Publications by authors named "Pierre van Delft"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Biophysical analysis of the plant-specific GIPC sphingolipids reveals multiple modes of membrane regulation.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan-Jun;296:100602. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Laboratoire de Biogènese Membranaire, UMR 5200, CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, Villenave d'Ornon Cedex, France. Electronic address:

The plant plasma membrane (PM) is an essential barrier between the cell and the external environment, controlling signal perception and transmission. It consists of an asymmetrical lipid bilayer made up of three different lipid classes: sphingolipids, sterols, and phospholipids. The glycosyl inositol phosphoryl ceramides (GIPCs), representing up to 40% of total sphingolipids, are assumed to be almost exclusively in the outer leaflet of the PM. However, their biological role and properties are poorly defined. In this study, we investigated the role of GIPCs in membrane organization. Because GIPCs are not commercially available, we developed a protocol to extract and isolate GIPC-enriched fractions from eudicots (cauliflower and tobacco) and monocots (leek and rice). Lipidomic analysis confirmed the presence of trihydroxylated long chain bases and 2-hydroxylated very long-chain fatty acids up to 26 carbon atoms. The glycan head groups of the GIPCs from monocots and dicots were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry, revealing different sugar moieties. Multiple biophysics tools, namely Langmuir monolayer, ζ-Potential, light scattering, neutron reflectivity, solid state 2H-NMR, and molecular modeling, were used to investigate the physical properties of the GIPCs, as well as their interaction with free and conjugated phytosterols. We showed that GIPCs increase the thickness and electronegativity of model membranes, interact differentially with the different phytosterols species, and regulate the gel-to-fluid phase transition during temperature variations. These results unveil the multiple roles played by GIPCs in the plant PM.
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March 2021

Biomass composition explains fruit relative growth rate and discriminates climacteric from non-climacteric species.

J Exp Bot 2020 10;71(19):5823-5836

UMR 1332 Biologie du Fruit et Pathologie, INRAE, Univ. Bordeaux, INRAE Nouvelle Aquitaine - Bordeaux, Avenue Edouard Bourlaux, Villenave d'Ornon, France.

Fleshy fruits are very varied, whether in terms of their composition, physiology, or rate and duration of growth. To understand the mechanisms that link metabolism to phenotypes, which would help the targeting of breeding strategies, we compared eight fleshy fruit species during development and ripening. Three herbaceous (eggplant, pepper, and cucumber), three tree (apple, peach, and clementine) and two vine (kiwifruit and grape) species were selected for their diversity. Fruit fresh weight and biomass composition, including the major soluble and insoluble components, were determined throughout fruit development and ripening. Best-fitting models of fruit weight were used to estimate relative growth rate (RGR), which was significantly correlated with several biomass components, especially protein content (R=84), stearate (R=0.72), palmitate (R=0.72), and lignocerate (R=0.68). The strong link between biomass composition and RGR was further evidenced by generalized linear models that predicted RGR with R-values exceeding 0.9. Comparison of the fruit also showed that climacteric fruit (apple, peach, kiwifruit) contained more non-cellulosic cell-wall glucose and fucose, and more starch, than non-climacteric fruit. The rate of starch net accumulation was also higher in climacteric fruit. These results suggest that the way biomass is constructed has a major influence on performance, especially growth rate.
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October 2020

Improving lipid mapping in Genome Scale Metabolic Networks using ontologies.

Metabolomics 2020 03 25;16(4):44. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

UMR1331, Toxalim (Research Centre in Food Toxicology), Université de Toulouse, INRAE, ENVT, INP-Purpan, UPS, 31300, Toulouse, France.

Introduction: To interpret metabolomic and lipidomic profiles, it is necessary to identify the metabolic reactions that connect the measured molecules. This can be achieved by putting them in the context of genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions. However, mapping experimentally measured molecules onto metabolic networks is challenging due to differences in identifiers and level of annotation between data and metabolic networks, especially for lipids.

Objectives: To help linking lipids from lipidomics datasets with lipids in metabolic networks, we developed a new matching method based on the ChEBI ontology. The implementation is freely available as a python library and in MetExplore webserver.

Methods: Our matching method is more flexible than an exact identifier-based correspondence since it allows establishing a link between molecules even if a different level of precision is provided in the dataset and in the metabolic network. For instance, it can associate a generic class of lipids present in the network with the molecular species detailed in the lipidomics dataset. This mapping is based on the computation of a distance between molecules in ChEBI ontology.

Results: We applied our method to a chemical library (968 lipids) and an experimental dataset (32 modulated lipids) and showed that using ontology-based mapping improves and facilitates the link with genome scale metabolic networks. Beyond network mapping, the results provide ways for improvements in terms of network curation and lipidomics data annotation.

Conclusion: This new method being generic, it can be applied to any metabolomics data and therefore improve our comprehension of metabolic modulations.
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March 2020

Pre-hatching fluoxetine-induced neurochemical, neurodevelopmental, and immunological changes in newly hatched cuttlefish.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Mar 14;23(6):5030-45. Epub 2015 May 14.

Normandie Université, CS F-14032, Caen, France.

Embryonic and early postembryonic development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (a cephalopod mollusk) occurs in coastal waters, an environment subject to considerable pressure from xenobiotic pollutants such as pharmaceutical residues. Given the role of serotonin in brain development and its interaction with neurodevelopmental functions, this study focused on fluoxetine (FLX), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI, antidepressant). The goal was to determine the effects of subchronic waterborne FLX exposure (1 and 10 μg L(-1)) during the last 15 days of embryonic development on neurochemical, neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and immunological endpoints at hatching. Our results showed for the first time that organic contaminants, such as FLX, could pass through the eggshell during embryonic development, leading to a substantial accumulation of this molecule in hatchlings. We also found that FLX embryonic exposure (1 and 10 μg L(-1)) (1) modulated dopaminergic but not serotonergic neurotransmission, (2) decreased cell proliferation in key brain structures for cognitive and visual processing, (3) did not induce a conspicuous change in camouflage quality, and (4) decreased lysozyme activity. In the long term, these alterations observed during a critical period of development may impair complex behaviors of the juvenile cuttlefish and thus lead to a decrease in their survival. Finally, we suggest a different mode of action by FLX between vertebrate and non-vertebrate species and raise questions regarding the vulnerability of early life stages of cuttlefish to the pharmaceutical contamination found in coastal waters.
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March 2016