Publications by authors named "Pierre-Marie Sarradin"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Biological rhythms in the deep-sea hydrothermal mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus.

Nat Commun 2020 07 10;11(1):3454. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Ifremer, EEP, F-29280, Plouzané, France.

Biological rhythms are a fundamental property of life. The deep ocean covers 66% of our planet surface and is one of the largest biomes. The deep sea has long been considered as an arrhythmic environment because sunlight is totally absent below 1,000 m depth. In the present study, we have sequenced the temporal transcriptomes of a deep-sea species, the ecosystem-structuring vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus. We reveal that tidal cycles predominate in the transcriptome and physiology of mussels fixed directly at hydrothermal vents at 1,688 m depth at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, whereas daily cycles prevail in mussels sampled after laboratory acclimation. We identify B. azoricus canonical circadian clock genes, and show that oscillations observed in deep-sea mussels could be either a direct response to environmental stimulus, or be driven endogenously by one or more biological clocks. This work generates in situ insights into temporal organisation in a deep-sea organism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17284-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351958PMC
July 2020

Astronomical and atmospheric impacts on deep-sea hydrothermal vent invertebrates.

Proc Biol Sci 2017 Apr;284(1852)

Ifremer Centre de Bretagne, REM/EEP, Laboratoire Environnement Profond, 29280 Plouzané, France.

Ocean tides and winter surface storms are among the main factors driving the dynamics and spatial structure of marine coastal species, but the understanding of their impact on deep-sea and hydrothermal vent communities is still limited. Multidisciplinary deep-sea observatories offer an essential tool to study behavioural rhythms and interactions between hydrothermal community dynamics and environmental fluctuations. Here, we investigated whether species associated with a tubeworm vent assemblage respond to local ocean dynamics. By tracking variations in vent macrofaunal abundance at different temporal scales, we provide the first evidence that tides and winter surface storms influence the distribution patterns of mobile and non-symbiotic hydrothermal species (i.e. pycnogonids sp. and Polynoidae polychaetes) at more than 2 km depth. Local ocean dynamics affected the mixing between hydrothermal fluid inputs and surrounding seawater, modifying the environmental conditions in vent habitats. We suggest that hydrothermal species respond to these habitat modifications by adjusting their behaviour to ensure optimal living conditions. This behaviour may reflect a specific adaptation of vent species to their highly variable habitat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2016.2123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5394654PMC
April 2017

Rhythms and community dynamics of a hydrothermal tubeworm assemblage at main endeavour field - a multidisciplinary deep-sea observatory approach.

PLoS One 2014 8;9(5):e96924. Epub 2014 May 8.

Institut Carnot Ifremer EDROME, Centre de Bretagne, REM/EEP, Laboratoire Environnement Profond, Plouzané, France.

The NEPTUNE cabled observatory network hosts an ecological module called TEMPO-mini that focuses on hydrothermal vent ecology and time series, granting us real-time access to data originating from the deep sea. In 2011-2012, during TEMPO-mini's first deployment on the NEPTUNE network, the module recorded high-resolution imagery, temperature, iron (Fe) and oxygen on a hydrothermal assemblage at 2186 m depth at Main Endeavour Field (North East Pacific). 23 days of continuous imagery were analysed with an hourly frequency. Community dynamics were analysed in detail for Ridgeia piscesae tubeworms, Polynoidae, Pycnogonida and Buccinidae, documenting faunal variations, natural change and biotic interactions in the filmed tubeworm assemblage as well as links with the local environment. Semi-diurnal and diurnal periods were identified both in fauna and environment, revealing the influence of tidal cycles. Species interactions were described and distribution patterns were indicative of possible microhabitat preference. The importance of high-resolution frequencies (<1 h) to fully comprehend rhythms in fauna and environment was emphasised, as well as the need for the development of automated or semi-automated imagery analysis tools.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0096924PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4014580PMC
January 2015

Sulfide determination in hydrothermal seawater samples using a vibrating gold micro-wire electrode in conjunction with stripping chronopotentiometry.

Anal Chim Acta 2012 Nov 4;753:42-7. Epub 2012 Oct 4.

Université de Bretagne Occidentale, IUEM, Lemar UMR CNRS 6539, Plouzané, France.

A rapid electrochemical stripping chronopotentiometric procedure to determined sulfide in unaltered hydrothermal seawater samples is presented. Sulfide is deposited at -0.25 V (vs Ag/AgCl, KCl 3M) at a vibrating gold microwire and then stripped through the application of a reductive constant current (typically -2 μA). The hydrodynamic conditions are modulated by vibration allowing a short deposition step, which is shown here to be necessary to minimize H(2)S volatilization. The limit of detection (LOD) is 30 nM after a deposition step of 7s. This LOD is in the same range as the most sensitive cathodic voltammetric technique using a mercury drop electrode and is well below those reported previously for other electrodes capable of being implemented in situ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2012.09.044DOI Listing
November 2012

Biological data extraction from imagery - How far can we go? A case study from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

Mar Environ Res 2012 Dec 18;82:15-27. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Ifremer, Centre de Brest, Département Ressources physiques et Ecosystèmes de fond de Mer, Institut Carnot-EDROME, Unité de recherche EEP, Laboratoire Environnement Profond, 29280 Plouzané, France.

In the past few decades, hydrothermal vent research has progressed immensely, resulting in higher-quality samples and long-term studies. With time, scientists are becoming more aware of the impacts of sampling on the faunal communities and are looking for less invasive ways to investigate the vent ecosystems. In this perspective, imagery analysis plays a very important role. With this study, we test which factors can be quantitatively and accurately assessed based on imagery, through comparison with faunal sampling. Twelve instrumented chains were deployed on the Atlantic Eiffel Tower hydrothermal edifice and the corresponding study sites were subsequently sampled. Discrete, quantitative samples were compared to the imagery recorded during the experiment. An observer-effect was tested, by comparing imagery data gathered by different scientists. Most factors based on image analyses concerning Bathymodiolus azoricus mussels were shown to be valid representations of the corresponding samples. Additional ecological assets, based exclusively on imagery, were included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2012.09.001DOI Listing
December 2012

Diversity and function in microbial mats from the Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent field.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2011 Jun 15;76(3):524-40. Epub 2011 Mar 15.

IFREMER, DEEP/Laboratoire de Microbiologie des Environnements Extrêmes UMR6197, Technopôle Brest Iroise, BP70, Plouzané, France.

Diversity and function in microbial mats from the Lucky Strike hydrothermal vent field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) were investigated using molecular approaches. DNA and RNA were extracted from mat samples overlaying hydrothermal deposits and Bathymodiolus azoricus mussel assemblages. We constructed and analyzed libraries of 16S rRNA gene sequences and sequences of functional genes involved in autotrophic carbon fixation [forms I and II RuBisCO (cbbL/M), ATP-citrate lyase B (aclB)]; methane oxidation [particulate methane monooxygenase (pmoA)] and sulfur oxidation [adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate reductase (aprA) and soxB]. To gain new insights into the relationships between mats and mussels, we also used new domain-specific 16S rRNA gene primers targeting Bathymodiolus sp. symbionts. All identified archaeal sequences were affiliated with a single group: the marine group 1 Thaumarchaeota. In contrast, analyses of bacterial sequences revealed much higher diversity, although two phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were largely dominant. The 16S rRNA gene sequence library revealed that species affiliated to Beggiatoa Gammaproteobacteria were the dominant active population. Analyses of DNA and RNA functional gene libraries revealed a diverse and active chemolithoautotrophic population. Most of these sequences were affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria, including hydrothermal fauna symbionts, Thiotrichales and Methylococcales. PCR and reverse transcription-PCR using 16S rRNA gene primers targeted to Bathymodiolus sp. symbionts revealed sequences affiliated with both methanotrophic and thiotrophic endosymbionts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6941.2011.01070.xDOI Listing
June 2011

(210)Po and (210)Pb in the tissues of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus from the Menez Gwen field (Mid-Atlantic Ridge).

Sci Total Environ 2011 Jan 3;409(4):771-7. Epub 2010 Dec 3.

Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, IRSN-DEI Centre IFREMER, La Seyne Sur Mer Cedex, France.

The hydrothermal deep-sea vent fauna is naturally exposed to a highly specific environment enriched in potentially toxic species such as sulfides, metals and natural radionuclides due to the convective seawater circulation inside the oceanic crust and its interaction with basaltic or ultramafic host rocks. However, data on radionuclides in biota from such environment are very limited. An investigation was carried out on tissue partitioning of (210)Po and (210)Pb, two natural radionuclides within the (238)U decay chain, in Bathymodiolus azoricus specimens from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (Menez Gwen field). These two elements showed different distributions with high (210)Pb levels in gills and high (210)Po levels in both gills and especially in the remaining parts of the body tissue (including the digestive gland). Various factors that may explain such partitioning are discussed. However, (210)Po levels encountered in B. azoricus were not exceptionally high, leading to weighted internal dose rate in the range 3 to 4 μGy h⁻¹. These levels are slightly higher than levels characterizing coastal mussels (~1 μGy h⁻¹).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.10.025DOI Listing
January 2011

The influence of nutritional conditions on metal uptake by the mixotrophic dual symbiosis harboring vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2011 Jan 13;153(1):40-52. Epub 2010 Aug 13.

IMAR, DOP-Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, University of the Azores, 9901-862 Horta, Portugal.

The vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus, host thioautotrophic and methanotrophic bacteria, in their gills and complementary, is able to digest suspended organic matter. But the involvement of nutritional status in metal uptake and storage remains unclear. The influence of B. azoricus physiological condition on its response to the exposure of a mixture of metals in solution is addressed. Mussels from the Menez Gwen field were exposed to 50 μgL(-1) Cd, plus 25 μgL(-1) Cu and 100 μgL(-1) Zn for 24 days. Four conditions were tested: (i) mussels harboring both bacteria but not feed, (ii) harboring only methanotrophic bacteria, (iii) without bacteria but fed during exposure and (iv) without bacteria during starvation. Unexposed mussels under the same conditions were used as controls. Eventual seasonal variations were assessed. Metal levels were quantified in subcellular fractions in gills and digestive gland. Metallothionein levels and condition indices were also quantified. Gill sections were used for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to assess the temporal distribution of symbiotic associations. Starvation damages metal homeostasis mechanisms and increase the intracellular Zn and MT levels function. There is a clear metallic competition for soluble and insoluble intracellular ligands at each condition. Seasonal variations were observed at metal uptake and storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2010.08.004DOI Listing
January 2011

High levels of natural radioactivity in biota from deep-sea hydrothermal vents: a preliminary communication.

J Environ Radioact 2009 Jun 11;100(6):522-6. Epub 2009 Apr 11.

Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), DEI/SESURE BP 330, La Seyne sur mer, France.

Hydrothermal deep-sea vent fauna is naturally exposed to a peculiar environment enriched in potentially toxic species such as sulphides, heavy metals and natural radionuclides. It is now well established that some of the organisms present in such an environment accumulate metals during their lifespan. Though only few radionuclide measurements are available, it seems likely that hydrothermal vent communities are exposed to high natural radiation doses. Various archived biological samples collected on the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge in 1996, 2001 and 2002 were analysed by ICP-MS in order to determine their uranium contents ((238)U, (235)U and (234)U). In addition (210)Po-Pb were determined in 2 samples collected in 2002. Vent organisms are characterized by high U, and Po-Pb levels compared to what is generally encountered in organisms from outside hydrothermal vent ecosystems. Though the number of data is low, the results reveal various trends in relation to the site, the location within the mixing zone and/or the organisms' trophic regime.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.02.002DOI Listing
June 2009

Speciation of dissolved copper within an active hydrothermal edifice on the Lucky Strike vent field (MAR, 37 degrees N).

Sci Total Environ 2009 Jan 11;407(2):869-78. Epub 2008 Nov 11.

Ifremer centre de Brest, Département Etudes des Ecosystèmes Profonds, BP70, F-29280 Plouzané, France.

The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of different fractions of dissolved copper (after filtration at 0.45 microm) along the cold part of the hydrothermal fluid-seawater mixing zone on the Tour Eiffel edifice (MAR). Dissolved copper was analyzed by stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) after chromatographic C(18) extraction. Levels of total dissolved copper (0.03 to 5.15 microM) are much higher than those reported for deep-sea oceanic waters but in accordance with data previously obtained in this area. Speciation measurements show that the hydrophobic organic fraction (C(18)Cu) is very low (2+/-1%). Dissolved copper is present mainly as inorganic and hydrophilic organic complexes (nonC(18)Cu). The distribution of copper along the pH gradient shows the same pattern for each fraction. Copper concentrations increase from pH 5.6 to 6.5 and then remain relatively constant at pH>6.5. Concentrations of oxygen and total sulphides demonstrate that the copper anomaly corresponds to the transition between suboxic and oxic waters. The increase of dissolved copper should correspond to the oxidative redissolution of copper sulphide particles formed in the vicinity of the fluid exit. The presence of such a secondary dissolved copper source, associated with the accumulation of metal sulphide particles, could play a significant role in the distribution of fauna in the different habitats available at vents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.09.056DOI Listing
January 2009

Fe analysis by the ferrozine method: Adaptation to FIA towards in situ analysis in hydrothermal environment.

Talanta 2005 Jun;66(5):1131-8

Ifremer Centre de Brest, DRO/EP, BP70, F-29280 Plouzané, France.

The target of this study is the adaptation of the ferrozine method to flow injection analysis (FIA) to perform iron analysis in situ using an in situ chemical analyser in hydrothermal environments. The adaptation of the method to FIA was followed by its optimisation using an experimental design screening method. The goals of the optimisation steps were to decrease the detection limit and to increase the measuring range to cope with the constraints of in situ analysis. The method allows the determination of iron in the mixing zone of hydrothermal fluid, enriched in iron, and seawater. A single manifold gives the possibility to analyse either Fe(II) or SigmaFe [Fe(II)+Fe(III)] in situ, or SigmaFe in the lab on hydrothermal seawater samples. The measuring range of the method was increased to up to 2000muM, which is coherent with the study of the chemical environment of communities associated with deep-sea hydrothermal activity. Finally, the method was applied in situ using the chemical analyser Alchimist during the ATOS cruise on hydrothermal vent fields on the Mid Atlantic Ridge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2005.01.012DOI Listing
June 2005

Thermal biology of the deep-sea vent annelid Paralvinella grasslei: in vivo studies.

J Exp Biol 2008 Jul;211(Pt 14):2196-204

UPMC Université Paris 6, UMR 7138, Systématique, Adaptation et Evolution, F-75005 Paris, France.

The annelid Paralvinella grasslei is a deep-sea vent endemic species that colonizes the wall of active chimneys. We report here the first data on its thermal biology based on in vivo experiments in pressurized aquaria. Our results demonstrate that P. grasslei survives a 30 min exposure at 30 degrees C, and suggest that the upper thermal limit of this species is slightly above this temperature. The first signs of stress were noticed at 30 degrees C, such as a significant increase in the animal's activity and the expression of HSP70 stress proteins. A preliminary investigation of the kinetics of stress protein expression surprisingly showed high levels of HSP70 proteins as late as 3.5 h after the heat shock. Finally, we provide here the first sequences for vent annelid hsp70 (P. grasslei, Hesiolyra bergi and Alvinella pompejana). These constitute valuable tools for future studies on the thermal biology of these annelids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.018606DOI Listing
July 2008

Changes of gill and hemocyte-related bio-indicators during long term maintenance of the vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus held in aquaria at atmospheric pressure.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2008 May 4;150(1):1-7. Epub 2008 Mar 4.

IMAR/Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, Genetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, University of the Azores, Rua Comendador Fernando da Costa, 9901-862 Horta, Portugal.

The deep-sea hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus has been the subject of several studies aimed at understanding the physiological adaptations that vent animals have developed in order to cope with the particular physical and chemical conditions of hydrothermal environments. In spite of reports describing successful procedures to maintain vent mussels under laboratory conditions at atmospheric pressure, few studies have described the mussel's physiological state after a long period in aquaria. In the present study, we investigate changes in mucocytes and hemocytes in B. azoricus over the course of several months after deep-sea retrieval. The visualization of granules of mucopolysaccharide or glycoprotein was made possible through their inherent auto-fluorescent property and the Alcian blue-Periodic Acid Schiff staining method. The density and distribution of droplets of mucus-like granules was observed at the ventral end of lamellae during acclimatization period. The mucus-like granules were greatly reduced after 3 months and nearly absent after 6 months of aquarium conditions. Additionally, we examined the depletion of endosymbiont bacteria from gill tissues, which typically occurs within a few weeks in sea water under laboratory conditions. The physiological state of B. azoricus after 6 months of acclimatization was also examined by means of phagocytosis assays using hemocytes. Hemocytes from mussels held in aquaria up to 6 months were still capable of phagocytosis but to a lesser extent when compared to the number of ingested yeast particles per phagocytic hemocytes from freshly collected vent mussels. We suggest that the changes in gill mucopolysaccharides and hemocyte glycoproteins, the endosymbiont abundance in gill tissues and phagocytosis are useful health criteria to assess long term maintenance of B. azoricus in aquaria. Furthermore, the laboratory set up to which vent mussels were acclimatized is an applicable system to study physiological reactions such as hemocyte immunocompetence even in the absence of the high hydrostatic pressure found at deep-sea vent sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.02.020DOI Listing
May 2008

Spatial variation of metal bioaccumulation in the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus.

Mar Environ Res 2008 Jun 2;65(5):405-15. Epub 2008 Feb 2.

ISOMer-Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université de Nantes, BP 92 208, ISOMer - EMI, EA 2663, F-44322 Nantes cedex 3, France.

The variability of the bioaccumulation of metals (Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) was extensively studied in the mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus from five hydrothermal vent sites inside three main vent fields of increasing depth along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Rainbow. Metal bioaccumulation varied greatly between vent fields and even between sites inside a vent field with B. azoricus showing a great capacity to accumulate metals. The bioaccumulation of these metals also varied significantly among tissues. The main target was the gills where metals were mainly associated with soluble compounds whereas in the digestive gland they were mainly associated with insoluble compounds. Storage of metals under insoluble forms in B. azoricus seems to be a major pathway for the detoxification of both essential and non-essential metals. Mussels from the studied fields can be discriminated following their metallic load but the segregation relies partially on the composition of the metal-enriched fluids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2008.01.005DOI Listing
June 2008

Dissolved and particulate metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) in two habitats from an active hydrothermal field on the EPR at 13 degrees N.

Sci Total Environ 2008 Mar;392(1):119-29

Département Etudes des Ecosystèmes Profonds, Ifremer centre de Brest, BP70, Plouzané, France.

The distribution of Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd between the dissolved (<2 microm) and the particulate (>2 microm) fractions was measured after in-situ filtration in two hydrothermal habitats. The total metal concentration ranges exhibit a clear enrichment compared with the seawater concentration, accounting for the hydrothermal input for all the metals considered. Iron is the predominant metal (5-50 microM) followed by Zn and Cu. Cd and Pb are present at the nM level. At the scale studied, the behavior of temperature, pH and dissolved iron is semi-conservative whereas the other dissolved and particulate metals are characterized by non-conservative patterns. The metal enrichment of the >2 microm fraction results from the settlement and accumulation of particulate matter close to the organisms, acting as a secondary metal source. The enrichment observed in the dissolved fraction can be related to the dissolution or oxidation of particles (mainly polymetallic sulfide) or to the presence of small particles and large colloids not retained on the 2 microm frit. SEM observations indicate that the bulk particulate observed is characteristic of crystalline particles settling rapidly from the high temperature smoker (sphalerite, wurtzite and pyrite), amorphous structures and eroded particles formed in the external zone of the chimney. Precipitation of Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb with Fe as wurtzite, sphalerite and pyrite is the main process taking place within the area studied and is semi-quantitative. The distribution of the dominant observed fauna has been related to the gradient resulting from the dilution process, with the alvinellids worms colonizing the hotter and more variable part of the mixing zone, but also to the metallic load of the mixing zone. Dissolved and particulate metal concentrations are therefore necessary abiotic factors to be studied in a multiparametric approach to understand the faunal distribution in hydrothermal ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.11.015DOI Listing
March 2008

Thermal selection of PGM allozymes in newly founded populations of the thermotolerant vent polychaete Alvinella pompejana.

Proc Biol Sci 2004 Nov;271(1555):2351-9

Equipe Evolution et Génétique des Populations Marines, Station Biologique de Roscoff, B.P. 74, Place Georges Teissier, 29682 Roscoff cedex, France.

Alvinella pompejana lives on the top of chimneys at deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the East Pacific Rise. It is thought to be one of the most thermotolerant and eurythermal metazoans. Our experimental approach combines methods of population genetics and biochemistry, considering temperature as a potential selective factor. Phosphoglucomutase (Pgm-1 locus) is one of the most polymorphic loci of A. pompejana and exhibits four alleles, from which alleles 90 and 100 dominate with frequencies of approximately 0.5 in populations. Results from previous studies suggested that allele 90 might be more thermostable than allele 100. Significant genetic differentiation was found by comparing contrasted microhabitats, especially the young, still hot, versus older and colder chimneys, with allele 90 being at highest frequency on young chimneys. Moreover the frequency of allele 90 was positively correlated with mean temperature at the opening of Alvinella tubes. In parallel, thermostability and thermal optimum experiments demonstrated that allele 90 is more thermostable and more active at higher temperatures than allele 100. This dataset supports an additive model of diversifying selection in which allele 90 is favoured on young hot chimneys but counterbalanced over the whole metapopulation by the dynamics of the vent ecosystem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2004.2852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1691873PMC
November 2004

Respiratory adaptations to the deep-sea hydrothermal vent environment: the case of Segonzacia mesatlantica, a crab from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

Micron 2004 ;35(1-2):31-41

Equipe Ecophysiologie, UPMC-CNRS 7127-INSUE, Station Biologique, BP 74, 29682 Roscoff cedex, France.

Segonzacia mesatlantica (Crustacea; Decapoda; Brachyura) is the only endemic crab species known from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) hydrothermal vents. Known from all explored sites in the Atlantic, its wide distribution makes this species a model to study physiological adaptation, and specifically respiratory strategies. Native haemocyanin (Hc) comprises four non-covalent associations in equilibrium formed by monomers, hexamers, dodecamers and octadecamers made up of approximately 75 kDa polypeptide chains. Four different amino acid chains are observed with a molecular mass ranging from 75,234 to 75,972 Da. Experiments carried-out under pressure suggested that the percentage of monomer increased in the haemolymph under hypoxic condition. We have also observed a shift of the proportion of the two dodecamer series, suggesting a rapid modification of the Hc phenotype between hypoxic and hyperoxic conditions. Native Hc possesses a high oxygen affinity ( P50 = 2.2 Torr at 15 degrees C and pH 7.5), a large Bohr effect (Deltalog P50 / DeltapH approximately -2.7) and a slightly reverse temperature effect (DeltaH = +17.19 kJ mol(-1). The composition of Segonzacia haemolymph is similar to that of other littoral species except for the large enrichment in free copper and zinc. As for other species from hydrothermal vent sites, Segonzacia haemolymph possesses a higher buffer capacity than littoral species. Moreover, species from the hydrothermal vent decapods from Pacific hydrothermal vent that encounter higher CO2 content in their environment have a higher buffer capacity than Atlantic vent species. The results presented are discussed in relation with the physico-chemical characteristics of the hydrothermal vent environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2003.10.010DOI Listing
April 2004

Respiratory adaptations of a deep-sea hydrothermal vent crab.

Micron 2004 ;35(1-2):27-9

Equipe Ecophysiologie, UPMC-CNRS 7127-INSUE, Station Biologique, BP 74, Roscoff cedex 29682, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micron.2003.10.009DOI Listing
April 2004

Heat-shock response and temperature resistance in the deep-sea vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata.

J Exp Biol 2003 Jul;206(Pt 14):2345-54

UMR CNRS 7138 Systématique, Adaptation et Evolution, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 7 Quai St-Bernard, Batiment A, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.

The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata swarms around hydrothermal black smoker chimneys at most vent sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. This species maintains close proximity to the hydrothermal fluid, where temperatures can reach 350 degrees C and steep thermal and chemical gradients are expected. We performed in vivo experiments in pressurized aquaria to determine the upper thermal limit [critical thermal maximum (CT(max))] of R. exoculata and to investigate some characteristics of the shrimp stress response to heat exposure. These experiments showed that the shrimp does not tolerate sustained exposure to temperatures in the 33-37 degrees C range (CT(max)). A heat-inducible stress protein belonging to the hsp70 family was identified in R. exoculata, and its synthesis threshold induction temperature is below 25 degrees C. The R. exoculata optimal thermal habitat may thus be restricted to values lower than previously expected (<25 degrees C).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.00419DOI Listing
July 2003