quartile of total polyphenol intake compared with the lowest quartile (HR) was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94-1.39; -trend = 0.11). Similarly, the intake of most classes and subclasses of polyphenols were not related to either overall EOC risk or any EOC subtype. A borderline statistically significant positive association was observed between phenolic acid intake (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.01-1.43; -trend = 0.02) and EOC risk, especially for the serous subtype and in women with obesity, although these associations did not exceed the Bonferroni correction threshold. The current results do not support any association between polyphenol intake and EOC in our large European prospective study. Results regarding phenolic acid intake need further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389235PMC
August 2021

Prognostic biomarkers of Parkinson's disease in the Spanish EPIC cohort: a multiplatform metabolomics approach.

NPJ Parkinsons Dis 2021 Aug 16;7(1):73. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

The lack of knowledge about the onset and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) hampers its early diagnosis and treatment. Metabolomics might shed light on the PD imprint seeking a broader view of the biochemical remodeling induced by this disease in an early and pre-symptomatic stage and unveiling potential biomarkers. To achieve this goal, we took advantage of the great potential of the European Prospective Study on Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) cohort to apply metabolomics searching for early diagnostic PD markers. This cohort consisted of healthy volunteers that were followed for around 15 years until June 2011 to ascertain incident PD. For this untargeted metabolomics-based study, baseline preclinical plasma samples of 39 randomly selected individuals that developed PD (Pre-PD group) and the corresponding control group were analyzed using a multiplatform approach. Data were statistically analyzed and exposed alterations in 33 metabolites levels, including significantly lower levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the preclinical samples from PD subjects. These results were then validated by adopting a targeted HPLC-QqQ-MS approach. After integrating all the metabolites affected, our finding revealed alterations in FFAs metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and gut-brain axis dysregulation long before the development of PD hallmarks. Although the biological purpose of these events is still unknown, the remodeled metabolic pathways highlighted in this work might be considered worthy prognostic biomarkers of early prodromal PD. The findings revealed by this work are of inestimable value since this is the first study conducted with samples collected many years before the disease development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41531-021-00216-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8368017PMC
August 2021

Bisphenol-A exposure and risk of breast and prostate cancer in the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.

Environ Health 2021 08 16;20(1):88. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Andalusian School of Public Health (EASP), Campus Universitario de Cartuja, C/Cuesta del Observatorio 4, 18080, Granada, Spain.

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that it is present in numerous products of daily use. The aim of this study was to assess the potential association of serum BPA concentrations and the risk of incident breast and prostate cancer in a sub-cohort of the Spanish European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Methods: We designed a case-cohort study within the EPIC-Spain cohort. Study population consisted on 4812 participants from 4 EPIC-Spain centers (547 breast cancer cases, 575 prostate cancer cases and 3690 sub-cohort participants). BPA exposure was assessed by means of chemical analyses of serum samples collected at recruitment. Borgan II weighted Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios.

Results: Median follow-up time in our study was 16.9 years. BPA geometric mean serum values of cases and sub-cohort were 1.12 ng/ml vs 1.10 ng/ml respectively for breast cancer and 1.33 ng/ml vs 1.29 ng/ml respectively for prostate cancer. When categorizing BPA into tertiles, a 40% increase in risk of prostate cancer for tertile 1 (p = 0.022), 37% increase for tertile 2 (p = 0.034) and 31% increase for tertile 3 (p = 0.072) was observed with respect to values bellow the limit of detection. No significant association was observed between BPA levels and breast cancer risk.

Conclusions: We found a similar percentage of detection of BPA among cases and sub-cohort from our population, and no association with breast cancer risk was observed. However, we found a higher risk of prostate cancer for the increase in serum BPA levels. Further investigation is needed to understand the influence of BPA in prostate cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-021-00779-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369702PMC
August 2021

[Family history of first degree as a risk factor for colorectal cancer].

Gac Sanit 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), España; Programa de Recerca en Epidemiologia del Càncer, Institut Català d'Oncologia (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, España.

Objective: To evaluate the association between first-degree family history and colorectal cancer (CRC).

Method: We analyzed data from 2857 controls and 1360 CRC cases, collected in the MCC-Spain project. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of association with the family history of CRC was estimated by non-conditional logistic regression.

Results: First-degree relatives doubled the risk of CRC (OR: 2.19; 95% CI: 1.80-2.66), increasing in those with two or more (OR: 4.22; 95% CI: 2.29-7.78) and in those whose relatives were diagnosed before 50 years (OR: 3.24; 95% CI: 1.52-6.91). Regarding the association of the family history with the location, no significant differences were observed between colon and rectum, but there were in the relation of these with the age of diagnosis, having more relatives those diagnosed before 50 years (OR: 4.79; 95% CI: 2.65-8.65).

Conclusions: First-degree relatives of CRC increase the chances of developing this tumor, they also increase when the relative is diagnosed at an early age. Therefore, it must be a target population on which to carry out prevention measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gaceta.2021.04.006DOI Listing
July 2021

Factors associated with serum ferritin levels and iron excess: results from the EPIC-EurGast study.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology - ICO, Nutrition and Cancer Group, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute -(IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Excess iron is involved in the development of non-communicable diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular conditions. We aimed to describe the prevalence of excess iron and its determinants in healthy European adults.

Methods: Sociodemographic, lifestyle, iron status, dietary information, and HFE genotyping were obtained from controls from the nested case-control study EPIC-EurGast study. High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured to address possible systemic inflammation. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were used to assess iron status and its determinants.

Results: Out of the 828 participants (median age: 58.7 years), 43% were females. Median serum ferritin and prevalence of excess iron were 143.7 µg/L and 35.2% in males, respectively, and 77 µg/L and 20% in females, both increasing with latitude across Europe. Prevalence of HFE C282Y mutation was significantly higher in Northern and Central Europe (~ 11%) than in the South (5%). Overweight/obesity, age, and daily alcohol and heme iron intake were independent determinants for iron status, with sex differences even after excluding participants with hsCRP > 5 mg/L. Obese males showed a greater consumption of alcohol, total and red meat, and heme iron, compared with those normal weight.

Conclusion: Obesity, higher alcohol and heme iron consumption were the main risk factors for excess iron in males while only age was associated with iron overload in females. Weight control and promoting healthy lifestyle may help prevent iron overload, especially in obese people. Further research is needed to clarify determinants of excess iron in the healthy adult population, helping to reduce the associated comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-021-02625-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Inflammatory Potential of the Diet and Incidence of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis in the EPIC-Spain Cohort.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 26;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Instituto de Salud Pública de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona, Spain.

Diet may influence the development of inflammatory bowel disease through the modulation of inflammation. We investigated whether the inflammatory potential of the diet is associated with the risk of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Spanish cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Spain). The study included 32,633 participants aged 29-69 years. The inflammatory potential of the diet was measured by using an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD) based on a baseline dietary history questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 21 years (674,547 person-years) of follow-up, 32 and 57 participants developed CD and UC, respectively. In multivariable analysis, a one-standard deviation (SD) increment in the ISD (two-unit increase) was associated with a higher risk of CD (HR of 1.71; 95% CI: 1.05-2.80; = 0.031). By contrast, ISD was not associated with UC (HR for one-SD increment of 0.89; 95% CI: 0.66-1.19; = 0.436). Our results suggest that consuming a more pro-inflammatory diet may contribute to the risk of CD, supporting that a healthy diet might be beneficial in its prevention. Further, larger studies are needed to verify these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13072201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308349PMC
June 2021

Inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of breast cancer in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Eur J Epidemiol 2021 Jun 20. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Director Office, International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.

The role of chronic inflammation on breast cancer (BC) risk remains unclear beyond as an underlying mechanism of obesity and physical activity. We aimed to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of BC overall, according to menopausal status and tumour subtypes. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 318,686 women were followed for 14 years, among whom 13,246 incident BC cases were identified. The inflammatory potential of the diet was characterized by an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD). Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess the potential effect of the ISD on BC risk by means of hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). ISD was positively associated with BC risk. Each increase of one standard deviation (1-Sd) of the score increased by 4% the risk of BC (HR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07). Women in the highest quintile of the ISD (indicating a most pro-inflammatory diet) had a 12% increase in risk compared with those in the lowest quintile (HR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.21) with a significant trend. The association was strongest among premenopausal women, with an 8% increased risk for 1-Sd increase in the score (HR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.14). The pattern of the association was quite homogeneous by BC subtypes based on hormone receptor status. There were no significant interactions between ISD and body mass index, physical activity, or alcohol consumption. Women consuming more pro-inflammatory diets as measured by ISD are at increased risk for BC, especially premenopausal women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-021-00772-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Concentrations of bisphenol-A in adults from the general population: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 11;775:145755. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Epidemiology, Murcia Regional Health Council, Murcia, Spain; CIBER Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), Madrid, Spain; Department of Health and Social Sciences, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain; Murcia Biomedical Research Institute (IMIB-Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain.

Background: Human bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects even at low doses, which may be of potential public health concern.

Objective: To summarize BPA concentrations in general human population and their variability according to sex, geographic area, and analytical method.

Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies reporting BPA concentrations in adult human populations. Separate meta-analyses of median values were carried out for BPA in serum, creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA, and unadjusted urinary BPA concentrations using a random-effects model. Cochran's Q-statistic, I index, 95% prediction intervals (PIs), between-studies standard deviation (τ), and forest plots were applied to verify study heterogeneity. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses and weighted ANOVAs and meta-regressions were conducted. Funnel plots and Egger's tests were used to examine publication bias.

Results: Fifteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, totaling 28,353 participants. BPA was detected in over 90% of participants. The pooled creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA concentration was 1.76 μg/g (95% PI: 0.79-2.73), with individual estimates ranging between 1.20 and 2.41. The pooled estimate for unadjusted urinary BPA was 1.91 μg/l (95% PI: 0-3.97), ranging between 0.81 and 3.50, while the pooled estimate for serum BPA was 1.75 μg/l (95% PI: 0-10.58), ranging between 0.34 and 3.76. No differences were found by sex, geographic area or analytical technique. Larger sample sizes were associated with lower BPA concentrations. There was large heterogeneity across studies, whereas data for urinary BPA levels suggested a publication bias affecting research in low exposed populations.

Conclusion: This first meta-analysis of human BPA concentrations highlights a widespread population exposure to BPA. Although there was high heterogeneity across studies, the expected range of estimated human BPA concentrations suggests that potential health risks are unlikely. Further studies are warranted to better characterize the epidemiology of human BPA exposure, accounting for ethnic, geographic, individual and environmental variability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145755DOI Listing
June 2021

Prospective analysis of circulating metabolites and endometrial cancer risk.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Aug 5;162(2):475-481. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Endometrial cancer is strongly associated with obesity and dysregulation of metabolic factors such as estrogen and insulin signaling are causal risk factors for this malignancy. To identify additional novel metabolic pathways associated with endometrial cancer we performed metabolomic analyses on pre-diagnostic plasma samples from 853 case-control pairs from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Methods: A total of 129 metabolites (acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexoses, and sphingolipids) were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Conditional logistic regression estimated the associations of metabolites with endometrial cancer risk. An analysis focusing on clusters of metabolites using the bootstrap lasso method was also employed.

Results: After adjustment for body mass index, sphingomyelin [SM] C18:0 was positively (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.05-1.33), and glycine, serine, and free carnitine (C0) were inversely (OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.99; OR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-1.00 and OR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81-1.00, respectively) associated with endometrial cancer risk. Serine, C0 and two sphingomyelins were selected by the lasso method in >90% of the bootstrap samples. The ratio of esterified to free carnitine (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02-1.28) and that of short chain to free acylcarnitines (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 1.00-1.25) were positively associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further adjustment for C-peptide or other endometrial cancer risk factors only minimally altered the results.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that variation in levels of glycine, serine, SM C18:0 and free carnitine may represent specific pathways linked to endometrial cancer development. If causal, these pathways may offer novel targets for endometrial cancer prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336647PMC
August 2021

Sleep duration and napping in relation to colorectal and gastric cancer in the MCC-Spain study.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 3;11(1):11822. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Sleep duration is a novel and potentially modifiable risk factor for cancer. We evaluated the association of self-reported sleep duration and daytime napping with odds of colorectal and gastric cancer. We included 2008 incident colorectal cancer cases, 542 gastric cancer cases and 3622 frequency-matched population controls, recruited in the MCC-Spain case-control study (2008-2013). Sleep information, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics were obtained through personal interviews. Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for cancer, across categories of sleep duration (≤ 5, 6, 7, 8, ≥ 9 hours/day), daytime napping frequency (naps/week) and duration (minutes/nap). Compared to 7 hours of sleep, long sleep was associated with increased odds of colorectal (OR: 1.59; 95%CI 1.30-1.94) and gastric cancer (OR: 1.95; 1.37-2.76); short sleep was associated with increased odds of gastric cancer (OR: 1.32; 0.93-1.88). Frequent and long daytime naps increased the odds of colorectal (OR: 1.32; 1.14-1.54) and gastric cancer (OR: 1.56; 1.21-2.02). Effects of short sleep and frequent long naps were stronger among participants with night shift-work history. Sleep and circadian disruption may jointly play a role in the etiology of colorectal and gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91275-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175745PMC
June 2021

Consumption of Ultra-Processed Food and Drinks and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in the MCC-Spain Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 20;18(10). Epub 2021 May 20.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red: Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28001 Madrid, Spain.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults in Western countries. Its etiology is largely unknown but increasing incidence rates observed worldwide suggest that lifestyle and environmental factors such as diet might play a role in the development of CLL. Hence, we hypothesized that the consumption of ultra-processed food and drinks (UPF) might be associated with CLL. Data from a Spanish population-based case-control study (MCC-Spain study) including 230 CLL cases (recruited within three years of diagnosis) and 1634 population-based controls were used. The usual diet during the previous year was collected through a validated food frequency questionnaire and food and drink consumption was categorized using the NOVA classification scheme. Logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders were used. Overall, no association was reported between the consumption of UPF and CLL cases (OR per each 10% increase of the relative contribution of UPF to total dietary intake = 1.09 (95% CI: 0.94; 1.25)), independently of the Rai stage at diagnosis. However, when analyses were restricted to cases diagnosed within <1 year (incident), each 10% increment in the consumption of UPF was associated with a 22% higher odds ratio of CLL (95% CI: 1.02, 1.47) suggesting that the overall results might be affected by the inclusion of prevalent cases, who might have changed their dietary habits after cancer diagnosis. Given the low number of cases in the subgroup analyses and multiple tests performed, chance findings cannot totally be ruled out. Nonetheless, positive associations found in CLL incident cases merit further research, ideally in well-powered studies with a prospective design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160774PMC
May 2021

Dietary intake and plasma phospholipid concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and trans fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Epidemiologic studies examining the association between specific fatty acids and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are inconclusive. We investigated the association between dietary estimates and plasma levels of individual and total saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), industrial-processed trans (iTFA), and ruminant-sourced trans (rTFA) fatty acids, and CRC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Baseline fatty acid intakes were estimated in 450 112 participants (6162 developed CRC, median follow-up = 15 years). In a nested case-control study, plasma phospholipid fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography in 433 colon cancer cases and 433 matched controls. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using Cox and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Dietary total SFA (highest vs lowest quintile, HR  = 0.80; 95%CI:0.69-0.92), myristic acid (HR  = 0.83, 95%CI:0.74-0.93) and palmitic acid (HR  = 0.81, 95%CI:0.70-0.93) were inversely associated with CRC risk. Plasma myristic acid was also inversely associated with colon cancer risk (highest vs lowest quartile, OR  = 0.51; 95%CI:0.32-0.83), whereas a borderline positive association was found for plasma stearic acid (OR  = 1.63; 95%CI:1.00-2.64). Dietary total MUFA was inversely associated with colon cancer (per 1-SD increment, HR  = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.85-0.98), but not rectal cancer (HR  = 1.04, 95%CI:0.95-1.15, P  = 0.027). Dietary iTFA, and particularly elaidic acid, was positively associated with rectal cancer (HR  = 1.07, 95%CI:1.02-1.13). Our results suggest that total and individual saturated fatty acids and fatty acids of industrial origin may be relevant to the aetiology of CRC. Both dietary and plasma myristic acid levels were inversely associated with colon cancer risk, which warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33615DOI Listing
April 2021

A Prospective Diet-Wide Association Study for Risk of Colorectal Cancer in EPIC.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background & Aims: Evidence regarding the association of dietary exposures with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk is not consistent with a few exceptions. Therefore, we conducted a diet-wide association study (DWAS) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) to evaluate the associations between several dietary exposures with CRC risk.

Methods: The association of 92 food and nutrient intakes with CRC risk was assessed in 386,792 participants, 5069 of whom developed incident CRC. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed using the false discovery rate, and emerging associations were examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS). Multiplicative gene-nutrient interactions were also tested in EPIC based on known CRC-associated loci.

Results: In EPIC, alcohol, liquor/spirits, wine, beer/cider, soft drinks, and pork were positively associated with CRC, whereas milk, cheese, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin B6, beta carotene, fruit, fiber, nonwhite bread, banana, and total protein intakes were inversely associated. Of these 20 associations, 13 were replicated in the NLCS, for which a meta-analysis was performed, namely alcohol (summary hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD increment in intake: 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.09), liquor/spirits (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), wine (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), beer/cider (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08), milk (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), cheese (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), calcium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), phosphorus (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.95), magnesium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.92-0.98), potassium (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99), riboflavin (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), beta carotene (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.93-0.98), and total protein (HR per 1-SD increment in intake, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97). None of the gene-nutrient interactions were significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons.

Conclusions: Our findings confirm a positive association for alcohol and an inverse association for dairy products and calcium with CRC risk, and also suggest a lower risk at higher dietary intakes of phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, beta carotene, and total protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2021.04.028DOI Listing
April 2021

Dietary intake of advanced glycation endproducts and risk of hepatobiliary cancers: A multinational cohort study.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), Lyon, France.

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) may contribute to liver carcinogenesis because of their proinflammatory and prooxidative properties. Diet is a major source of AGEs, but there is sparse human evidence on the role of AGEs intake in liver cancer etiology. We examined the association between dietary AGEs and the risk of hepatobiliary cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective cohort (n = 450 111). Dietary intake of three AGEs, N -[carboxymethyl]lysine (CML), N -[1-carboxyethyl]lysine (CEL) and N -[5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl]-ornithine (MG-H1), was estimated using country-specific dietary questionnaires linked to an AGEs database. Cause-specific hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between dietary AGEs and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), gallbladder and biliary tract cancers were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression. After a median follow-up time of 14.9 years, 255 cases of HCC, 100 cases of gallbladder cancer and 173 biliary tract cancers were ascertained. Higher intakes of dietary AGEs were inversely associated with the risk of HCC (per 1 SD increment, HR-  = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99, HR-  = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74-0.96 and HR-  = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74-0.97). In contrast, positive associations were observed with risk of gallbladder cancer (per 1 SD, HR-  = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05-1.56, HR-  = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.96-1.40, HR-  = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.06-1.54). No associations were observed for cancers of the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts. Our findings suggest that higher intakes of dietary AGEs are inversely associated with the risk of HCC and positively associated with the risk of gallbladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360042PMC
April 2021

Soft Drink and Juice Consumption and Renal Cell Carcinoma Incidence and Mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 06 13;30(6):1270-1274. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), Lyon, France.

Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for more than 80% of kidney cancers in adults, and obesity is a known risk factor. Regular consumption of sweetened beverages has been linked to obesity and several chronic diseases, including some types of cancer. It is uncertain whether soft drink and juice consumption is associated with risk of RCC. We investigated the associations of soft drink and juice consumption with RCC incidence and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Methods: A total of 389,220 EPIC participants with median age of 52 years at recruitment (1991-2000) were included. Cox regression yielded adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RCC incidence and mortality in relation to intakes of juices and total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drinks.

Results: A total of 888 incident RCCs and 356 RCC deaths were identified. In models including adjustment for body mass index and energy intake, there was no higher risk of incident RCC associated with consumption of juices (HR per 100 g/day increment = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.09), total soft drinks (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98-1.05), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.94-1.05), or artificially sweetened soft drinks (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.08). In these fully adjusted models, none of the beverages was associated with RCC mortality (HR, 95% CI per 100 g/day increment 1.06, 0.97-1.16; 1.03, 0.98-1.09; 0.97, 0.89-1.07; and 1.06, 0.99-1.14, respectively).

Conclusions: Consumption of juices or soft drinks was not associated with RCC incidence or mortality after adjusting for obesity.

Impact: Soft drink and juice intakes are unlikely to play an independent role in RCC development or mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611361PMC
June 2021

A comparison of complementary measures of vitamin B6 status, function, and metabolism in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 07;114(1):338-347

Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Background: Vitamin B6 insufficiency has been linked to increased risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The circulating concentration of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a commonly used measure of vitamin B6 status. Ratios of substrates indicating PLP coenzymatic function and metabolism may be useful complementary measures to further explore the role of vitamin B6 in health.

Objectives: We explored the sensitivity of 5 outcomes, namely PLP concentration, homocysteine:cysteine (Hcy:Cys), cystathionine:cysteine (Cysta:Cys), the 3´-hydroxykynurenine ratio (HKr), and the 4-pyridoxic acid ratio (PAr) to vitamin B6 intake as well as personal and lifestyle characteristics.

Medthods: Dietary intake and biomarker data were collected from participants from 3 nested case-control studies within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Bayesian regression models assessed the associations of the 5 biomarker outcomes with vitamin B6 intake and personal and lifestyle covariates. Analogous models examined the relations of Hcy:Cys, Cysta:Cys, and HKr with PLP.

Results: In total, 4608 participants were included in the analyses. Vitamin B6 intake was most strongly associated with PLP, moderately associated with Hcy:Cys, Cysta:Cys, and HKr, and not associated with PAr (fold change in marker given a doubling of vitamin B6 intake: PLP 1.60 [95% credible interval (CrI): 1.50, 1.71]; Hcy:Cys 0.87 [95% CrI: 0.84, 0.90]; Cysta:Cys 0.89 [95% CrI: 0.84, 0.94]; HKr 0.88 [95% CrI: 0.85, 0.91]; PAr 1.00 [95% CrI: 0.95, 1.05]). PAr was most sensitive to age, and HKr was least sensitive to BMI and alcohol intake. Sex and menopause status were strongly associated with all 5 markers.

Conclusions: We found that 5 different markers, capturing different aspects of vitamin B6-related biological processes, varied in their associations with vitamin B6 intake and personal and lifestyle predictors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246608PMC
July 2021

Coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a multicentre case-control study from Italy and Spain.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 May;30(3):204-210

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano.

Background: Coffee contains many bioactive substances that can play a role on colorectal cancer. Epidemiological evidence of coffee intake and colorectal cancer is, however, inconsistent.

Aim: To provide further information on the risk of colorectal cancer in relation to coffee consumption.

Methods: Data derive from two companion case-control studies conducted in Italy and Spain within the European Union Project on Health Impacts of long-term exposure to disinfection by-products in Drinking Water and the Spanish Multi-Case Control study on Cancer. These included a total of 2289 incident cases with colorectal cancer and 3995 controls with information on coffee intake. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from unconditional logistic regression models, adjusted for study centre, sex, age, education, smoking, and other covariates.

Results: Compared with never coffee drinkers, the OR was 0.99 (95% CI 0.95-1.02) for total coffee consumption. There was no significant trend in risk with dose or duration, the ORs being 0.95 (95% CI 0.72-1.25) for an amount of five or more cups per day of coffee and 0.95 (95% CI 0.75-1.19) for a duration of consumption of 50 years or longer. The OR was 1.04 (95% CI 0.87-1.25) for two or more cups per day of decaffeinated coffee. There were no heterogeneity across strata of various covariates, as well as no apparent differences between various anatomical subsites.

Conclusion: This large pooled analysis of two studies shows no association of coffee and decaffeinated coffee with colorectal cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000593DOI Listing
May 2021

Dietary intake of trans fatty acids and breast cancer risk in 9 European countries.

BMC Med 2021 03 30;19(1):81. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Clinical Sciences Lund, Oncology, Lund University and Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Trans fatty acids (TFAs) have been hypothesised to influence breast cancer risk. However, relatively few prospective studies have examined this relationship, and well-powered analyses according to hormone receptor-defined molecular subtypes, menopausal status, and body size have rarely been conducted.

Methods: In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we investigated the associations between dietary intakes of TFAs (industrial trans fatty acids [ITFAs] and ruminant trans fatty acids [RTFAs]) and breast cancer risk among 318,607 women. Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for other breast cancer risk factors.

Results: After a median follow-up of 8.1 years, 13,241 breast cancer cases occurred. In the multivariable-adjusted model, higher total ITFA intake was associated with elevated breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23; P trend = 0.001). A similar positive association was found between intake of elaidic acid, the predominant ITFA, and breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.23; P trend = 0.001). Intake of total RTFAs was also associated with higher breast cancer risk (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.09, 95% CI 1.01-1.17; P trend = 0.015). For individual RTFAs, we found positive associations with breast cancer risk for dietary intakes of two strongly correlated fatty acids (Spearman correlation r = 0.77), conjugated linoleic acid (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20; P trend = 0.001) and palmitelaidic acid (HR for highest vs lowest quintile, 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16; P trend = 0.028). Similar associations were found for total ITFAs and RTFAs with breast cancer risk according to menopausal status, body mass index, and breast cancer subtypes.

Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that higher dietary intakes of ITFAs, in particular elaidic acid, are associated with elevated breast cancer risk. Due to the high correlation between conjugated linoleic acid and palmitelaidic acid, we were unable to disentangle the positive associations found for these fatty acids with breast cancer risk. Further mechanistic studies are needed to identify biological pathways that may underlie these associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-01952-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008592PMC
March 2021

Plasma concentrations of advanced glycation end-products and colorectal cancer risk in the EPIC study.

Carcinogenesis 2021 05;42(5):705-713

Office of the Director, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France.

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds formed by the non-enzymatic reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars, or dicarbonyls as intermediate compounds. Experimental studies suggest that AGEs may promote colorectal cancer, but prospective epidemiologic studies are inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study nested within a large European cohort. Plasma concentrations of three protein-bound AGEs-Nε-(carboxy-methyl)lysine (CML), Nε-(carboxy-ethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1)-were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in baseline samples collected from 1378 incident primary colorectal cancer cases and 1378 matched controls. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional logistic regression for colorectal cancer risk associated with CML, CEL, MG-H1, total AGEs, and [CEL+MG-H1: CML] and [CEL:MG-H1] ratios. Inverse colorectal cancer risk associations were observed for CML (OR comparing highest to lowest quintile, ORQ5 versus Q1 = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.27-0.59), MG-H1 (ORQ5 versus Q1 = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.53-1.00) and total AGEs (OR Q5 versus Q1 = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.37-0.73), whereas no association was observed for CEL. A higher [CEL+MG-H1: CML] ratio was associated with colorectal cancer risk (ORQ5 versus Q1 = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.31-2.79). The associations observed did not differ by sex, or by tumour anatomical sub-site. Although individual AGEs concentrations appear to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, a higher ratio of methylglyoxal-derived AGEs versus those derived from glyoxal (calculated by [CEL+MG-H1: CML] ratio) showed a strong positive risk association. Further insight on the metabolism of AGEs and their dicarbonyls precursors, and their roles in colorectal cancer development is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgab026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162627PMC
May 2021

Consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks and colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer.

Clin Nutr 2021 04 27;40(4):1537-1545. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain; Universidad de Cantabria - IDIVAL, Santander, Spain. Electronic address:

Aims: To study whether the consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks is associated with breast, colorectal, and prostate cancers.

Methods: Multicentric population-based case-control study (MCC-Spain) conducted in 12 Spanish provinces. Participants were men and women between 20 and 85 years of age with diagnoses of colorectal (n = 1852), breast (n = 1486), or prostate cancer (n = 953), and population-based controls (n = 3543) frequency-matched by age, sex, and region. Dietary intake was collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Foods and drinks were categorized according to their degree of processing based on the NOVA classification. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between ultra-processed food and drink consumption and colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer.

Results: In multiple adjusted models, consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (OR for a 10% increase in consumption: 1.11; 95% CI 1.04-1.18). The corresponding odds for breast (OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.96-1.11) and prostate cancer (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.93-1.12) were indicative of no association.

Conclusions: Results of this large population-based case-control study suggest an association between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and drinks and colorectal cancer. Food policy and public health should include a focus on food processing when formulating dietary guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.02.033DOI Listing
April 2021

Adequacy of early-stage breast cancer systemic adjuvant treatment to Saint Gallen-2013 statement: the MCC-Spain study.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 8;11(1):5375. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

The St Gallen Conference endorsed in 2013 a series of recommendations on early breast cancer treatment. The main purpose of this article is to ascertain the clinical factors associated with St Gallen-2013 recommendations accomplishment. A cohort of 1152 breast cancer cases diagnosed with pathological stage < 3 in Spain between 2008 and 2013 was begun and then followed-up until 2017/2018. Data on patient and tumour characteristics were obtained from medical records, as well as their first line treatment. First line treatments were classified in three categories, according on whether they included the main St Gallen-2013 recommendations, more than those recommended or less than those recommended. Multinomial logistic regression models were carried out to identify factors associated with this classification and Weibull regression models were used to find out the relationship between this classification and survival. About half of the patients were treated according to St Gallen recommendations; 21% were treated over what was recommended and 33% received less treatment than recommended. Factors associated with treatment over the recommendations were stage II (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 4.2, 2.9-5.9), cancer positive to either progesterone (RRR = 8.1, 4.4-14.9) or oestrogen receptors (RRR = 5.7, 3.0-11.0). Instead, factors associated with lower probability of treatment over the recommendations were age (RRR = 0.7 each 10 years, 0.6-0.8), poor differentiation (RRR = 0.09, 0.04-0.19), HER2 positive (RRR = 0.46, 0.26-0.81) and triple negative cancer (RRR = 0.03, 0.01-0.11). Patients treated less than what was recommended in St Gallen had cancers in stage 0 (RRR = 21.6, 7.2-64.5), poorly differentiated (RRR = 1.9, 1.2-2.9), HER2 positive (RRR = 3.4, 2.4-4.9) and luminal B-like subtype (RRR = 3.6, 2.6-5.1). Women over 65 years old had a higher probability of being treated less than what was recommended if they had luminal B-like, HER2 or triple negative cancer. Treatment over St Gallen was associated with younger women and less severe cancers, while treatment under St Gallen was associated with older women, more severe cancers and cancers expressing HER2 receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84825-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970883PMC
March 2021

The Sum of Plasma Fatty Acids iso16:0, iso17:0, -18:1, -CLA, and -18:1 as Biomarker of Dairy Intake Established in an Intervention Study and Validated in the EPIC Cohort of Gipuzkoa.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 22;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Lactiker Research Group, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Paseo de la Universidad 7, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.

The questioned reliability of 15:0, 17:0, and -16:1 acids as biomarkers of dairy fat intake also questions the relationship between the intake of these products and their health effects. Two studies were conducted in the same geographical region. In an intervention study, volunteers followed a diet rich in dairy products followed by a diet without dairy products. Plasma and erythrocyte fatty acids (FA) were analyzed, and their correlations with dairy product intakes were tested. The FA biomarkers selected were validated in the Gipuzkoa cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) observational study. The correlation coefficients between plasma concentrations of iso16:0, iso17:0, -18:1, -18:2, and -18:1 and the dairy fat ingested are similar in both studies, indicating that their concentration increases by 0.8 µmol/L per gram of dairy fat ingested. The biomarkers are positively related to plasma triglycerides ( = 0.324 and 0.204 in the intervention and observational studies, respectively) and total cholesterol ( = 0.459 and 0.382), but no correlation was found between the biomarkers and atherogenicity indexes. In conclusion, the sum of the plasma concentration of the selected FAs can be used as biomarkers of dairy product consumption. A linear relationship exists between their plasma concentrations and ruminant product intake. These biomarkers allow for obtaining consistent relationships between dairy intake and plasma biochemical parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7926849PMC
February 2021

Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease in the EPIC-Spain Dementia Cohort Study.

Nutrients 2021 Feb 22;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Murcia Biomedical Research Institute (IMIB-Arrixaca), 30120 Murcia, Spain.

The Mediterranean diet (MD) has shown to reduce the occurrence of several chronic diseases. To evaluate its potential protective role on dementia incidence we studied 16,160 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Spain Dementia Cohort study recruited between 1992-1996 and followed up for a mean (±SD) of 21.6 (±3.4) years. A total of 459 incident cases of dementia were ascertained through expert revision of medical records. Data on habitual diet was collected through a validated diet history method to assess adherence to the relative Mediterranean Diet (rMED) score. Hazard ratios (HR) of dementia by rMED levels (low, medium and high adherence levels: ≤6, 7-10 and ≥11 points, respectively) were estimated using multivariable Cox models, whereas time-dependent effects were evaluated using flexible parametric Royston-Parmar (RP) models. Results of the fully adjusted model showed that high versus low adherence to the categorical rMED score was associated with a 20% (HR = 0.80, 95%CI: 0.60-1.06) lower risk of dementia overall and HR of dementia was 8% (HR = 0.92, 0.85-0.99, = 0.021) lower for each 2-point increment of the continuous rMED score. By sub-types, a favorable association was also found in women for non-AD (HR per 2-points = 0.74, 95%CI: 0.62-0.89), while not statistically significant in men for AD (HR per 2-points = 0.88, 0.76-1.01). The association was stronger in participants with lower education. In conclusion, in this large prospective cohort study MD was inversely associated with dementia incidence after accounting for major cardiovascular risk factors. The results differed by dementia sub-type, sex, and education but there was no significant evidence of effect modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13020700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927039PMC
February 2021

Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 05 22;30(5):874-885. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Background: A growing body of evidence suggests that alterations of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles are associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, data from large-scale epidemiologic studies using circulating FA measurements to objectively assess individual FA and FA categories are scarce.

Methods: We investigate the association between red blood cell (RBC) membrane FAs and risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort. After a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1,069 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified and matched to 1,069 controls among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The FA composition of RBC phospholipids (in mol%) was analyzed by gas chromatography, and their association with risk of colorectal cancer was estimated by multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression models.

Results: After correction for multiple testing, subjects with higher concentrations of RBC stearic acid were at higher risk for colorectal cancer (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.07-1.42, per 1 mol%). Conversely, colorectal cancer incidence decreased with increasing proportions of RBC n-3 PUFA, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (0.75; 0.62-0.92, per 1 mol%). The findings for the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid were inconsistent.

Conclusions: The positive association between prediagnostic RBC stearic acid and colorectal cancer reflects putative differences in FA intake and metabolism between cancer cases and matched controls, which deserve further investigation. The inverse relationship between EPA and colorectal cancer is in line with the repeatedly reported protective effect of fish consumption on colorectal cancer risk.

Impact: These findings add to the evidence on colorectal cancer prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1426DOI Listing
May 2021

Lifetime alcohol intake, drinking patterns over time and risk of stomach cancer: A pooled analysis of data from two prospective cohort studies.

Int J Cancer 2021 06 22;148(11):2759-2773. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.

Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive association with noncardia cancer (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06 per 10 g/d increment), with a HR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09) for ≥60 g/d compared to 0.1 to 4.9 g/d. A weak inverse association with cardia cancer (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-1.00) was also observed. HRs of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for noncardia and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.26-1.03) for cardia cancer were observed for a life course trajectory characterized by heavy decreasing intake compared to light stable intake (P = .02). These associations did not differ appreciably by smoking or H pylori infection status. Limiting alcohol use during lifetime, particularly avoiding heavy use during early adulthood, might help prevent noncardia stomach cancer. Heterogeneous associations observed for cardia and noncardia cancers may indicate etiologic differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33504DOI Listing
June 2021

Development and validation of a lifestyle-based model for colorectal cancer risk prediction: the LiFeCRC score.

BMC Med 2021 01 4;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.

Background: Nutrition and lifestyle have been long established as risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Modifiable lifestyle behaviours bear potential to minimize long-term CRC risk; however, translation of lifestyle information into individualized CRC risk assessment has not been implemented. Lifestyle-based risk models may aid the identification of high-risk individuals, guide referral to screening and motivate behaviour change. We therefore developed and validated a lifestyle-based CRC risk prediction algorithm in an asymptomatic European population.

Methods: The model was based on data from 255,482 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study aged 19 to 70 years who were free of cancer at study baseline (1992-2000) and were followed up to 31 September 2010. The model was validated in a sample comprising 74,403 participants selected among five EPIC centres. Over a median follow-up time of 15 years, there were 3645 and 981 colorectal cancer cases in the derivation and validation samples, respectively. Variable selection algorithms in Cox proportional hazard regression and random survival forest (RSF) were used to identify the best predictors among plausible predictor variables. Measures of discrimination and calibration were calculated in derivation and validation samples. To facilitate model communication, a nomogram and a web-based application were developed.

Results: The final selection model included age, waist circumference, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, vegetables, dairy products, processed meat, and sugar and confectionary. The risk score demonstrated good discrimination overall and in sex-specific models. Harrell's C-index was 0.710 in the derivation cohort and 0.714 in the validation cohort. The model was well calibrated and showed strong agreement between predicted and observed risk. Random survival forest analysis suggested high model robustness. Beyond age, lifestyle data led to improved model performance overall (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.307 (95% CI 0.264-0.352)), and especially for young individuals below 45 years (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.364 (95% CI 0.084-0.575)).

Conclusions: LiFeCRC score based on age and lifestyle data accurately identifies individuals at risk for incident colorectal cancer in European populations and could contribute to improved prevention through motivating lifestyle change at an individual level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01826-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780676PMC
January 2021

Dietary Constituents: Relationship with Breast Cancer Prognostic (MCC-SPAIN Follow-Up).

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 24;18(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Consortium for Biomedical Research in Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBER de Epidemiología Y Salud Pública-CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between the intake of the major nutrients and prognosis in breast cancer. A cohort based on 1350 women with invasive (stage I-IV) breast cancer (BC) was followed up. Information about their dietary habits before diagnosis was collected using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Participants without FFQ or with implausible energy intake were excluded. The total amount consumed of each nutrient (Kcal/day) was divided into tertiles, considering as "high intakes" those above third tertile. The main effect studied was overall survival. Cox regression was used to assess the association between death and nutrient intake. During a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 171 deaths were observed. None of the nutrients analysed was associated with mortality in the whole sample. However, in normal-weight women (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m) a high intake of carbohydrates (≥809 Kcal/day), specifically monosaccharides (≥468 Kcal/day), worsened prognostic compared to lowest (≤352 Kcal/day). Hazard Ratios (HRs) for increasing tertiles of intake were HR:2.22 95% CI (1.04 to 4.72) and HR:2.59 95% CI (1.04 to 6.48), respectively ( trend = 0.04)). Conversely, high intakes of polyunsaturated fats (≥135 Kcal/day) improved global survival (HR: 0.39 95% CI (0.15 to 1.02) -trend = 0.05) compared to the lowest (≤92.8 kcal/day). In addition, a protective effect was found substituting 100 kcal of carbohydrates with 100 kcal of fats in normal-weight women (HR: 0.76 95% CI (0.59 to 0.98)). Likewise, in premenopausal women a high intake of fats (≥811 Kcal/day) showed a protective effect (HR:0.20 95% CI (0.04 to 0.98) trend = 0.06). Finally, in Estrogen Receptors (ER) negative tumors, we found a protective effect of high intake of animal proteins (≥238 Kcal/day, HR: 0.24 95% CI (0.06 to 0.98). According to our results, menopausal status, BMI and ER status could play a role in the relationship between diet and BC survival and must be taken into account when studying the influence of different nutrients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794807PMC
December 2020

Occupational Heat Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk in the MCC-Spain Study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 02 2;30(2):364-372. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Mechanisms linking occupational heat exposure with chronic diseases have been proposed. However, evidence on occupational heat exposure and cancer risk is limited.

Methods: We evaluated occupational heat exposure and female breast cancer risk in a large Spanish case-control study. We enrolled 1,738 breast cancer cases and 1,910 frequency-matched population controls. A Spanish job-exposure matrix, MatEmEsp, was used to assign estimates of the proportion of workers exposed ( ≥ 25% for at least 1 year) and work time with heat stress (wet bulb globe temperature ISO 7243) for each occupation. We used three exposure indices: ever versus never exposed, lifetime cumulative exposure, and duration of exposure (years). We estimated ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), applying a lag period of 5 years and adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: Ever occupational heat exposure was associated with a moderate but statistically significant higher risk of breast cancer (OR 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.46), with significant trends across categories of lifetime cumulative exposure and duration ( = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). Stronger associations were found for hormone receptor-positive disease (OR ever exposure = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.12-1.67). We found no confounding effects from multiple other common occupational exposures; however, results attenuated with adjustment for occupational detergent exposure.

Conclusions: This study provides some evidence of an association between occupational heat exposure and female breast cancer risk.

Impact: Our results contribute substantially to the scientific literature. Further investigations are needed considering multiple occupational exposures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0732DOI Listing
February 2021
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