Publications by authors named "Pieter M Grootes"

4 Publications

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Paleobotanical and climate data support the plausibility of temperate trees spread into central Europe during the Late Glacial.

New Phytol 2016 10;212(1):19-21

Baden-Wuerttemberg State Office for Cultural Heritage - Tree-ring Lab, Fischersteig 9, 78343, Hemmenhofen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.14148DOI Listing
October 2016

Too early and too northerly: evidence of temperate trees in northern Central Europe during the Younger Dryas.

New Phytol 2016 10 5;212(1):259-68. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

Baden-Wuerttemberg State Office for Cultural Heritage - Tree-ring Lab, Fischersteig 9, 78343, Hemmenhofen, Germany.

This paper presents highly unexpected paleobotanical data. Eight (14) C-accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates of soil macrocharcoal pieces, identified taxonomically, indicate the presence of oak and beech in the Younger Dryas, and pine in the Allerød, in the northernmost low mountain range of Central Europe, the Harz Mountains, in Germany. If the presence of pine at such latitude and periods is not surprising, the presence of temperate-adapted trees is highly improbable, because they are assumed to have reached the area from a southern location several thousand years later. Two hypotheses are postulated to explain this record. Both are related to the warm periods of the Bølling and Allerød: the classically 'short' duration of this warm period makes the migration of the temperate trees from the identified refuge areas in the southern location implausible, and so the presence of intermediary microrefugia at a medium latitude in Central Europe is postulated; recent data reveal that the warm period of the Late Glacial phase was much longer than considered in the classical view and, thus, would be long enough for a northward migration of temperate-adapted trees. Although our dataset does not permit disentanglement of these hypotheses, it provides significant innovative insights for the biogeography of Central Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.13844DOI Listing
October 2016

Cutmarked human remains bearing Neandertal features and modern human remains associated with the Aurignacian at Les Rois.

J Anthropol Sci 2009 ;87:153-85

UPR 2147, Dynamique de l'Evolution Humaine, CNRS, 44 Rue de l'Amiral Mouchez, 75014 Paris, France.

The view that Aurignacian technologies and their associated symbolic manifestations represent the archaeologicalproxy for the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans into Europe, is supported by few diagnostic human remains, including those from the Aurignacian site of Les Rois in south-western France. Here we reassess the taxonomic attribution of the human remains, their cultural affiliation, and provide five new radiocarbon dates for the site. Patterns of tooth growth along with the morphological and morphometric analysis of the human remains indicate that a juvenile mandible showing cutmarks presents some Neandertal features, whereas another mandible is attributed to Anatomically Modern Humans. Reappraisal of the archaeological sequence demonstrates that human remains derive from two layers dated to 28-30 kyr BP attributed to the Aurignacian, the only cultural tradition detected at the site. Three possible explanations may account for this unexpected evidence. The first one is that the Aurignacian was exclusively produced by AMH and that the child mandible from unit A2 represents evidence for consumption or, more likely, symbolic use of a Neandertal child by Aurignacian AMH The second possible explanation is that Aurignacian technologies were produced at Les Rois by human groups bearing both AMH and Neandertal features. Human remains from Les Rois would be in this case the first evidence of a biological contact between the two human groups. The third possibility is that all human remains from Les Rois represent an AMH population with conserved plesiomorphic characters suggesting a larger variation in modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.
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September 2009

Unexpectedly recent dates for human remains from Vogelherd.

Nature 2004 Jul;430(6996):198-201

Abteilung für Altere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie Institut für Ur-und Frühgeschichte und Archäologie des Mittelalters Universität Tübingen, Schloss Hohentübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.

The human skeletal remains from the Vogelherd cave in the Swabian Jura of southwestern Germany are at present seen as the best evidence that modern humans produced the artefacts of the early Aurignacian. Radiocarbon measurements from all the key fossils from Vogelherd show that these human remains actually date to the late Neolithic, between 3,900 and 5,000 radiocarbon years before present (bp). Although many questions remain unresolved, these results weaken the arguments for the Danube Corridor hypothesis--that there was an early migration of modern humans into the Upper Danube drainage--and strengthen the view that Neanderthals may have contributed significantly to the development of Upper Palaeolithic cultural traits independent of the arrival of modern humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature02690DOI Listing
July 2004