Publications by authors named "Pierre-Yves Hatron"

135 Publications

Epidemiology of cutaneous involvement in Sjögren syndrome: Data from three French pSS populations (TEARS, ASSESS, diapSS).

Joint Bone Spine 2021 Feb 19;88(4):105162. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Inserm 1227, LabEx IGO, rhumatologie, centre de référence maladies rares CERAINO, université de Bretagne Occidentale, CHU de Brest, 29200 Brest, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine the prevalence and significance of dermatological disorders in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS).

Methods: We used 2 pSS French cohorts (ASSESS, in which prevalence of skin disorders in 395 patients was evaluated; and diapSS, in which 76 on 139 pSS patients had an examination by a dermatologist) and baseline data of the TEARS randomized trial (110 patients with recent or active pSS treated with rituximab or placebo and evaluated for skin dryness using a visual analogue scale (VAS) out of 100).

Results: Skin manifestations included in the EULAR Sjögren syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI) were rare in the ASSESS cohort (n=16/395, 4.1%, mainly purpuras; only 3 had high activity), but they were associated with activity in the other ESSDAI domains (peripheral neurological (P<0.001), muscular (P<0.01), haematological (P<0.05), biological (P<0.05), history of arthritis (P<0.01), splenomegaly (P<0.05) and higher gamma globulin levels (P<0.01)). In the diapSS cohort, compared to pSS patients not receiving a dermatological consultation, the pSS patients who had a dermatological consultation had significantly more dermatological involvement outside the ESSDAI score [38.2% (29/76) versus 15.9% (10/63); P<0.01]. The TEARS study showed a high prevalence of cutaneous dryness (VAS>50; 48.2%) and found that patients with dry skin had higher VAS pain (P<0.01) and drought (P<0.01) scores.

Conclusion: ESSDAI skin activity is rare and associated with hypergammaglobulinemia and ESSDAI activity. Systematic dermatological examination is informative for non-specific lesions. The most common skin disorder is skin dryness, which is associated with a higher pain and overall subjective dryness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2021.105162DOI Listing
February 2021

Acquired Hemophilia A in IgG4-Related Disease: Case Report, Immunopathogenic Study, and Review of the Literature.

Front Immunol 2020 18;11:558811. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

CHU Lille, Département de Médecine Interne et Immunologie Clinique, Lille, France.

We report the observation of a 75-year-old patient referred for cervical lymphadenopathies. A pre-lymphadenectomy blood work revealed an asymptomatic elevation of aPTT with low factor VIII (FVIII) levels and high anti-FVIII antibodies titers, consistent with acquired hemophilia A (AHA). Histological work-up of a cervical lymphadenopathy revealed benign follicular hyperplasia with IgG4 lymphoplasmacytic infiltration; and serum IgG4 levels were markedly elevated, compatible with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). He was successfully treated with a 9-month course of prednisone, secondarily associated with rituximab when an AHA relapse occurred. As this patient presented with an unusual association of rare diseases, we wondered whether there was a link between the two conditions. Our first hypothesis was that the anti-FVIII autoantibodies could be directly produced by the proliferating IgG4 plasma cells as a result of broken tolerance to autologous FVIII. To test this assumption, we determined the anti-FVIII IgG subclasses in our patient and in a control group of 11 AHA patients without IgG4-RD. The FVIII inhibitor was mostly IgG4, with an anti-FVIII IgG4/IgG1 ratio of 42 at diagnosis and 268 at relapse in our patient; similar values were observed in non-IgG4-RD AHA patients. As a second hypothesis, we considered whether the anti-FVIII activity could be the result of a non-specific autoantibody production due to polyclonal IgG4 plasma cell proliferation. To test this hypothesis, we measured the anti-FVIII IgG4/total IgG4 ratio in our patient, as well as in several control groups: 11 AHA patients without IgG4-RD, 8 IgG4-RD patients without AHA, and 11 healthy controls. We found that the median [min-max] ratio was higher in AHA-only controls (2.4 10 [5.7 10-1.79 10]), an oligoclonal setting in which only anti-FVIII plasma cells proliferate, than in IgG4-RD-only controls (3.0 10 [2.0 10-6.0 10]), a polyclonal setting in which all IgG4 plasma cells proliferate equally. Our patient had intermediate ratio values (2.7 10 at diagnosis and 1.0 10 at relapse), which could plead for a combination of both mechanisms. Although no definitive conclusion can be drawn, we hypothesized that the anti-FVIII autoantibody production in our IgG4-RD AHA patient could be the result of both broken tolerance to FVIII and bystander polyclonal IgG4 plasma cell proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.558811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793697PMC
December 2020

Interleukin 6 receptor inhibition in primary Sjögren syndrome: a multicentre double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial.

Ann Rheum Dis 2020 Nov 18. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Rheumatology, CHU Strasbourg, Centre National de Référence des maladies auto-immunes et systémiques rares Est/Sud-Ouest (RESO), Strasbourg, Alsace, France

Objectives: No immunomodulatory drug has been approved for primary Sjögren's syndrome, a systemic autoimmune disease affecting 0.1% of the population. To demonstrate the efficacy of targeting interleukin 6 receptor in patients with Sjögren's syndrome-related systemic complications.

Methods: Multicentre double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial between 24 July 2013 and 16 July 2018, with a follow-up of 44 weeks, involving 17 referral centres. Inclusion criteria were primary Sjögren's syndrome according to American European Consensus Group criteria and score ≥5 for the EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease activity Index (ESSDAI, score of systemic complications). Patients were randomised to receive either 6 monthly infusions of tocilizumab or placebo. The primary endpoint was response to treatment at week 24. Response to treatment was defined by the combination of (1) a decrease of at least 3 points in the ESSDAI, (2) no occurrence of moderate or severe activity in any new domain of the ESSDAI and (3) lack of worsening in physician's global assessment on a Visual Numeric Scale ≥1/10, all as compared with enrolment.

Results: 110 patients were randomised, 55 patients to tocilizumab (mean (SD) age: 50.9 (12.4) years; women: 98.2%) and 55 patients to placebo (54.8 (10.7) years; 90.9%). At 24 weeks, the proportion of patients meeting the primary endpoint was 52.7% (29/55) in the tocilizumab group and 63.6% (35/55) in the placebo group, for a difference of -11.4% (95% credible interval -30.6 to 9.0) (Pr[Toc >Pla]=0.14).

Conclusion: Among patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, the use of tocilizumab did not improve systemic involvement and symptoms over 24 weeks of treatment compared with placebo.

Trial Registration Number: NCT01782235.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218467DOI Listing
November 2020

Adherence to hydroxychloroquine in patients with systemic lupus: Contrasting results and weak correlation between assessment tools.

Joint Bone Spine 2020 Dec 11;87(6):603-610. Epub 2020 May 11.

Département de Médecine Interne et Immunologie Clinique, CHU Lille, Referral center for rare systemic autoimmune diseases North and Northwest of France, University Lille, Inserm U995 - LIRIC - Lille Inflammation Research International Center, 59000 Lille, France.

Objectives: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an anchor drug in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Adherence to HCQ is key for efficacy. Inaccurate evaluation of adherence could lead to non-justified switch to more expensive or less tolerated drugs.

Methods: Severe non-adherence rate to HCQ was estimated in a sample of SLE patients during a routine visit using blood HCQ concentration<200μg/L. Adherence was assessesd by the Medication Adherence Self-Report Inventory (MASRI)<80/100, 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) ≤6/8, Health Care Provider (HCP) visual analog scale (VAS)<80/100. Same procedures were to be repeated during a further routine visit 6 to 12 months later. We described agreement and correlations between tools and compared severely non-adherent patients and others on their characteristics.

Results: The study involved 158 patients (86.1% females) aged 42.2±12.6 years treated with HCQ for 9.6±6.9 years. Blood HCQ concentration (mean±standard deviation) was 1046±662μg/L at visit 1 and 855±577μg/L at visit 2. At visit 1, the non-adherence rate varied from 3.2% (blood HCQ level<200μg/L) to 7.7% (MASRI), 12.4% (HCP-VAS) or 32.5% (MMAS-8). 37.8% of patients met at least one of the definitions of non-adherence. Patients' characteristics including SLE activity, damage and quality of life were similar between severely non-adherent patients and others. Correlations between blood HCQ-concentration and self-questionnaires were weak (r<0.25) and agreement between methods was poor.

Conclusion: Blood HCQ concentration<200μg/L reveals severe non-adherence. Combining blood HCQ concentration with MASRI and MMAS-8 may help to better identify non-adherence in SLE. Agreement between methods was poor and correlations with HCQ level and SLE activity were weak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbspin.2020.04.017DOI Listing
December 2020

Evolution of high-resolution CT-scan in systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease: Description and prognosis factors.

Semin Arthritis Rheum 2020 12 29;50(6):1406-1413. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Département d'Imagerie Thoracique, CHU Lille, F-59000 Lille, France.

Objective: The aims of our study were to describe the evolution of interstitial lung disease (ILD) extent on HRCT scan in systemic sclerosis (SSc), to identify baseline prognostic factors associated with ILD evolution and to assess whether the evolution of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) correlated with this evolution.

Methods: 58 SSc with ILD (SSc-ILD) patients were included. All HRCT scans and PFTs available were collected. We modelized PFTs and HRCT scans evolution using linear mixed model with random effect.

Results: Patients underwent a median number of 3 HRCT scans (total n = 203) and 5 PFTs (total n = 329), during a mean follow-up of 5.3 ± 4.9 years. Mean SSc duration was 2.5 ± 3.1 years at the diagnosis of ILD. Mean baseline ILD extent was 32.3 ± 28.7%. We found a significant mean progression of ILD extent on serial HRCT scans of 0.92 ± 0.36% per year (p = 0.018). Male sex, diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc), presence of anti-topoisomerase 1 antibodies, a higher DLCO, limited ILD and a low coarseness score at baseline in bivariate analysis, and presence of antitopoisomerase 1 antibodies and a coarseness score of 0 in multivariate analysis, were associated with faster progression of ILD extent over time There was a significant correlation between the progression of ILD extent and the decline of DLCO but only a trend for FVC. ILD extent at baseline and during follow-up was associated with survival.

Conclusion: Male sex, dcSSc, anti-topoisomerase 1 antibodies and a less severe ILD at baseline were associated with a faster progression of ILD over time. Evolution of DLCO significantly correlated with change in ILD extent on HRCT scan. Our study helps defining the profile of patients at risk of experiencing a progression of ILD on HRCT scans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.02.015DOI Listing
December 2020

Tubulointerstitial damage and interstitial immune cell phenotypes are useful predictors for renal survival and relapse in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis.

J Nephrol 2020 Aug 8;33(4):771-781. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Pathology Department, Lille University Hospital (CHU), Pathology Institute, Inserm UMR-S1172 Lille, JPARC-Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, Team 'Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis", Lille University, CHU Lille, Avenue Oscar Lambret, 59000, Lille, France.

The aims of this study were to determine whether tubulointerstitial damage in the form of interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and total interstitial inflammation predicted progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD) and/or renal relapse (RR) in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). One hundred thirteen patients with AAV from six French centers with an index biopsy performed between 2003 and 2013 were included. Histological assessments using the AAV glomerular classification and the kidney allograft Banff classification were performed on pathological review. Biopsy tissues were also investigated by CD3, CD20, CD68, CD163, FOXP3 and RORγt immunohistochemical staining. Competing risks models were calculated. Of the 113 patients, 26 (23.0%) died during follow-up and 29 (25.6%) developed ESRD. Among the 94 patients who achieved remission by the end of induction therapy without developing ESRD, 26 (27.6%) experienced RR. The two independent prognostic factors for ESRD were the estimated glomerular filtration rate at presentation (HR 0.35; 95% CI 0.23-0.51; P < 0.0001) and IF/TA > 25% (HR 2.27; 95% CI 1.18-4.37; P = 0.014). When the distribution of interstitial immune cell phenotypes was included in a second multivariable model, the organization of lymphocytic infiltrates was also an independent predictor of ESRD (HR 2.86; 95% CI 1.35-6.1, P = 0.006). The independent risk factors for RR were a higher CD3/CD20 ratio (HR 1.39; 95% CI 1.05-1.85; P = 0.02) and the presence of RORγt positive cells (HR 2.70; 95% CI 1.11-6.54; P = 0.02). Our results highlight the prognostic value of initial histological evaluations in AAV. Measurements of tubulointerstitial damage and interstitial immune cell phenotype distributions should be considered to improve risk assessments for ESRD and RR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40620-019-00695-yDOI Listing
August 2020

"Idiopathic Eosinophilic Vasculitis": Another Side of Hypereosinophilic Syndrome? A Comprehensive Analysis of 117 Cases in Asthma-Free Patients.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 04 18;8(4):1329-1340.e3. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Centre de Référence National des Syndromes Hyperéosinophiliques (CEREO), Lille, France; Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Service de Médecine Interne, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Boulogne-Billancourt, France.

Background: The absence of asthma may rule out a diagnosis of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) and features of vasculitis.

Objective: To describe eosinophilic vasculitis (EoV) as a possible manifestation of HES in asthma-free patients.

Methods: We screened our hospital database and the literature for patients with HES who met the following 4 criteria: (1) histopathological or clinical features of EoV (biopsy-proven vasculitis with predominant eosinophilic infiltration of the vessel wall and/or features of vasculitis with tissue and/or blood hypereosinophilia [absolute eosinophil count >1.5 G/L]); (2) no other obvious causes of reactive eosinophilia, organ damage, and vasculitis; (3) the absence of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies; and (4) the absence of current asthma.

Results: Ten of our 83 (12%) asthma-free patients with HES and 107 additional cases in the literature met the criteria for EoV. After a critical analysis of the patients' clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes, we identified 41 cases of single-organ EoV (coronary arteritis, n = 29; temporal arteritis, n = 8; cerebral vasculitis, n = 4). Of the remaining 76 patients with EoV, the most frequent manifestations (>10%) were cutaneous vasculitis (56%), peripheral neuropathy (24%), thromboangiitis obliterans-like disease (16%), fever (13%), central nervous system involvement (13%), deep venous thrombosis (12%), and nonasthma lung manifestations (12%). Blood hypereosinophilia more than 1.5 G/L was observed in 79% of patients, and necrotizing vasculitis was observed in 44%.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that idiopathic EoV (HES-associated vasculitis) can be classified as an eosinophilic-rich, necrotizing, systemic form of vasculitis that affects vessels of various sizes in asthma-free patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.12.011DOI Listing
April 2020

Consideration of coping strategies for patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus: reflection for a personalised practice of patient education.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2020 Jul-Aug;38(4):705-712. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Soladis Clinical Studies, Roubaix, France.

Objectives: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune multi-organ disease with an unpredictable course. SLE causes functional disability, changes in body appearance, and psychological distress. When faced with SLE, patients have to implement coping strategies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe patients' coping strategies, consider the implications for a personalised practice of patient education and evaluate patients' adherence to HCQ treatment.

Methods: One hundred and fifty-eight SLE patients receiving hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) treatment entered a prospective, non-comparative, longitudinal study aimed at describing patients' coping strategies and evaluating their adherence to the HCQ regimen. Coping strategies were evaluated using an abbreviated French version of the WCC-27 exploring 3 dimensions of coping: problem-centered coping, emotion-centered coping and search for social support. Adherence was assessed by the MASRI, the MMAS-8 and also objectively assessed by the patient's serum level of HCQ. Data collected at study entry also included disease activity: SLEDAI, and disease extent: SLICC damage index. The prevalence of anxious and depressive symptoms was evaluated with the HADS. Quality of life was evaluated using the LupusQoL questionnaire.

Results: Patients were clustered using an unsupervised hierarchical classification based on coping strategies. Four clusters of patients were individualised. The cluster of patients with low problem-centered coping, high emotion-centered coping and the lowest search for social support had worse quality of life and more psychological distress. We did not find any inter-cluster differences in terms of compliance to HCQ.

Conclusions: Patients' knowledge is not the only parameter to consider for a personalised educational therapy: psychological parameters such as coping must also be considered to ensure the best possible quality of life. For educational therapy purposes, it is important not to group patients with the same coping style; heterogenous groups will enable patients to share their experiences and learn from the coping strategies of others.
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September 2020

Renal Pathologic Findings in TAFRO Syndrome: Is There a Continuum Between Thrombotic Microangiopathy and Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis? A Case Report and Literature Review.

Front Immunol 2019 28;10:1489. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Département de Médecine Interne et Immunologie Clinique, CHU Lille, Centre de Référence des Maladies Auto-Immunes Systémiques Rares du Nord et Nord-Ouest de France (CeRAINO), LIRIC INSERM U995, Université de Lille, Lille, France.

TAFRO syndrome is a clinical subtype of idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) that is characterized by thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever and/or elevated serum C-reactive protein, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. A 28-year-old woman with fever, weight gain of 13 kgs, lower extremity edema, hepatosplenomegaly, and multicentric peripheral lymphadenopathy was referred to our center. Laboratory investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia, creatinine at 1.19 mg/dL and hypoalbuminemia at 33 g/L. Proteinuria was measured at 2 g/day including albuminuria at 1.5 g/day. Urinary sediment examination found leukocyturia at 44,000/mL and hematuria at 645,000/mL. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level was elevated. A cervical lymph node biopsy found features consistent with the mixed histopathological subtype of iMCD. A renal biopsy revealed a membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) pattern. We initiated 3 days of methylprednisolone pulse-therapy at 1,000 mg per day, followed by prednisone 1 mg/kg/day and evolution was favorable. 19 iMCD patients with TAFRO syndrome had undergone a renal biopsy: 8 cases with author's diagnosis consistent with MPGN-like and 11 cases of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA)-like glomerulopathy without fibrin thrombi in glomerular capillaries or arterioles and without typical biological signs. Clinical, biological, and outcome characteristics were similar between the cases described as having MPGN and TMA-like presentation. After a thorough review of histopathological descriptions for each case, MPGN lesions seems to be the consequences of chronic glomerular endothelial injury in persistent TMA. We suspect that VEGF and IL-6 play a key role in the physiopathology of the spectrum of renal involvement from TMA-like to MPGN observed in TAFRO syndrome. We present a Caucasian iMCD patient with TAFRO syndrome with renal insufficiency secondary to MPGN, which might be secondary to a chronic TMA-like disease. We suspect that there is a continuum between TMA and MPGN lesions in TAFRO syndrome favored by VEGF and IL-6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01489DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6609882PMC
October 2020

Prognostic Value of Microscopic Hematuria after Induction of Remission in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies-Associated Vasculitis.

Am J Nephrol 2019 22;49(6):479-486. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Nephrology and Internal Medicine, CH Valenciennes, Valenciennes, France.

Background: Pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (PIGN) is a major prognostic factor in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitis (AAV). Renal remission is usually defined as improvement or stabilization of serum creatinine and proteinuria levels but the significance of hematuria is unclear. We evaluated the prognostic value of microscopic hematuria in patients in remission from a first flare of PIGN.

Methods: A multicenter retrospective study was conducted of all patients with histologically proven PIGN in northern France who presented a first renal flare of AAV between 2003 and 2013. All patients received conventional induction treatment and were considered in remission. Two groups were defined by the presence (H+) or absence (H-) of hematuria (dipstick 1+ and/or cytology ≥10,000 erythrocytes/mL). The primary outcome measure was the occurrence of renal relapse (RR) and/or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Results: Eighty-six patients were included: 41 (48%) had hematuria at remission. The median follow-up time was 44 ± 34 months. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the primary endpoint or the number of RR. However, the survival rate without RR was significantly lower in the H+ group (p = 0.002). In multivariate analysis, risk factors for RR were hematuria at remission for relapses within 44 months (hazard ratio [HR] 4.15; 95% CI 1.15-15.01; p = 0.03) and the duration of maintenance immunosuppressive therapy (HR 0.96 per additional month; 95% CI 0.94-0.99; p = 0.002).

Conclusion: Hematuria at remission after a first PIGN flare was not associated with ESRD but with the occurrence of RR within 44 months of remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000500352DOI Listing
July 2020

Comment on: Is early-onset primary Sjögren's syndrome a worse prognosis form of the disease? Reply.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2019 07;58(7):1312-1313

Department of Internal Medicine, Claude Huriez Hospital, Univ. Lille, Lille cedex, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kez074DOI Listing
July 2019

Long-Term Outcome and Prognostic Factors of Complications in Thromboangiitis Obliterans (Buerger's Disease): A Multicenter Study of 224 Patients.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 12;7(23):e010677

1 UPMC Univ Paris 06 UMR 7211, and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B) Sorbonne Universités Paris France.

Background Data regarding long-term outcome of patients with thromboangiitis obliterans are lacking and most series come from India and Japan. In this study, we assess long-term outcome and prognostic factors in a large cohort of thromboangiitis obliterans. Methods and Results Retrospective multicenter study of characteristics and outcomes of 224 thromboangiitis obliterans patients fulfilling Papa's criteria were analyzed. Factors associated with vascular events and amputations were identified. The median age at diagnosis was 38.5 (32-46) years, 51 (23.8%) patients were female, and 81.7% were whites. After a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, vascular events were observed in 58.9%, amputations in 21.4%, and death in 1.4%. The 5-, 10-, and 15-year vascular event-free survival and amputation-free survival were 41% and 85%, 23% and 74%, and 19% and 66%, respectively. Ethnic group (nonwhite) (hazard ratio 2.35 [1.30-4.27] P=0.005) and limb infection at diagnosis (hazard ratio 3.29 [1.02-10.6] P=0.045) were independent factors of vascular event-free survival. Factor associated with amputation was limb infection (hazard ratio 12.1 [3.5-42.1], P<0.001). Patients who stopped their tobacco consumption had lower risk of amputation ( P=0.001) than those who continued. Conclusions This nationwide study shows that 34% of thromboangiitis obliterans patients will experience an amputation within 15 years from diagnosis. We identified high-risk patients for vascular complications and amputations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010677DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6405548PMC
December 2018

Is early-onset primary Sjögren's syndrome a worse prognosis form of the disease?

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2019 07;58(7):1163-1167

Service de médecine interne, CHU Claude Huriez, Lille Cedex, France.

Objectives: Onset of primary SS is usually between 40 and 60 years of age, with severe systemic complications in 15% of cases. We sought to determine whether early-onset disease is related to a specific phenotype and if it is predictive of a poor outcome.

Methods: Biological and clinical data from 393 patients recruited in the ASSESS cohort, a French multicentre prospective cohort, were compared according to age at diagnosis.

Results: Fifty-five patients had early-onset disease, defined as age ⩽35 years at diagnosis, and presented a significantly higher frequency of salivary gland enlargement (47.2% vs 33.3%, P = 0.045), adenopathy (25.5% vs 11.8%, P = 0.006), purpura (23.6% vs 9.2%, P = 0.002) and renal involvement (16.4% vs 4.4%, P = 0.003). They had a higher frequency of hypergammaglobulinaemia (60.8% vs 26.6%, P < 0.001), RF positivity (41.5% vs 20.2%, P < 0.001), low C3 level (18.9% vs 9.1%, P = 0.032), low C4 level (54.7% vs 40.2%, P = 0.048) and autoantibodies [84.6% with anti-SSA vs 54.4% (P < 0.001) and 57.7% with anti-SSB vs 29.7% (P < 0.001)]. The change in ESSDAI scores between baseline and the 5-year follow-up was significantly different (P = 0.005) with a trend for worsening in the early-onset group (0.72, P = 0.27) and a significant improvement in the later onset group (-1.27, P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Early-onset primary SS is associated with a specific phenotype defined by clinical and biological features known to be predictive factors of severe systemic disease. Interestingly, we showed a different evolution of the ESSDAI score depending on the age at disease onset, patients with early-onset disease tending to worsen over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/key392DOI Listing
July 2019

Ulnar Artery Occlusion and Severity Markers of Vasculopathy in Systemic Sclerosis: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2019 06 29;71(6):983-990. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

CHU Rennes, University of Rennes, INSERM, EHESP, Institut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail (IRSET), Rennes, France.

Objective: To evaluate the association of ulnar artery occlusion (UAO) assessed using Doppler ultrasound (DUS) with the severity markers of systemic sclerosis (SSc).

Methods: Two hundred four unselected patients fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism 2013 classification criteria for SSc were included in this cross-sectional multicenter study. All patients underwent bilateral hand DUS to evaluate the presence of UAO and clinical/paraclinical visceral evaluation according to current guidelines. Univariable and multivariable ordinal regression models were applied, grading the severity of UAO as "no UAO," "only one UAO," and "UAO on both hands," and assessing its association with clinical features of SSc. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated.

Results: UAO was found in 76 patients (37.3%) and was bilateral in 49 patients (24%). UAO as an ordinal event was significantly associated with disease duration, history of fingertip ulcers, telangiectasia, higher modified Rodnan skin thickness score (MRSS), worse diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) values, higher tricuspid jet velocity, late capillaroscopic pattern, and positivity for anticentromere antibodies (ACAs) (univariable analysis). In the adjusted multivariable ordinal model, UAO was less frequent in women (OR 0.35 [95% CI 0.15-0.83], P = 0.017) and in patients receiving steroids (OR 0.24 [95% CI 0.09-0.62], P = 0.0034). In multivariable analyses, significant association with UAO was retained for history of fingertip ulcers (OR 2.55 [95% CI 1.24-5.21], P = 0.011), higher MRSS (OR 1.65 [95% CI 1.06-2.56], P =0.025), lower DLco values (OR 0.85 [95% CI 0.78-0.94], P = 0.0015), and ACA positivity (OR 2.89 [95% CI 1.36-6.11], P = 0.0056).

Conclusion: UAO may represent a relevant severity marker of vasculopathy in SSc. Its predictive value for the onset of severe vascular manifestations such as pulmonary arterial hypertension, and its association with mortality, remain to be determined in longitudinal studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.40799DOI Listing
June 2019

Prevalence and Clinical Associations of Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Systemic Sclerosis: New Data From a French Cross-Sectional Study, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

Front Immunol 2018 2;9:2457. Epub 2018 Nov 2.

Univ. Lille, U995, Lille Inflammation Research International Center, Lille, France.

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) can be present in the sera of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of aPL in a cross-sectional study of SSc patients, to assess their clinical associations, to perform a systematic review of published reports and a meta-analysis to estimate the worldwide prevalence of aPL in SSc. Two-hundred and forty-nine SSc patients were consecutively tested once for lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin (aCL), and anti-β2glycoprotein I (anti-β2GpI) antibodies. Clinical associations with aPL positivity were studied using a logistic regression model. A systematic review of the literature was carried out in PubMed and Embase. Meta-analysis was performed using number of aPL positive (at least one of the three antibodies positive) and negative patients. Meta-regression was used to study potential factors explaining the heterogeneity between studies. In our cross-sectional study, aPL positivity was found in 16 patients (prevalence 6.4%; 95%CI [3.8-10.4]). In multivariate analysis, there was a significant association between aPL positivity and venous thrombosis (VT) (OR 6.25 [1.18-33.00]; = 0.028) and miscarriage (OR 5.43; 95%CI [1.31-22.13]; = 0.017). Twenty-four studies were included in the meta-analysis, representing a total population of 3036 SSc patients. The overall pooled prevalence of aPL in SSc was 14% (9-20) with a high degree of heterogeneity among studies. This study found a prevalence of aPL positivity in our SSc population of 6.4% (3.8-10.4) and an overall worldwide pooled prevalence of 14% (9-20). In our SSc population, aPL positivity was associated with VT and miscarriage. These data provide additional insights into the role of aPL in the vasculopathy observed in SSc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6234954PMC
September 2019

Antiphospholipid Syndrome With Isolated Isotype M Anticardiolipin and/or Anti-B2GPI Antibody Is Associated With Stroke.

Stroke 2018 11;49(11):2770-2772

Service de Médecine Interne, Centre National de Référence Maladies Systémiques et Auto-immunes Rares (C.M.Y., H.M., D.L., E.H., P.-Y.H., M.L.), CHU, F-59000 Lille, France.

Background and Purpose- International classification criteria for antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) include IgM (immunoglobulin M), aCL (anticardiolipin), and aB2GPI (anti-β2-glycoprotein-I) antibodies, but their relevance is still debated. We aimed to assess whether patients with isolated IgM aCL and/or aB2GPI at diagnosis have specific characteristics and outcomes. Methods- We retrospectively included APS patients with isolated IgM antiphospholipid antibodies (isolated-IgM-APS) and compared them to APS patients with IgG and IgM, or IgG alone and/or lupus anticoagulant (nonisolated-IgM-APS). Results- Among the 168 APS patients included, 24 (14.3%) had isolated IgM. Median follow-up was 92.5 months (36-151.5). Isolated-IgM-APS patients were 9.5 years older. At diagnosis, stroke was more frequent in isolated-IgM-APS after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (odds ratio, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.3-11.5). IgM isotype remained isolated in 17 of 24 (70.8%) patients over time. Global relapse-free survival did not differ between the two groups. In thrombotic APS, monotherapy with antiplatelet agents was more frequently used in isolated-IgM-APS group with 14 of 20 versus 28 of 134 patients ( P<0.0001), with a higher relapse rate with antiplatelet agent alone compared to vitamin K antagonists, especially for patients presenting with a stroke (hazard ratio, 7.37; 95% CI, 1.19-19.0). Conclusions- Isolated IgM APS patients should not be disregarded because they represent 14.3% of an APS population. They have some characteristics: older age at diagnosis and a strong association with stroke. Clinicians must be aware of this situation because antiplatelet agent do not seem to well prevent relapses compared to vitamin K antagonist.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.023021DOI Listing
November 2018

C-Reactive protein as a diagnostic tool in differential diagnosis of hypereosinophilic syndrome and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-negative eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Apr 11;7(4):1347-1351.e3. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

CHU Lille, Département de Médecine Interne et Immunologie Clinique, Centre de Référence des Maladies Auto-immunes Systémiques Rares du Nord et Nord-Ouest de France (CeRAINO), University of Lille, Lille, France; Centre de Référence National des Syndromes Hyperéosinophiliques (CEREO), France; CHU Lille, Institut d'Immunologie, University of Lille, Lille, France; Inserm, CHU Lille, U995 - LIRIC - Lille Inflammation Research International Center, University of Lille, Lille, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2018.10.002DOI Listing
April 2019

Schnitzler syndrome co-occurring with idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease that responds to anti-IL-1 therapy: A case report and clue to pathophysiology.

Curr Res Transl Med 2018 09 11;66(3):83-86. Epub 2018 Aug 11.

CHU Lille, Département de Médecine Interne et Immunologie Clinique, Lille, France.

Patients with HHV-8-negative/idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) experience systemic inflammatory symptoms and polyclonal lymphoproliferation due to an unknown etiology. Schnitzler's syndrome (SS) is characterized by recurrent urticarial rash, monoclonal IgM gammopathy, and other clinical signs of inflammation. To our knowledge, we report the first case of iMCD associated with SS and the fourth case of anakinra inducing a complete response for an iMCD patient. A forty-four year old woman with a history of a recurrent urticarial rash, presented to our hospital complaining of 6 months of night sweats, fever, chronic urticaria, iliac bone pain, and generalized lymphadenopathy. An IgM Kappa monoclonal component was measured at 7.8g/L. A lymph node biopsy revealed histopathological features consistent with the plasma cell variant of iMCD. She was diagnosed with SS and iMCD. Anti-IL-1 treatment with anakinra (100mg/day) was introduced. Within 48h, we observed improvement in the fever and the urticarial rash. By one month, we considered the patient in complete remission. Two years later, the remission is persistent while the patient is still under therapy. Though this is only the fourth reported case of anakinra in iMCD, this is yet another case demonstrating the effectiveness of anti-IL-1 blockade in SS. We hypothesize that uncontrolled cytokine production is responsible for both the SS and the iMCD. The etiologies of SS and iMCD are unknown, and future research is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.retram.2018.06.001DOI Listing
September 2018

Whole-Body Distribution and Clinical Association of Telangiectases in Systemic Sclerosis.

JAMA Dermatol 2018 07;154(7):796-805

University Lille, Lille Inflammation Research International Center, Lille, France.

Importance: In systemic sclerosis (SSc), to date, no study has precisely described the total number and fine distribution of telangiectases (TAs), their clinical association with the disease, and the biological mechanisms causing their development.

Objectives: To describe the whole-body distribution of TAs and assess the association between the whole-body TA number and the characteristics of patients with SSc.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A single-center, cross-sectional study was conducted between July 11, 2016, and March 15, 2017, at the National Referral Centre for Rare Systemic and Autoimmune Diseases in France. A population-based sample of 106 adults who fulfilled the 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria for SSc were included; 8 patients who had previously received laser treatment for TAs were excluded.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The number of TAs on the whole body (total and those >5 mm) and TA distribution in different areas were recorded. The association with clinical and biological data was studied using univariate and multivariate linear regression.

Results: A total of 106 patients (83 [78.3%] women) were enrolled, including 12 with precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). Mean (SD) age was 60.6 (13.5) years. Telangiectasia distribution was 37.2% on the face, 33.2% on the upper limbs, including 26.4% on the hands, 28.1% on the trunk, including 17.1% for the upper part of the trunk, and 1.5% on the lower limbs. In analysis using the multivariate linear regression model, the whole-body TA number was independently associated with male sex (percentage change, 144.4%; 95% CI, 7.5% to 455.9%; P = .03), PH (162.8%; 95% CI, 5.6% to 553.8%; P = .04), history of pulmonary embolism (336.4%; 95% CI, 39.0% to 1270.1%; P = .01), glomerular filtration rate (-1.6%; 95% CI, -3.2% to -0.1% per 1-mL/min/1.73 m2 increase; P = .04), and soluble endoglin level (28.2%; 95% CI, 1.2% to 62.5% per 1-ng/mL increase; P = .04). Receiver operating characteristic analyses assessing the ability of TAs to identify the presence of PH revealed that the area under the curve was significant for the TA number on the whole body (0.77; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.88), on the hands and face (0.81; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.91), and on the hands (95% CI, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.89).

Conclusions And Relevance: In the patients in this study with SSc, TAs were predominantly located on the face, hands, and the upper part of the trunk. Telangiectases appeared to be associated with vasculopathy features of SSc, particularly with PH and soluble endoglin levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.0916DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6128493PMC
July 2018

Remission of Refractory Systemic-Onset Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis After Treatment With Siltuximab.

J Clin Rheumatol 2019 06;25(4):40-42

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology Referral Centre for Rare Systemic Auto-immune Diseases for North and North-West of France (CeRAINO), University of Lille Huriez Hospital Lille, France Department of Pediatric Immunology Paris-Descartes, Imagine Institute Pediatric Immunology Hematology and Rheumatology Unit, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris Paris, France Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, Referral Centre for Rare Systemic Auto-immune Diseases for North and North-West of France (CeRAINO), University of Lille Huriez Hospital Lille, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000000716DOI Listing
June 2019

No specific imaging pattern can help differentiate IgG4-related disease from idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis: 18 histologically proven cases.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018 May-Jun;36(3):371-375. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Dept. of Internal Medicine and Clinical Immunology, CHRU Lille; Centre National de Référence Maladies Systémiques et Auto-Immunes Rares; FHU Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases & Targeted Therapies (IMMINeNT), Lille, France.

Objectives: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare disease, with unknown aetiology (idiopathic RPF: iRPF) in two-thirds of cases. A subset of iRPF may be a manifestation of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Thus, recognition of IgG4-RD-RPF is crucial to optimise patient's care with iRPF. The current study aimed to examine imaging specific patterns, which could help differentiate between IgG4-RD-RPF and iRPF, and thus skip performing biopsies.

Methods: This analysis included patients with iRPF and a retroperitoneal biopsy at the Lille University Hospital, France. We reviewed their baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, biological results and imaging features. Patients were classified in 3 groups according to histopathological characteristics of IgG4-RD as follows: highly suggestive of IgG4-RD, possible IgG4-RD, or non-evocative of IgG4-RD.

Results: Of the 18 patients analysed in the study, 4 (22%) patients had highly suggestive IgG4-RD-RPF, 8 (44%) possible IgG4-RD-RPF and 6 (33%) non-evocative IgG4-RD. We found no clinical, biological features nor specific imaging pattern that could help differentiate between the 3 groups.

Conclusions: After ruling out all known causes of RPF, retroperitoneal biopsy is still necessary to ascertain the diagnosis of IgG4-RD-RPF. No specific pattern can be used to distinguish between IgG4-RD-RPF and iRFP.
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July 2018

Altered B lymphocyte homeostasis and functions in systemic sclerosis.

Autoimmun Rev 2018 Mar 16;17(3):244-255. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Univ. Lille, U995, Lille Inflammation Research International Center (LIRIC), F-59000 Lille, France; Inserm, U995, F-59000 Lille, France; CHU Lille, Institut d'immunologie, F-59000 Lille, France.

Beyond the production of autoantibodies, B-cells are thought to play a role in systemic sclerosis (SSc) by secreting proinflammatory/profibrotic cytokines. B-cells are a heterogeneous population with different subsets distinguished by their phenotypes and cytokine production. Data about B-cell subsets, cytokine production and intracellular pathways leading to this production are scarce in SSc. The aim of our study was to describe B-cell homeostasis, activation, proliferation, cytokine production in B-cells and serum and B-cell intracellular signaling pathways in SSc. We hypothezided that B-cell homeostasis and cytokine production were altered in SSc and could be explained by serum cytokine as well as by intracellular signaling pathway abnormalities. Forty SSc patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) were prospectively included. B-cell subsets were determined by flow cytometry using CD19, CD21, CD24, CD38, CD27, IgM and IgD. CD25, CD80, CD95, HLA-DR were used to assess B-cell activation. Intracellular production of IL-10 and IL-6 were assessed by flow cytometry after TLR9 and CD40 stimulation. IL-6, IL-10, Ki67, Bcl2 mRNA were quantified in B-cells. Cytokine production was also assessed in sera and supernatants of B-cell culture, using a multiplex approach. Signaling pathways were studied through phosphorylation of mTOR, ERK, STAT3, STAT5 using a flow cytometry approach. We found that SSc patients exhibited an altered peripheral blood B-cell subset distribution, with decreased memory B-cells but increased proportion of naive and CD21CD38 B-cell subsets. We observed an increased expression of activation markers (CD80, CD95, HLA-DR) on some B-cell subsets, mainly the memory B-cells. Secretion of IL-6, BAFF and CXCL13 were increased in SSc sera. There was no correlation between the peripheral blood B-cell subsets and the serum concentrations of these cytokines. After stimulation, we observed a lower proportion of IL-10 and IL-6 producing B-cells in SSc. Finally, we observed a significant decrease of mTOR phosphorylation in SSc patient B-cells. In conclusion, we observed an altered B-cell homeostasis in SSc patients compared to HC. Memory B-cells were both decreased and activated in patients. IL-10 producing B-cells were decreased in SSc. This decrease was associated with an alteration of mTOR phosphorylation in B-cells. Conversely, there was no correlation between serum cytokine profile and B-cell homeostasis alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2017.10.015DOI Listing
March 2018

Factors associated with the 6-minute walk distance in patients with systemic sclerosis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2017 Dec 15;19(1):279. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

University of Lille, INSERM U995, LIRIC-Lille Inflammation Research International Center, F-59000, Lille, France.

Background: There is an ongoing debate regarding the relevance of the 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) assessment, widely used as a usual test in these patients as well as an outcome measure in clinical trials. In this work, we aimed to assess the associations between the 6MWD and various disease parameters in patients with SSc.

Methods: Consecutive patients followed in our SSc National Reference Centre were included in this cross-sectional study if they fulfilled the 2013 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism criteria for SSc. Data were systematically collected during a comprehensive standardized evaluation that included a 6-minute walk test, clinical assessment, biological results, pulmonary function tests, transthoracic echocardiography, composite scores (European Scleroderma Study Group Activity Index, Medsger severity score, Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI)) and treatments. Associations of the 6MWD with various disease parameters were assessed by linear regression in univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: The study population comprised 298 patients (females 81%; mean age 58.2 ± 13.3 years; limited cutaneous SSc 82%; interstitial lung disease (ILD) 42%; pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) 6%). The 6MWD was significantly and independently associated with gender, age, body mass index, baseline heart rate (HR), HR variation during the test, PAH, history of arterial thrombosis and C-reactive protein levels, as well as with the HAQ-DI score in a sensitivity analysis. Muscle involvement, joint involvement and ILD were not independently associated with the 6MWD.

Conclusions: During SSc, the 6MWD is independently associated with initial HR and HR variation; with PAH but not ILD, suggesting that pulmonary vasculopathy may have a greater impact than parenchymal involvement on functional limitation; and with global markers of disease activity and patient disability. These results give clinicians further insight into how to interpret the 6MWD in the context of SSc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-017-1489-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5732461PMC
December 2017

Cogan syndrome: Characteristics, outcome and treatment in a French nationwide retrospective study and literature review.

Autoimmun Rev 2017 Dec 14;16(12):1219-1223. Epub 2017 Oct 14.

AP-HP, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, service de médecine interne and Inflammation-Immunopathology-Biotherapy Department (DHU i2B), Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University, Paris 06, F-75012, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Cogan syndrome is mainly treated with steroids. We aimed to determine the place of DMARDs and biologic-targeted treatments.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a French nationwide retrospective study of patients with Cogan syndrome (n=40) and a literature review of cases (n=22) and analyzed the efficacy of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) antagonists.

Results: We included 62 patients (31 females) (median age 37years [range 2-76]. At diagnosis, 61 patients (98%) had vestibulo-auditory symptoms, particularly bilateral hearing loss in 41% and deafness in 31%. Ocular signs were present in 57 patients (92%), with interstitial keratitis in 31 (51%). The first-line treatment consisted of steroids alone (n=43; 70%) or associated with other immunosuppressive drugs (n=18; 30%). Overall, 13/43 (30%) and 4/18 (22%) patients with steroids alone and with associated immunosuppressive drugs, respectively (p=0.8), showed vestibulo-auditory response; 32/39 (82%) and 15/19 (79%) ocular response; and 23/28 (82%) and 10/14 (71%) general response. Overall 61 patients had used a total of 126 lines of treatment, consisting of steroids alone (n=51 lines), steroids with DMARDs (n=65) and infliximab (n=10). Vestibulo-auditory response was significantly more frequent with infliximab than DMARDs or steroids alone (80% vs 39% and 35%, respectively), whereas ocular, systemic and acute-phase reactant response rates were similar. Infliximab was the only significant predictor of vestibulo-auditory improvement (odds ratio 20.7 [95% confidence interval 1.65; 260], p=0.019).

Conclusion: Infliximab could lead to vestibulo-auditory response in DMARDS and steroid-refractory Cogan syndrome, but prospective studies are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2017.10.005DOI Listing
December 2017

Pulmonary hypertension subtypes associated with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: Haemodynamic profiles and survival probability.

PLoS One 2017 5;12(10):e0184227. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

Service de Médecine interne, CHRU de Lille, Université de Lille, Lille, France.

Background: Different pulmonary hypertension (PH) mechanisms are associated with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT).

Methods And Results: We conducted a retrospective study of all suspected cases of PH (echocardiographically estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure [sPAP] ≥ 40 mmHg) in patients with definite HHT recorded in the French National Reference Centre for HHT database. When right heart catheterization (RHC) was performed, PH cases were confirmed and classified among the PH groups according to the European guidelines. Among 2,598 patients in the database, 110 (4.2%) had suspected PH. Forty-seven of these 110 patients had RHC: 38/47 (81%) had a confirmed diagnosis of PH. The majority of these had isolated post-capillary PH (n = 20). We identified for the first time other haemodynamic profiles: pre-capillary pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) cases (n = 3) with slightly raised pulmonary vascular resistances (PVR), and combined post- and pre-capillary PH cases (n = 4). Compared to controls, survival probability was lower in patients with PAH.

Conclusion: This study revealed the diversity of PH mechanisms in HHT. The description of combined post- and pre-capillary PH with/or without high cardiac output (CO) suggests either a continuum between the pre- and post-capillary haemodynamic profiles or a different course in response to high CO.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184227PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5628806PMC
October 2017

Predictors of lung function test severity and outcome in systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease.

PLoS One 2017 1;12(8):e0181692. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

CHRU Lille, Département d'Imagerie Thoracique, Lille, France.

Systemic sclerosis-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) is the leading cause of death in SSc. In this study, we aimed to describe the baseline severity and evolution of forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in patients with SSc-ILD and to assess the baseline clinical, biological and high-resolution CT scan (HRCT) predictors of this evolution. Baseline and serial FVC and DLCO were collected in 75 SSc-ILD patients followed during 6.4±4.2 years (n = 557 individual data). FVC and DLCO evolution was modelled using a linear mixed model with random effect. During follow-up, FVC was stable while DLCO significantly decreased (-1.5±0.3%/year (p<0.0001). Baseline NYHA functional class III/IV, extensive SSc-ILD on HRCT and DLCO<80% were associated with a lower baseline FVC. Absence of digital ulcers extensive SSc-ILD, and FVC<80% and were associated with a lower baseline DLCO. Presence or history of digital ulcers and presence of pulmonary hypertension at baseline or during follow-up were associated with a faster decline of DLCO overtime. Neither age, gender, subtype of SSc nor specificity of autoantibodies were associated with baseline severity or outcome of lung function tests. In this SSc-ILD population, FVC was therefore stable while DLCO significantly declined over time. ILD extension was associated with baseline FVC and DLCO but not with their evolution. Presence or history of digital ulcers and pulmonary hypertension were predictors of a faster decline of DLCO over time.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0181692PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5538660PMC
October 2017

Intravenous Immunoglobulins Improve Survival in Monoclonal Gammopathy-Associated Systemic Capillary-Leak Syndrome.

Am J Med 2017 10 9;130(10):1219.e19-1219.e27. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

Service de médecine interne 2, CHU La Pitié-Salpêtrière, APHP, Université Paris 6, France. Electronic address:

Background: Monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome, also known as Clarkson disease, is a rare condition characterized by recurrent life-threatening episodes of capillary hyperpermeability in the context of a monoclonal gammopathy. This study was conducted to better describe the clinical characteristics, natural history, and long-term outcome of monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome.

Methods: We conducted a cohort analysis of all patients included in the European Clarkson disease (EurêClark) registry between January 1997 and March 2016. From diagnosis to last follow-up, studied outcomes (eg, the frequency and severity of attacks, death, and evolution toward multiple myeloma) and the type of preventive treatments administered were monitored every 6 months.

Results: Sixty-nine patients (M/F sex ratio 1:1; mean ± SD age at disease onset 52 ± 12 years) were included in the study. All patients had monoclonal gammopathy of immunoglobulin G type, with kappa light chains in 47 (68%). Median (interquartile range) follow-up duration was 5.1 (2.5-9.7) years. Twenty-four patients (35%) died after 3.3 (0.9-8) years. Fifty-seven (86%) patients received at least one preventive treatment, including intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) n = 48 (73.8%), theophylline n = 22 (33.8%), terbutaline n = 22 (33.8%), and thalidomide n = 5 (7.7%). In the 65 patients with follow-up, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 78% (n = 35) and 69% (n = 17), respectively. Multivariate analysis found preventive treatment with IVIg (hazard ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.70; P = .007) and terbutaline (hazard ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.96; P = .041) to be independent predictors of mortality.

Conclusions: We describe the largest cohort to date of patients with well-defined monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome. Preventive treatment with IVIg was the strongest factor associated with survival, suggesting the use of IVIg as the first line in prevention therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2017.05.023DOI Listing
October 2017