Publications by authors named "Pierre Lecavalier"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparative toxicity of mono- and bifunctional alkylating homologues of sulphur mustard in human skin keratinocytes.

Toxicology 2017 05 8;382:36-46. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Defence Research & Development Canada, Suffield Research Center, Box 4000, Medicine Hat, Alberta, T1A 8K6, Canada.

Sulphur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulphide; agent H) is a vesicant chemical warfare (CW) agent whose mechanism of action is not known with any certainty and for which there are no effective antidotes. It has a pronounced latent period before signs and symptoms of poisoning appear which it shares with the nitrogen mustards, and that differentiates it from other classes of vesicant agents. Sulphur mustard, the sulphur mustard CW agents Q (1,2-bis(2-chloroethylthio) ethane) and T (1,1 bis(2-chloroethylthioethyl) ether), the H partial hydrolysis product hemi-sulphur mustard (2-chloroethyl 2-hydroxyethyl sulphide; HSM), and the commercially available 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were characterized with respect to their toxicity in first passage cultures of proliferating human skin keratinocytes, the target cell of H-induced skin vesication. Agents H and T were equitoxic and half as toxic as agent Q. Hemi-sulphur mustard and CEES were approximately six times and seventeen times, respectively less cytotoxic than H. 2-Chloroethyl ethyl sulphide was only slightly less toxic in confluent cultures compared to actively proliferating cells. In contrast, the toxicity of H, Q, T and HSM significantly decreased as the cultures became confluent, paralleling the decreasing sensitivity of skin keratinocytes to H as they leave the basement membrane of the skin. The toxicity of CEES was maximal by 24h. In contrast, the maximal toxicity of the other four agents occurred at 48h, mirroring the latent period observed for these agents in vivo. The markedly different characteristics of toxicity between CEES and the other four test compounds indicate that it is likely that different mechanisms of action are operative between them. Caution should therefore be taken when interpreting the results of studies utilizing CEES as a simulant for the mechanistic study of H, or in the elucidation of medical countermeasures against this CW agent. It is also notable that the toxicity characteristics of the mono-alkylating HSM mirrors those of H, Q and T, suggesting that the bi-alkylating characteristics of these latter compounds may not play as large a role in their toxic effects as commonly thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2017.03.005DOI Listing
May 2017

Ionic dependence of sulphur mustard cytotoxicity.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2010 Sep 30;247(3):179-90. Epub 2010 Jun 30.

Casualty Management Section, Defence Research & Development Canada-Suffield, Box 4000, Medicine Hat, Alberta T1A8K6, Canada.

The effect of ionic environment on sulphur mustard (bis 2-chloroethyl sulphide; HD) toxicity was examined in CHO-K1 cells. Cultures were treated with HD in different ionic environments at constant osmolar conditions (320 mOsM, pH 7.4). The cultures were refed with fresh culture medium 1h after HD exposure, and viability was assessed. Little toxicity was apparent when HD exposures were carried out in ion-free sucrose buffer compared to LC(50) values of approximately 100-150 microM when the cultures were treated with HD in culture medium. Addition of NaCl to the buffer increased HD toxicity in a salt concentration-dependent manner to values similar to those obtained in culture medium. HD toxicity was dependent on both cationic and anionic species with anionic environment playing a much larger role in determining toxicity. Substitution of NaI for NaCl in the treatment buffers increased HD toxicity by over 1000%. The activity of the sodium hydrogen exchanger (NHE) in recovering from cytosolic acidification in salt-free and in different chloride salts did not correlate with the HD-induced toxicity in these buffers. However, the inhibition by HD of intracellular pH regulation correlated with its toxicity in NaCl, NaI and sucrose buffers. Analytical chemical studies and the toxicity of the iodine mustard derivative ruled out the role of chemical reactions yielding differentially toxic species as being responsible for the differences in HD toxicity observed. This work demonstrates that the early events that HD sets into motion to cause toxicity are dependent on ionic environment, possibly due to intracellular pH deregulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2010.06.010DOI Listing
September 2010

Diastereomeric Reissert compounds of isoquinoline and 6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline in stereoselective synthesis.

J Org Chem 2007 Jul 26;72(15):5759-70. Epub 2007 Jun 26.

Department of Chemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

Chiral acid chlorides were reacted with isoquinoline and 6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline to form diastereomeric Reissert compounds 8-11 and 18-21, respectively. The best diastereoselectivity (80:20) was achieved in formation of the 9-phenylmenthyl derivative 20. The diastereomers of 2-l-menthoxycarbonyl-1,2-dihydroisoquinaldonitriles (S)-8/(R)-8), formed in equal amounts, were inseparable. However, the individual diastereomers of 2-cholesteryloxycarbonyl-1,2-dihydroisoquinaldonitriles ((R)-11 and (S)-11) and the 2-l-menthoxycarbonyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinaldonitriles ((S)-19/(R)-19)) were each readily purified. (S)-8/(R)-8 (1:1) via the corresponding anions (NaH, -40 degrees C, DMF) with pivaldehyde yielded in 82:18 predominance the S-diastereomer of 1-isoquinolyl tert-butyl carbinyl l-menthyl carbonate ((S)-12), which was obtained in pure form by a single recrystallization; hydrolysis produced 99% pure S-(-)-1-isoquinolyl tert-butyl carbinol [(S)-16]. Reactions of the anions of diastereomeric Reissert compounds, either as mixtures or pure single species, with aromatic aldehydes and alkyl halides proceeded with at best modest selectivity (diastereomeric ratios up to 66:34 and 72:28, respectively). Therefore, it is concluded that the Reissert anions are either planar or rapidly inverting tetrahedral structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo070786kDOI Listing
July 2007

The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of two HI-6 salts in swine and efficacy in the treatment of GF and soman poisoning.

Toxicology 2005 Mar;208(3):399-409

Chemical Biological Defence Section, Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield, Box 4000, Medicine Hat Alberta, Alta., Canada T1A 8K6.

Anesthetized pigs were injected i.m. with 500 mg HI-6 dichloride (HI-6 2Cl) (1-[[[4-(aminocarbonyl)-pyridinio]methoxy]methyl]-2[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium dichloride; CAS 34433-31-3)) or the molar equivalent of HI-6 dimethanesulphonate (HI-6 DMS) 633 mg. Plasma HI-6 concentrations were measured by HPLC (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60 min and every 30 min until 4h or 6h following the i.v. or i.m. dose respectively) while a variety of physiological responses were continuously examined. HI-6 (500 mg 2Cl or 633 mg DMS) resulted in an identical pharmacokinetic profile unaffected by atropine co-administration. Neither HI-6 salt resulted in clinically significant changes in cardiovascular or respiratory function. HI-6 DMS (1899 mg i.v.) resulted in plasma HI-6 concentrations about 10 times higher than measured following i.m. 500 mg 2Cl or 633 mg DMS and resulted in small transitory effect on mean arterial pressure. Atropine plus HI-6 DMS (1-9 mg/kg or 127-172 mg/kg i.m.) protected up to 100% of guinea pigs exposed to 5 x LD50 of GF (cyclohexyl methyl phosphonoflouridate) or soman (pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) (GD) respectively. The results suggest that the two HI-6 salts have a similar pharmacokinetic profile while HI-6 DMS appears extremely safe and effective against nerve agents and may be as suitable for human use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2004.12.001DOI Listing
March 2005

Passive standoff detection of chemical warfare agents on surfaces.

Appl Opt 2004 Nov;43(31):5870-85

Defence Research and Development Canada-Valcartier, 2459 Pie XI Boulevard North, Val-Belair, Quebec, Canada G3J 1X5.

Results are presented on the passive standoff detection and identification of chemical warfare (CW) liquid agents on surfaces by the Fourier-transform IR radiometry. This study was performed during surface contamination trials at Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield in September 2002. The goal was to verify that passive long-wave IR spectrometric sensors can potentially remotely detect surfaces contaminated with CW agents. The passive sensor, the Compact Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, was used in the trial to obtain laboratory and field measurements of CW liquid agents, HD and VX. The agents were applied to high-reflectivity surfaces of aluminum, low-reflectivity surfaces of Mylar, and several other materials including an armored personnel carrier. The field measurements were obtained at a standoff distance of 60 m from the target surfaces. Results indicate that liquid contaminant agents deposited on high-reflectivity surfaces can be detected, identified, and possibly quantified with passive sensors. For low-reflectivity surfaces the presence of the contaminants can usually be detected; however, their identification based on simple correlations with the absorption spectrum of the pure contaminant is not possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.43.005870DOI Listing
November 2004
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