Publications by authors named "Pierre Feugier"

96 Publications

Prolonged in-hospital stay and higher mortality after Covid-19 among patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with B-cell depleting immunotherapy.

Am J Hematol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Service d'Hématologie Oncologie, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France.

Prolonged Covid-19 is an emerging issue for patients with lymphoma or immune deficiency. We aimed to examine prolonged length of in-hospital stay (LOS) due to Covid-19 among patients with lymphoma and assess its determinants and outcomes. Adult patients with lymphoma admitted for Covid-19 to 16 French hospitals in March and April, 2020 were included. Length of in-hospital stay was analyzed as a competitor vs death. The study included 111 patients. The median age was 65 years (range, 19-92). Ninety-four patients (85%) had B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Within the 12 months prior to hospitalization for Covid-19, 79 patients (71%) were treated for their lymphoma. Among them, 63 (57%) received an anti-CD20 therapy. Fourteen patients (12%) had relapsed/refractory disease. The median LOS was 14 days (range, 1-235). After a median follow-up of 191 days (3-260), the 6-month overall survival was 69%. In multivariable analyses, recent administration of anti-CD20 therapy was associated with prolonged LOS (subdistribution hazard ratio 2.26, 95% confidence interval 1.42-3.6, p < 0.001) and higher risk of death (hazard ratio 2.17, 95% confidence interval 1.04-4.52, p = 0.039). An age ≥ 70 years and relapsed/refractory lymphoma were also associated with prolonged LOS and decreased overall survival. In conclusion, an age ≥ 70 years, a relapsed/refractory lymphoma and recent administration of anti-CD20 therapy are risk factors for prolonged LOS and death for lymphoma patients hospitalized for Covid-19. These findings may contribute to guide the management of lymphoma during the pandemic, support evaluating specific therapeutic approaches, and raise questions on the efficacy and timing of vaccination of this particular population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26209DOI Listing
April 2021

Oxaliplatin before autologous transplantation in combination with high-dose cytarabine and rituximab provides longer disease control than cisplatin or carboplatin in patients with mantle-cell lymphoma: results from the LyMA prospective trial.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Clinical Hematology, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France.

LyMA trial has demonstrated the benefit of rituximab maintenance after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in previously untreated mantle-cell lymphoma patients (MCL). Induction consisted of four courses of R-DHAP (rituximab, dexamethasone, high-dose cytarabine, and platinum derivative). The platinum derivative (PD) choice was free: R-DHA-cisplatin, R-DHA-carboplatin, or R-DHA-oxaliplatin. We investigated the prognostic impact of each PD. PFS and OS calculated from inclusion and investigated in an intention-to-treat (ITT) (= 298) and per-protocol analyses (PP) (n = 227). R-DHACis, R-DHACa, or R-DHAOx were used at first cycle in 184, 76, and 38 patients, respectively. Overall, 71 patients (59 in the R-DHACis) required a change in PD, mainly because of PD toxicity. In ITT-analysis, PFS in the R-DHACis and R-DHACa groups were similar (4-year PFS of 65%), while R-DHAOx had a better PFS (4-year PFS of 65% versus 86.5%, respectively, HR = 0.44, p = 0.02). The 4-year OS was 92% for R-DHAOx versus 75.9% for R-DHACis/DHACa (HR = 0.37, p = 0.03). Similar results were yielded in the PP analysis. Low MIPI and R-DHAOx were independent favorable prognostic markers for both PFS (HR = 0.44, p = 0.035) and OS (HR = 0.36, p = 0.045). In vitro and in silico analyses confirmed that oxaliplatin has an anti-MCL cytotoxic effect that differs from that of other PD. R-DHAOx before ASCT provides better outcome in transplantation eligible young MCL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01198-2DOI Listing
March 2021

A phase 2 study of venetoclax plus R-CHOP as first-line treatment for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood 2021 02;137(5):600-609

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

The phase 2 CAVALLI (NCT02055820) study assessed efficacy and safety of venetoclax, a selective B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) inhibitor, with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in first-line (1L) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), including patients demonstrating Bcl-2 protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry (Bcl-2 IHC+). Eligible patients were ≥18 years of age and had previously untreated DLBCL, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≤2, and International Prognostic Index 2 to 5. Venetoclax 800 mg (days 4-10, cycle 1; days 1-10, cycles 2-8) was administered with rituximab (8 cycles) and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (6-8 cycles) in 21-day cycles. Primary end points were safety, tolerability, and research_plete response (CR) at end of treatment (EOT). Secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. Comparative analyses used covariate-adjusted R-CHOP controls from the GOYA/BO21005 study, an appropriate contemporary benchmark for safety and efficacy. Safety and efficacy analyses included 206 patients. CR rate at EOT was 69% in the overall population and was maintained across Bcl-2 IHC+ subgroups. With a median follow-up of 32.2 months, trends were observed for improved investigator-assessed PFS for venetoclax plus R-CHOP in the overall population (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.87) and Bcl-2 IHC+ subgroups (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.89) vs R-CHOP. Despite a higher incidence of grade 3/4 hematologic adverse events (86%), related mortality was not increased (2%). Chemotherapy dose intensity was similar in CAVALLI vs GOYA. The addition of venetoclax to R-CHOP in 1L DLBCL demonstrates increased, but manageable, myelosuppression and the potential of improved efficacy, particularly in high-risk Bcl-2 IHC+ patient subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020006578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869186PMC
February 2021

Real-world outcomes following venetoclax therapy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or Richter syndrome: a FILO study of the French compassionate use cohort.

Ann Hematol 2021 Apr 25;100(4):987-993. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Service d'Hématologie clinique adultes et thérapie cellulaire, Hôpital Estaing, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, 1 place Lucie Aubrac, 63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.

The BCL2 inhibitor venetoclax is transforming the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), given its high efficacy in relapsed/refractory CLL as observed in both early-phase and randomized clinical trials. The present study aimed to determine whether venetoclax is effective and well tolerated in patients with CLL or Richter's syndrome (RS) in a real-world setting and to highlight factors impacting survival. Data from a venetoclax French compassionate use program were collected for 67 patients (60 with CLL and 7 with RS). Most patients presented adverse genetic features, such as TP53 disruption (74%) or complex karyotype (58%). Tumor lysis syndrome was observed in 14 (22%) patients, and 16 (24%) patients were hospitalized for grade III/IV infection. In the CLL cohort, ORR was 75 %, 1-year PFS was 61% (95% CI = 47-72%) and 1-year OS 70% (95% CI = 56-80%). No impact of TP53 disruption was noted while complex karyotype was identified as a predictor of both inferior PFS (HR = 3.46; 95% CI = 1-12; log-rank p = 0.03) and OS (HR = 3.2; 95% CI = 0.9-11.4, log-rank p = 0.047). Among the seven patients with RS, two achieved an objective response to venetoclax; however, the median OS was only 1.1 month. The well-balanced safety/efficacy profile of venetoclax is confirmed in this real-world setting. Complex karyotype should be evaluated as a predictive factor of survival for patients treated by venetoclax.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04419-wDOI Listing
April 2021

Subcutaneous Rituximab-MiniCHOP Compared With Subcutaneous Rituximab-MiniCHOP Plus Lenalidomide in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma for Patients Age 80 Years or Older.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 14;39(11):1203-1213. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Hematology, Centre Henri Becquerel, UNIROUEN, University of Normandy, INSERM U1245, Rouen, France.

Purpose: The prognosis of elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is worse than that of young patients. An attenuated dose of chemotherapy-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone plus rituximab (R-miniCHOP)-is a good compromise between efficacy and safety in very elderly patients. In combination with R-CHOP (R2-CHOP), lenalidomide has an acceptable level of toxicity and may mitigate the negative prognosis of the non-germinal center B-cell-like phenotype. The Lymphoma Study association conducted a multicentric, phase III, open-label, randomized trial to compare R-miniCHOP and R2-miniCHOP.

Patients And Methods: Patients of age 80 years or older with untreated DLBCL were randomly assigned into the R-miniCHOP21 group or the R2-miniCHOP21 group for six cycles and stratified according to CD10 expression and age. The first cycle of rituximab was delivered by IV on D1 after a prephase and then delivered subcutaneously on D1 of cycles 2-6. Lenalidomide was delivered at a dose of 10 mg once daily on D1-D14 of each cycle. The primary end point was overall survival (OS).

Results: A total of 249 patients with new DLBCL were randomly assigned (127 R-miniCHOP and 122 R2-miniCHOP). The median age was 83 years (range, 80-96), and 55% of the patients were classified as non-GCB. The delivered dose for each R-miniCHOP compound was similar in both arms. Over a median follow-up of 25.1 months, the intention-to-treat analysis revealed that R2-miniCHOP did not improve OS (2-year OS 66% in R-miniCHOP and 65.7% in R2-miniCHOP arm, = .98) in the overall population or in the non-GCB population. Grade 3-4 adverse events occurred in 53% of patients with R-miniCHOP and in 81% of patients with R2-miniCHOP.

Conclusion: The addition of lenalidomide to R-miniCHOP does not improve OS. Rituximab delivered subcutaneously was safe in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02666DOI Listing
April 2021

Microenvironment Remodeling and Subsequent Clinical Implications in Diffuse Large B-Cell Histologic Variant of Richter Syndrome.

Front Immunol 2020 14;11:594841. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Inserm UMRS1256 Nutrition-Génétique et Exposition aux Risque Environnementaux (N-GERE), Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France.

Introduction: Richter Syndrome (RS) is defined as the development of an aggressive lymphoma in the context of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), with a Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) histology in 95% cases. RS genomic landscape shares only a few features with DLBCLs and is marked by a wide spectrum of cytogenetic abnormalities. Little is known about RS microenvironment. Therapeutic options and efficacy are limited, leading to a 12 months median overall survival. The new targeted treatments usually effective in CLL fail to obtain long-term remissions in RS.

Methods: We reviewed available PubMed literature about RS genomics, PD-1/PD-L1 (Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death Ligand 1) pathway triggering and subsequent new therapeutic options.

Results: Data from about 207 patients from four landmark papers were compiled to build an overview of RS genomic lesions and point mutations. A number of these abnormalities may be involved in tumor microenvironment reshaping. T lymphocyte exhaustion through PD-L1 overexpression by tumor cells and subsequent PD-1/PD-L1 pathway triggering is frequently reported in solid cancers. This immune checkpoint inhibitor is also described in B lymphoid malignancies, particularly CLL: PD-1 expression is reported in a subset of prolymphocytes from the CLL lymph node proliferation centers. However, there is only few data about PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in RS. In RS, PD-1 expression is a hallmark of recently described « Regulatory B-cells », which interact with tumor microenvironment by producing inhibiting cytokines such as TGF-β and IL-10, impairing T lymphocytes anti-tumoral function. Based upon the discovery of high PD-1 expression on tumoral B lymphocyte from RS, immune checkpoint blockade therapies such as anti-PD-1 antibodies have been tested on small RS cohorts and provided heterogeneous but encouraging results.

Conclusion: RS genetic landscape and immune evasion mechanisms are being progressively unraveled. New protocols using targeted treatments such as checkpoint inhibitors as single agents or in combination with immunochemotherapy are currently being evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.594841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767850PMC
December 2020

Obinutuzumab vs rituximab for advanced DLBCL: a PET-guided and randomized phase 3 study by LYSA.

Blood 2021 Apr;137(17):2307-2320

Department of Hematology, University Hospital F. Mitterrand, Dijon, France; and.

Rituximab plus polychemotherapy is the standard of care in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). GAINED, a randomized phase 3 trial, compared obinutuzumab to rituximab. Transplant-eligible patients (18-60 years) with an untreated age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI) score ≥1 DLBCL were randomized (1:1) between obinutuzumab or rituximab and stratified by aaIPI (1; 2-3) and chemotherapy regimen (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, prednisone plus vindesine, bleomycin [ACVBP] or vincristine [CHOP]). Consolidation treatment was determined according to response to interim positron emission tomography (PET). Responders after cycle 2 and 4 (PET2-/PET4-) received immunochemotherapy. Responders after only cycle 4 (PET2+/4-) received transplantation. The primary objective was an 8% improvement (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73; 80% power; α risk, 2.5%; 1-sided) in 2-year event-free survival (EFS) in the obinutuzumab arm. From September 2012, 670 patients were enrolled (obinutuzumab, n = 336; rituximab, n = 334). A total of 383 (57.2%) were aaIPI 2-3, 339 (50.6%) received CHOP. Median follow-up was 38.7 months. The 2-year EFS was similar in both groups (59.8% vs 56.6%; P = .123; HR = 0.88). The 2-year PFS in the whole cohort was 83.1% (95% confidence interval, 80% to 85.8%). PET2-/4- and PET2+/4- had similar 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS): 89.9% vs 83.9% and 94.8% vs 92.8%. The 2-year PFS and OS for PET4+ patients were 62% and 83.1%. Grade 3-5 infections were more frequent in the obinutuzumab arm (21% vs 12%). Obinutuzumab is not superior to rituximab in aaIPI ≥1 DLBCL transplant-eligible patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01659099.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008750DOI Listing
April 2021

Predictive factors of early progression after CAR T-cell therapy in relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 11;4(22):5607-5615

Department of Hemato-Oncology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Paris, France.

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has emerged as an option for relapsed/refractory aggressive B-cell lymphomas that have failed 2 lines of therapy. Failures usually occur early after infusion. The purpose of our study was to identify factors that may predict failure, particularly early progression (EP), within the first month after infusion. Characteristics of 116 patients were analyzed at the time of decision (TD) to use commercial CAR (axicabtagene ciloleucel, n = 49; tisagenlecleucel n = 67) and at the time of treatment (TT), together with total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) at TT. With a median follow-up of 8.2 months, 55 patients failed treatment; 27 (49%) were early progressors. The estimated 12-month progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 47.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.0-58.6) and 67.0% (95% CI, 57-79), respectively. Univariate analyses for PFS and OS identified Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) ≥2, stage III/IV disease, extranodal (EN) sites ≥2, elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased C-reactive protein (CRP), high International Prognostic Index at TD and at TT, as well as increased CRP, bulky mass, and high TMTV at TT, as risk factors. Multivariate analyses for PFS, EP, and OS identified elevated LDH and EN sites ≥2 at TD and the same predictors at TT (ie, increased CRP, EN sites ≥2, and TMTV >80 mL). In summary, risk factors identified for early progression at TD and at TT were EN involvement (≥2 sites) and lymphoma burden (LDH, TMTV).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686887PMC
November 2020

A fixed-duration, measurable residual disease-guided approach in CLL: follow-up data from the phase 2 ICLL-07 FILO trial.

Blood 2021 Feb;137(8):1019-1023

Department of Hematology, Avicenne Hospital, AP-HP, Bobigny, France.

Trials assessing first-line, fixed-duration approaches in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are yielding promising activity, but few long-term data are available. We report follow-up data from a phase 2 trial (ICLL07 FILO) in previously untreated, medically fit patients (N = 135). Patients underwent obinutuzumab-ibrutinib induction for 9 months; then, following evaluation (N = 130 evaluable), those in complete remission and with bone marrow measurable residual disease (BM MRD) <0.01% (n = 10) received ibrutinib for 6 additional months; those in partial remission and/or with BM MRD ≥0.01%, the majority (n = 120), also received 4 cycles of immunochemotherapy (fludarabine/cyclophosphamide-obinutuzumab). Beyond end of treatment, responses were assessed every 3 month and peripheral blood MRD every 6 months. At median follow-up 36.7 months from treatment start, progression-free and overall survival rates (95% confidence interval) at 3 years were 95.7% (92.0% to 99.5%) and 98% (95.1% to 100%), respectively. Peripheral blood MRD <0.01% rates were 97%, 96%, 90%, 84%, and 89% at months 16, 22, 28, 34, and 40, respectively. No new treatment-related or serious adverse event occurred beyond end of treatment. Thus, in previously untreated, medically fit patients with CLL, a fixed-duration (15 months), MRD-guided approach achieved high survival rates, a persistent MRD benefit beyond the end of treatment, and low long-term toxicity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02666898.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008164DOI Listing
February 2021

Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Recommendations of the French CLL Study Group (FILO).

Hemasphere 2020 Oct 23;4(5):e473. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

CHU de Caen Normandie, Caen, France.

As a result of significant recent developments, the management of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is changing, and new therapeutic options will continue to emerge in the near future. The recommendations of the French Innovative Leukemia Organization (FILO-CLL) group presented here are intended to provide practical recommendations for physicians taking care of CLL patients, taking into account the availability of both biological tests and therapies in daily practice in France at the time of publication. This text details the documented information and guidelines on diagnosis, indications for treatment, infectious complications and therapeutic strategies in frontline and relapsed CLL as well as in particular conditions such as autoimmune cytopenia or Richter syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523785PMC
October 2020

Efficacy of lenalidomide in myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms with ring sideroblasts and an extreme platelet count.

Clin Case Rep 2020 Sep 13;8(9):1774-1780. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Université de Lorraine, CHRU-Nancy, Service d'Hématologie Biologique, Pôle Laboratoires, France Nancy France.

Lenalidomide is efficient in reducing red blood cell transfusion dependency and markedly lowering platelet counts in MDS/MPN-RS-T in the context of major platelet counts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.3026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7495870PMC
September 2020

Characteristics of Lymphoma in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 May;15(5):827-839

Department of Gastroenterology, Nancy University Hospital, University of Lorraine, Nancy, France.

Background: Lymphoma is a dreaded complication of inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD]. Knowledge about lymphoma in patients with IBD is limited to epidemiological data and the description of risk factors. We performed a systematic review to describe the clinical characteristics and prognosis of lymphoma in patients with IBD.

Methods: Electronic databases were searched up to June 1, 2020. All published clinical characteristics of lymphoma occurring in patients with IBD were collected.

Results: Eleven studies were included. A total of 589 lymphomas were described in patients with IBD. As seen in de novo lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma [NHL] was the most common histological subtype [83.9%]. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma [DLBCL] and follicular lymphoma were the most well-represented NHL in patients with IBD [30% and 13% respectively]. Two main differences were observed in comparison with de novo lymphoma: primary intestinal lymphoma [PIL] represented a large proportion of lymphoma in patients with IBD [22-75%] whereas mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue [MALT] lymphoma was under-represented. Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]-positive status was observed in a large proportion of tumours [44-75%]. Survival data of lymphoma in patients with IBD were similar to those of de novo lymphoma.

Discussion: This systematic review first highlights that PIL [especially DLBCL subtype] is significantly more frequent in patients with IBD and represents the most common entity. Conversely, MALT lymphoma is extremely rare in the IBD population. However, the overall quality of the evidence is low. Further studies are required to better define lymphoma characteristics in patients with IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa193DOI Listing
May 2021

Prognostic value of high-sensitivity measurable residual disease assessment after front-line chemoimmunotherapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Leukemia 2020 Sep 15. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Laboratoire d'Hématologie, APHP CHU Avicenne, Bobigny, France.

Measurable residual disease (MRD) status is widely adopted in clinical trials in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Findings from FILO group trials (CLL2007FMP, CLL2007SA, CLL2010FMP) enabled investigation of the prognostic value of high-sensitivity (0.7 × 10) MRD assessment using flow cytometry, in blood (N = 401) and bone marrow (N = 339), after fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab (FCR)-based chemoimmunotherapy in a homogeneous population with long follow-up (median 49.5 months). Addition of low-level positive MRD < 0.01% to MRD ≥ 0.01% increased the proportion of cases with positive MRD in blood by 39% and in bone marrow by 27%. Compared to low-level positive MRD < 0.01%, undetectable MRD was associated with significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) when using blood (72.2 versus 42.7 months; hazard ratio 0.40, p = 0.0003), but not when using bone marrow. Upon further stratification, positive blood MRD at any level, compared to undetectable blood MRD, was associated with shorter PFS irrespective of clinical complete or partial remission, and a lower 5-year PFS rate irrespective of IGHV-mutated or -unmutated status (all p < 0.05). In conclusion, high-sensitivity (0.0007%) MRD assessment in blood yielded additional prognostic information beyond the current standard sensitivity (0.01%). Our approach provides a model for future determination of the optimal MRD investigative strategy for any regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-01009-zDOI Listing
September 2020

Lenalidomide/rituximab induces high molecular response in untreated follicular lymphoma: LYSA ancillary RELEVANCE study.

Blood Adv 2020 08;4(14):3217-3223

Département d'Hématologie, Equipe d'Accueil 7365, CHU Lille, Lille, France.

Complete molecular response (CMR) after first-line immunochemotherapy reflects treatment efficacy and may predict prognosis in patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). RELEVANCE is the first phase 3 trial comparing the chemotherapy-free regimen lenalidomide/rituximab (R2) vs rituximab/chemotherapy (R-Chemo) in previously untreated FL patients (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01650701). The objective of the minimal residual disease (MRD) analysis was to determine the ability of a chemotherapy-free regimen to induce CMR. Of 440 French patients participating in the Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) RELEVANCE MRD study, all 222 patients with a BIOMED-2-detectable BCL2-JH translocation at diagnosis were analyzed. MRD was quantified by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction with a sensitivity ≤10-4. At week 24 (end of induction treatment), 98% and 78% of patients achieved CMR in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM), respectively. Achievement of CMR (in PB and/or BM) had a significant impact on progression-free survival (PFS), with 3-year PFS of 84% and 55% for patients with CMR and detectable MRD, respectively (P = .015). CMR at week 24 was reached more frequently in the R2 arm (105/117; 90%) than in the R-Chemo arm (70/90; 77%) (P = .022). The poor prognostic value in terms of PFS for the persistence of molecular disease was observed irrespective of treatment arm (interaction test, P = .31). In agreement with the clinical results of the RELEVANCE trial, our results show that R2 immunomodulatory treatment in first-line FL can achieve high rates of CMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391139PMC
August 2020

Analysis of a cohort of 279 patients with hairy-cell leukemia (HCL): 10 years of follow-up.

Blood Cancer J 2020 05 27;10(5):62. Epub 2020 May 27.

Unite de Recherche Clinique, Hopital Avicenne, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, Bobigny, France.

In total, 279 patients with hairy-cell leukemia (HCL) were analyzed, with a median follow-up of 10 years. Data were collected up to June 2018. We analyzed responses to treatment, relapses, survival, and the occurrence of second malignancies during follow-up. The median age was 59 years. In total, 208 patients (75%) were treated with purine analogs (PNAs), either cladribine (159) or pentosatin (49), as the first-line therapy. After a median follow-up of 127 months, the median overall survival was 27 years, and the median relapse-free survival (RFS) was 11 years. The cumulative 10-year relapse incidence was 39%. In patients receiving second-line therapy, the median RFS was 7 years. For the second-line therapy, using the same or another PNA was equivalent. We identified 68 second malignancies in 59 patients: 49 solid cancers and 19 hematological malignancies. The 10-year cumulative incidences of cancers, solid tumors, and hematological malignancies were 15%, 11%, and 5.0%, respectively, and the standardized incidence ratios were 2.22, 1.81, and 6.67, respectively. In multivariate analysis, PNA was not a risk factor for second malignancies. HCL patients have a good long-term prognosis. PNAs are the first-line treatment. HCL patients require long-term follow-up because of their relatively increased risk of second malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-0328-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253459PMC
May 2020

High total metabolic tumor volume at baseline predicts survival independent of response to therapy.

Blood 2020 04;135(16):1396-1405

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Hemato-Oncology, Paris, France; and.

Early identification of ultra-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients is needed to aid stratification to innovative treatment. Previous studies suggested high baseline total metabolic tumor volume (TMTV) negatively impacts survival of DLBCL patients. We analyzed the prognostic impact of TMTV and prognostic indices in DLBCL patients, aged 60 to 80 years, from the phase 3 REMARC study that randomized responding patients to R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) into maintenance lenalidomide or placebo. TMTV was computed on baseline positron emission tomography/computed tomography using the 41% maximum standardized uptake value method; the optimal TMTV cutoff for progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was determined and confirmed by a training validation method. There were 301 out of 650 evaluable patients, including 192 patients classified as germinal center B-cell-like (GCB)/non-GCB and MYC/BCL2 expressor. Median baseline TMTV was 238 cm3; optimal TMTV cutoff was 220 cm3. Patients with high vs low TMTV showed worse/higher Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) ≥2, stage III or IV disease, >1 extranodal site, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, International Prognostic Index (IPI) 3-5, and age-adjusted IPI 2-3. High vs low TMTV significantly impacted PFS and OS, independent of maintenance treatment. Although the GCB/non-GCB profile and MYC expression did not correlate with TMTV/survival, BCL2 >70% impacted PFS and could be stratified by TMTV. Multivariate analysis identified baseline TMTV and ECOG PS as independently associated with PFS and OS. Even in responding patients, after R-CHOP, high baseline TMTV was a strong prognosticator of inferior PFS and OS. Moreover, TMTV combined with ECOG PS may identify an ultra-risk DLBCL population. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01122472.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162688PMC
April 2020

Treatment of Older Patients With Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL): Long-Term Follow-Up of the Randomized European MCL Elderly Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 01 5;38(3):248-256. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

University Hospital Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: In an update of the randomized, open-label, phase III European Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL) Elderly trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00209209), published in 2012, we aimed to confirm results on long-term outcome focusing on efficacy and safety of long-term use of rituximab maintenance.

Patients And Methods: Five hundred sixty patients with newly diagnosed MCL underwent a first random assignment between rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and rituximab, fludarabine, and cyclophosphamide (R-FC) induction, followed by a second random assignment in 316 responders between rituximab and interferon alfa maintenance, to be continued until progression. We compared progression-free survival from the second randomization and overall survival (OS) from the first or second randomizations.

Results: After a median follow-up time of 7.6 years, the previously described difference in OS between the induction arms persisted (median, 6.4 years after R-CHOP [n = 280] 3.9 years after R-FC [n = 280]; = .0054). Patients responding to R-CHOP had median progression-free survival and OS times of 5.4 and 9.8 years, respectively, when randomly assigned to rituximab (n = 87), compared with 1.9 years ( < .001) and 7.1 years ( = .0026), respectively, when randomly assigned to interferon alfa (n = 97). In 58% and 32% of patients treated with R-CHOP, rituximab maintenance was still ongoing 2 and 5 years from start of maintenance, respectively. After R-FC, rituximab maintenance was associated with an unexpectedly high cumulative incidence of death in remission (22% at 5 years). Toxicity of rituximab maintenance was low after R-CHOP (grade 3-4 leukopenia or infection < 5%) but more prominent in patients on rituximab maintenance after R-FC, in whom grade 3-4 leukopenia (up to 40%) and infections were frequent (up to 15%).

Conclusion: The excellent results of R-CHOP followed by rituximab maintenance until progression for older patients with MCL persisted in a mature follow-up. Prolongation of rituximab maintenance beyond 2 years is effective and safe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.01294DOI Listing
January 2020

Sustained Progression-Free Survival Benefit of Rituximab Maintenance in Patients With Follicular Lymphoma: Long-Term Results of the PRIMA Study.

J Clin Oncol 2019 11 24;37(31):2815-2824. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Centre Henri-Becquerel, Rouen, France.

Purpose: The PRIMA study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00140582) established that 2 years of rituximab maintenance after first-line immunochemotherapy significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with follicular lymphoma compared with observation. Here, we report the final PFS and overall survival (OS) results from the PRIMA study after 9 years of follow-up and provide a final overview of safety.

Methods: Patients (> 18 years of age) with previously untreated high-tumor-burden follicular lymphoma were nonrandomly assigned to receive one of three immunochemotherapy induction regimens. Responding patients were randomly assigned (stratified by induction regimen, response to induction treatment, treatment center, and geographic region) 1:1 to receive 2 years of rituximab maintenance (375 mg/m, once every 8 weeks), starting 8 weeks after the last induction treatment, or observation (no additional treatment). All patients in the extended follow-up provided their written informed consent (data cutoff: December 31, 2016).

Results: In total, 1,018 patients completed induction treatment and were randomly assigned to rituximab maintenance (n = 505) or observation (n = 513). Consent for the extended follow-up was provided by 607 patients (59.6%) of 1,018 (rituximab maintenance, n = 309; observation, n = 298). After data cutoff, median PFS was 10.5 years in the rituximab maintenance arm compared with 4.1 years in the observation arm (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.73; < .001). No OS difference was seen in patients randomly assigned to rituximab maintenance or observation (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.40; = .7948); 10-year OS estimates were approximately 80% in both study arms. No new safety signals were observed.

Conclusion: Rituximab maintenance after induction immunochemotherapy provides a significant long-term PFS, but not OS, benefit over observation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.01073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823890PMC
November 2019

Obinutuzumab and ibrutinib induction therapy followed by a minimal residual disease-driven strategy in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (ICLL07 FILO): a single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Sep 16;6(9):e470-e479. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Hematology Biology, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Background: In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, achievement of a complete response with minimal residual disease of less than 0·01% (ie, <1 chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cell per 10 000 leukocytes) in bone marrow has been associated with improved progression-free survival. We aimed to explore the activity of induction therapy for 9 months with obinutuzumab and ibrutinib, followed up with a minimal residual disease-driven therapeutic strategy for 6 additional months, in previously untreated patients.

Methods: We did a single-arm, phase 2 trial in 27 university hospitals, general hospitals, and specialist cancer centres in France. Eligible patients were at least 18 years old and previously untreated, and had immunophenotypically confirmed B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score of less than 2; a Binet stage C according to IWCLL 2008 criteria or Binet stage A and B with active disease; no 17p deletion or absence of p53 mutation; and were considered medically fit. In the first part of the study (induction phase), all participants received eight intravenous infusions of obinutuzumab 1000 mg over six 4-weekly cycles and oral ibrutinib 420 mg once per day for 9 months. In part 2, after assessment on day 1 of month 9, patients with a complete response and bone marrow minimal residual disease of less than 0·01% received only oral ibrutinib 420 mg once per day for 6 additional months. Patients with a partial response, or with a complete response and bone marrow minimal residual disease of 0·01% or more, received 6 months of four 4-weekly cycles of intravenous fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and obinutuzumab 1000 mg, alongside continuing ibrutinib 420 mg once per day. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving a complete response with bone marrow minimal residual disease less than 0·01% on day 1 of month 16 assessed by intention to treat (ITT). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT02666898) and is still open for follow-up.

Findings: Between Oct 27, 2015, and May 16, 2017, 135 patients were enrolled. After induction treatment (day 1 of month 9), 130 patients were evaluable, of which ten (8%) achieved a complete response with bone marrow minimal residual disease of less than 0·01% and were assigned to ibrutinib, and 120 (92%) were assigned to ibrutinib plus fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and obinutuzumab. After minimal residual disease-guided treatment (day 1 of month 16), 84 (62%, 90% CI 55-69) of 135 patients (ITT population) achieved a complete response with bone marrow minimal residual disease of less than 0·01%. The most common haematological adverse event was thrombocytopenia (in 45 [34%] of 133 patients at grade 1-2 in months 1-9 and in 43 [33%] of 130 patients at grade 1-2 in months 9-15). The most common non-haematological adverse events were infusion-related reactions (in 83 [62%] patients at grade 1-2 in months 1-9) and gastrointestinal disorders (in 62 [48%] patients at grades 1 and 2 in months 9-15). 49 serious adverse events occurred, most frequently infections (ten), cardiac events (eight), and haematological events (eight). No treatment-related deaths occurred.

Interpretation: Obinutuzumab and ibrutinib induction therapy followed by a minimal residual disease driven strategy is safe and active in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. With longer follow-up, including assessing the evolution of minimal residual disease, if response is maintained, this strategy could be an option in the first-line setting in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, although randomised evidence is needed.

Funding: Roche, Janssen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30113-9DOI Listing
September 2019

Obinutuzumab combined with lenalidomide for relapsed or refractory follicular B-cell lymphoma (GALEN): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study.

Lancet Haematol 2019 Aug 8;6(8):e429-e437. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Haematology Department, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rennes, Rennes, France.

Background: Lenalidomide plus rituximab is approved to treat patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma. Obinutuzumab has been shown to enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, and direct B-cell killing better than rituximab. Our aim was to determine the activity and safety of lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab in previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma.

Methods: In this multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study, patients were enrolled from 24 Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation centres in France. Eligible patients (age ≥18 years) had histologically confirmed CD20-positive relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma of WHO grade 1, 2, or 3a; an ECOG performance status of 0-2; and received at least one previous rituximab-containing therapy. Patients received oral lenalidomide (20 mg) plus intravenously infused obinutuzumab as induction therapy (1000 mg; six 28-day cycles), 1-year maintenance with lenalidomide (10 mg; 12 28-day cycles; days 2-22) plus obinutuzumab (1000 mg; alternate cycles), and 1-year maintenance with obinutuzumab (1000 mg; six 56-day cycles; day 1). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved an overall response at induction end as per investigator assessment using the 1999 international working group criteria. The secondary endpoints were event-free survival, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. Analyses were per-protocol; the efficacy population included all patients who received at least one dose of both obinutuzumab and lenalidomide, and the safety population included all patients who received one dose of either investigational drug. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01582776, and is ongoing but closed to accrual.

Findings: Between June 11, 2014, and Dec 18, 2015, 89 patients were recruited and 86 patients were evaluable for efficacy and 88 for safety. Median follow-up was 2·6 years (IQR 2·2-2·8). 68 (79%) of 86 evaluable patients (95% CI 69-87) achieved an overall response at induction end, meeting the prespecified primary endpoint. At 2 years, event-free survival was 62% (95% CI 51-72), progression-free survival 65% (95% CI 54-74), duration of response 70% (95% CI 57-79), and overall survival 87% (95% CI 78-93). Complete response was achieved by 33 (38%, 95% CI 28-50) of 86 patients at induction end, and the proportion of patients achieving a best overall response was 70 (81%, 95% CI 72-89) and 72 (84%, 74-91) of 86 patients during induction and treatment, respectively. The most common adverse events were asthenia (n=54, 61%), neutropenia (n=38, 43%), bronchitis (n=36, 41%), diarrhoea (n=35, 40%), and muscle spasms (n=34, 39%). Neutropenia was the most common toxicity of grade 3 or more; four (5%) patients had febrile neutropenia. 57 serious adverse events were reported in 30 (34%) of 88 patients. The most common serious adverse events were basal cell carcinoma (n=5, 6%), febrile neutropenia (n=4, 5%), and infusion-related reaction (n=3, 3%). One patient died due to treatment-related febrile neutropenia.

Interpretation: Our data shows that lenalidomide plus obinutuzumab is active in previously treated patients with relapsed or refractory follicular lymphoma, including those with early relapse, and has a manageable safety profile. Randomised trials of new immunomodulatory regimens, such as GALEN or using GALEN as a backbone, versus lenalidomide plus rituximab, are warranted.

Funding: Lymphoma Academic Research Organisation, and Celgene and Roche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30089-4DOI Listing
August 2019

Prevalence of and mutations in a real-life CLL cohort still on ibrutinib after 3 years: a FILO group study.

Blood 2019 08 26;134(7):641-644. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Groupe de Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Seine-Saint-Denis (GHUPSSD), Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Bobigny, France.

Mutational analyses performed following acquired ibrutinib resistance have suggested that chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) progression on ibrutinib is linked to mutations in Bruton tyrosine kinase () and/or phospholipase Cγ2 () genes. Mutational information for patients still on ibrutinib is limited. We report a study aimed to provide a "snapshot" of the prevalence of mutations in a real-life CLL cohort still on ibrutinib after at least 3 years of treatment. Of 204 patients who initiated ibrutinib via an early-access program at 29 French Innovative Leukemia Organization (FILO) centers, 63 (31%) were still on ibrutinib after 3 years and 57 provided a fresh blood sample. Thirty patients had a CLL clone ≥0.5 × 10/L, enabling next-generation sequencing (NGS); and mutations were detected in 57% and 13% of the NGS samples, respectively. After median follow-up of 8.5 months from sample collection, the presence of a mutation was significantly associated with subsequent CLL progression ( = .0005 vs no mutation). Our findings support that mutational analysis should be considered in patients receiving ibrutinib who have residual clonal lymphocytosis, and that clinical trials are needed to evaluate whether patients with a mutation may benefit from an early switch to another treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019000854DOI Listing
August 2019

Recent advances in the first-line treatment of follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

F1000Res 2019 15;8. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Hematology, CHRU Nancy Brabois, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the most common type of indolent B-cell lymphoma. Twenty years ago, FL was considered an indolent lymphoma with a long survival time but without a high rate of complete remission with chemotherapies. The use of rituximab has improved the response and survival of patients with this lymphoma. More recently, development of biological knowledge and use of targeted drugs have offered new perspectives, including improvement of response rates and survival with chemo-free treatment strategies. In 2019, patients have a 10-year overall survival probability of over 70%. Histological transformation to more aggressive lymphoma and treatment relapses remain a medical challenge, especially for patients relapsing within two years. This article will review the recent advances in the treatment of FL. As the use of new drugs is directly related to the development of biological aspects, we will first summarize recent advances in biological aspects of FL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16686.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426075PMC
June 2020

Long-term fatigue in survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: The Lymphoma Study Association SIMONAL cross-sectional study.

Cancer 2019 07 22;125(13):2291-2299. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

French Center on eHealth, North-West Region Data Processing Center and French National League Against Cancer Clinical Research Platform, Caen, France.

Background: Long-term survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) must cope with treatment complications and late toxicities that affect their health-related quality of life. Little is known about the risk-to-benefit ratio of new agents like rituximab. The impact of treatment regimens and health disorders on long-term fatigue levels was investigated in a cross-sectional study.

Methods: Two self-administered questionnaires, the 20-item Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and a Life Situation Questionnaire, were mailed in 2015 to NHL survivors enrolled onto 12 successive clinical studies (1993-2010) conducted by the Lymphoma Study Association. Private addresses were obtained for 3317 survivors, of whom 1671 (50%) returned the questionnaires. Severe fatigue was defined as MFI-20 scores ≥60 on dimension scales scored from 0 to 100. Linear regression models were used to assess factors that were linked to increased fatigue levels.

Results: The study population included 906 men and 765 women, and the median age was 64 years (age range, 24-95 years). Overall, 811 survivors had received cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP)-like chemotherapy, 518 had received high-dose CHOP, and 342 had undergone upfront autologous stem cell transplantation; 829 survivors also had received rituximab. In total, 1100 survivors (66%) reported 1 or more late health disorders. Severe fatigue was reported by 602 survivors (37%). Increased fatigue levels were associated (P < .001) with increased age, obesity, and the presence of health disorders, but not with initial treatment or rituximab.

Conclusions: The survey confirms that high proportions long-term NHL survivors have severe fatigue. The results suggest that initial treatment and the receipt of rituximab have no influence on the development of long-term fatigue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32040DOI Listing
July 2019

PET-adapted treatment for newly diagnosed advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (AHL2011): a randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority, phase 3 study.

Lancet Oncol 2019 02 15;20(2):202-215. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

LYSA Imaging, Hôpital H Mondor, Creteil, France.

Background: Increased-dose bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP) improves progression-free survival in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma compared with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD), but is associated with increased risks of haematological toxicity, secondary myelodysplasia or leukaemia, and infertility. We investigated whether PET monitoring during treatment could allow dose de-escalation by switching regimen (BEACOPP to ABVD) in early responders without loss of disease control compared with standard treatment without PET monitoring.

Methods: AHL2011 is a randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 study done in 90 centres across Belgium and France. Eligible patients were aged 16-60 years and had newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma, excluding nodular lymphocyte predominant subtype, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score less than 3, a life expectancy of at least 3 months, an Ann Arbor disease stage III, IV, or IIB with mediastinum-to-thorax ratio of 0·33 or greater than or extranodal localisation, and had received no previous treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Randomisation was unmasked and done centrally by the permuted block method. Patients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (BEACOPP given every 21 days for six cycles) or PET-driven treatment. All patients received two cycles of upfront BEACOPP, after which PET assessment was done (PET2). In the standard treatment group, PET2 patients completed two additional cycles of BEACOPP induction therapy irrespective of PET2 findings. In the PET-driven treatment group, patients with positive PET2 scans received the further two cycles of BEACOPP and those with a negative PET2 scan switched to two cycles of ABVD for the remaining induction therapy. In both treatment groups, PET at the end of induction therapy was used to decide whether to continue with consolidation therapy in those with negative scans or start salvage therapy in patients with positive scans (either two cycles of ABVD in PET2-negative patients in the PET-driven arm or two cycles of BEACOPP). BEACOPP consisted of bleomycin 10 mg/m and vincristine 1·4 mg/m intravenously on day 8, etoposide 200 mg/m intravenously on days 1-3, doxorubicin 35 mg/m and cyclophosphamide 1250 mg/m intravenously on day 1, 100 mg/m oral procarbazine on days 1-7, and 40 mg/m oral prednisone on days 1-14. ABVD was given every 28 days (doxorubicin 25 mg/m, bleomycin 10 mg/m, vinblastine 6 mg/m, and dacarbazine 375 mg/m intravenously on days 1 and 15). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Non-inferiority analyses were done by intention to treat and per protocol. The study had a non-inferiority margin of 10%, to show non-inferiority of PET-guided treatment versus standard care with 80% power and an alpha of 2·5% (one-sided). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01358747.

Findings: From May 19, 2011, to April 29, 2014, 823 patients were enrolled-413 in the standard care group and 410 in the PET-driven group. 346 (84%) of 410 patients in the PET-driven treatment group were assigned to receive ABVD and 51 (12%) to continue receiving BEACOPP after PET2. With a median follow-up of 50·4 months (IQR 42·9-59·3), 5-year progression-free survival by intention to treat was 86·2%, 95% CI 81·6-89·8 in the standard treatment group versus 85·7%, 81·4-89·1 in the PET-driven treatment group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·084, 95% CI 0·737-1·596; p=0·65) and per protocol the values were 86·7%, 95% CI 81·9-90·3 and 85·4%, 80·7-89·0, respectively (HR 1·144, 0·758-1·726; p=0·74). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were leucopenia (381 [92%] in the standard treatment group and 387 [95%] in the PET-driven treatment group), neutropenia (359 [87%] and 366 [90%]), anaemia (286 [69%] vs 114 [28%]), thrombocytopenia (271 [66%] and 163 [40%]), febrile neutropenia (145 [35%] and 93 [23%]), infections (88 [22%] and 47 [11%]), and gastrointestinal disorders (49 [11%] and 48 [11%]). Serious adverse events related to treatment were reported in 192 (47%) patients in the standard treatment group and 114 (28%) in the PET-driven treatment group, including infections (84 [20%] of 412 vs 50 [12%] of 407) and febrile neutropenia (21 [5%] vs 23 [6%]). Six (1%) patients in the standard care group died from treatment-related causes (two from septic shock, two from pneumopathy, one from heart failure, and one from acute myeloblastic leukaemia), as did two (<1%) in the PET-driven treatment group (one from septic shock and one from acute myeloblastic leukaemia).

Interpretation: PET after two cycles of induction BEACOPP chemotherapy safely guided treatment in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma and allowed the use of ABVD in early responders without impairing disease control and reduced toxicities. PET staging allowed accurate monitoring of treatment in this trial and could be considered as a strategy for the routine management of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma.

Funding: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30784-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Mutational and cytogenetic analyses of 188 CLL patients with trisomy 12: A retrospective study from the French Innovative Leukemia Organization (FILO) working group.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2018 11 11;57(11):533-540. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, AP-HP, GRC-11, Groupe de recherche clinique sur les hémopathies lymphoïdes (GRECHY), Hôpital Pitié-Salpétrière, APHP, Paris, France.

Trisomy 12 (tri12) is the second most frequent chromosomal aberration (15%-20%) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Tri12 confers an intermediate prognosis but is a heterogeneous entity. We examined whether additional mutational or chromosomal alterations might impact tri12 patient outcomes. This retrospective study, carried out by the French Innovative Leukemia Organization, included 188 tri12 patients with comprehensive information on immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGHV) gene status, karyotypic/FISH abnormalities, and NOTCH1, TP53, SF3B1, and MYD88 mutations. The main cytogenetic abnormalities associated with tri12 were del(13q) (25%), additional trisomies (14%) (including tri19 (10%) and tri18 (4%)), 14q32 translocations (10%), del(17p) (6.5%), del(14q) (4%), and del(11q) (4%). Unmutated (UM) IGHV, NOTCH1, and TP53, mutations were identified in respectively 66%, 25%, and 8.5% of cases. Multivariate analyses showed that additional trisomies (HR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.23-0.78, P = .01) were associated with a significantly longer time to first treatment in Binet stage A patients and with a lower risk of relapse (HR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.15-0.9, P = .03) in the overall tri12 population. Binet stage B/C, TP53 disruption, and UM IGHV status were associated with a shorter time to next treatment, while Binet stage B/C (HR = 4, 95% CI = 1.6-4.9, P = .002) and TP53 disruption (HR = 5, 95% CI = 1.94-12.66, P = .001) conferred shorter overall survival in multivariate comparisons. These data indicate that additional cytogenetic and mutational abnormalities, and particularly additional trisomies, IGHV status, and TP53 disruption, influence tri12 patient outcomes and could improve risk stratification in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22650DOI Listing
November 2018

Rituximab plus Lenalidomide in Advanced Untreated Follicular Lymphoma.

N Engl J Med 2018 09;379(10):934-947

From Université Lille, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU), Groupe de Recherche sur les formes Injectables et les Technologies Associées, Lille (F.M.), CHU Régional de Nancy, Service d'Hématologie, Vandoeuvre lès Nancy (P.F.), Institut Paoli-Calmettes (R.B.) and Department of Pathology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille, INSERM, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Aix-Marseille Université (L.X.), Marseille, Centre Henri Becquerel, Unité 1245 and Département d'Hématologie, Université de Rouen, Rouen (H.T.), Institut d'Hématologie de Basse Normandie, Caen (C.F.), CHU Le Bocage Service d'Hématologie Clinique, Dijon (R.-O.C.), Hôpital Henri Mondor Unité Hémopathies Lymphoïdes, Créteil (C.H.), Centre Hospitalier Départemental Vendée Service d'Onco-Hématologie, La Roche sur Yon (H.M.), Institut Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse Oncopole Service d'Hématologie, Toulouse (L.Y.), CHU Bordeaux, Service d'Hématologie, Bordeaux (K.B.), Hôpital Saint Louis Service d'Onco-Hématologie, Paris (P.B.), Gustave Roussy Cancer, Villejuif (V.R.), Centre Hospitalier Annecy Genevois Service, Annecy (N.D.), CHU de Nantes-Hôtel Dieu Service d'Hématologie Clinique, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie et Immunologie, INSERM, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université de Nantes, Nantes (S.L.G.), Centre Hospitalier Métropole Savoie Service Hématologie, Chambery (G.M.P.), Department of Hematology, CHU Montpellier, University of Montpellier, Montpellier (G.C.), and Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, University of Lyon, Pierre-Benite (G.A.S.) - all in France; the Department of Lymphoma and Myeloma, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (N.H.F.); the Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (M.L.P.); the Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle (E.N.L.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute-Tennessee Oncology, Nashville (I.W.F.); Washington University School of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, St. Louis (N.L.B.); the Department of Hematology, Hospital Universitario de Salamanca and Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Cáncer, Salamanca (A.M.G.-S.), and the Department of Hematology, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona (A.L.-G.) - both in Spain; CHU de Québec, Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus, Quebec (J.-F.L.), and British Columbia Cancer Centre for Lymphoid Cancer, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (L.H.S.) - both in Canada; the Department of Hematology and Oncology, Tokai University Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan (K.A.); Instituto Português de Oncologia Lisboa Francisco Gentil Departamento de Hematologia, Lisbon (M.G.S.); the Department of Hematology, CHU Université Catholique de Louvain Namur, Yvoir (M.A.), and the Department of Hematology, Ziekenhuis Netwerk Antwerpen Stuivenberg, Antwerp (P.Z.) - both in Belgium; the Department of Hematology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan (K.T.); and Celgene, Summit, NJ (D.L., J.W.).

Background: Rituximab plus chemotherapy has been shown to be effective in patients with advanced-stage, previously untreated follicular lymphoma; nevertheless, most patients will have a relapse. Combination immunotherapy with lenalidomide and rituximab is an immunomodulatory regimen that has shown promising activity in patients with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Methods: We conducted this multicenter, international, phase 3 superiority trial to evaluate rituximab plus lenalidomide, as compared with rituximab plus chemotherapy, in patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma. Patients were randomly assigned to receive one of the two regimens, followed by maintenance monotherapy with rituximab. Treatment with rituximab plus lenalidomide consisted of 18 cycles of the two drugs, followed by rituximab maintenance therapy every 8 weeks for 12 cycles (six additional doses). Treatment with rituximab plus chemotherapy consisted of the investigator's choice of one of three rituximab-based regimens, followed by maintenance monotherapy with rituximab every 8 weeks for 12 cycles. The primary end points were complete response (confirmed or unconfirmed) at 120 weeks and progression-free survival.

Results: A total of 1030 patients were randomly assigned to receive rituximab plus lenalidomide (513 patients) or rituximab plus chemotherapy (517 patients). The rate of confirmed or unconfirmed complete response at 120 weeks was similar in the two groups: 48% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44 to 53) in the rituximab-lenalidomide group and 53% (95% CI, 49 to 57) in the rituximab-chemotherapy group (P=0.13). The interim 3-year rate of progression-free survival was 77% (95% CI, 72 to 80) and 78% (95% CI, 74 to 82), respectively. A higher percentage of patients in the rituximab-chemotherapy group had grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (32% vs. 50%) and febrile neutropenia of any grade (2% vs. 7%), and a higher percentage of patients in the rituximab-lenalidomide group had grade 3 or 4 cutaneous reactions (7% vs. 1%).

Conclusions: Among patients with previously untreated follicular lymphoma, efficacy results were similar with rituximab plus lenalidomide and rituximab plus chemotherapy (with both regimens followed by rituximab maintenance therapy). The safety profile differed in the two groups. (Funded by Celgene; RELEVANCE ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01476787 and NCT01650701 , and EudraCT number, 2011-002792-42 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1805104DOI Listing
September 2018

Lenalidomide in combination with R-CHOP (R2-CHOP) as first-line treatment of patients with high tumour burden follicular lymphoma: a single-arm, open-label, phase 2 study.

Lancet Haematol 2018 Sep;5(9):e403-e410

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon-Sud, INSERM1052, University of Lyon, Pierre-Benite, France.

Background: Immunochemotherapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) is a standard front-line treatment for follicular lymphoma. The combination of lenalidomide and rituximab has shown high efficacy in relapsed or refractory and untreated follicular lymphoma. We aimed to evaluate the safety and activity of the combination of lenalidomide and R-CHOP (R2-CHOP) in previously untreated patients with high burden follicular lymphoma.

Methods: This single-arm, open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial was done in 16 hospitals in France, all of which were Lymphoma Study Association (LYSA) sites. Eligible patients were aged 18-70 years and had previously untreated CD20-positive follicular lymphoma of grade 1, 2, or 3a; at least one high tumour burden criterion according to Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes Folliculaires criteria; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2 or less; and a minimum life expectancy of more than 3 months. Patients received induction therapy with six cycles of R2-CHOP every 3 weeks (one cycle involved standard R-CHOP on days 1-5, and 25 mg oral lenalidomide per day on days 1-14), followed by two rituximab infusions at 3-week intervals. The total treatment schedule was 24 weeks. Patients who achieved a complete or partial response to induction therapy received maintenance therapy consisting of one rituximab infusion every 8 weeks for 2 years. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who achieved a complete response (complete response and complete response unconfirmed), according to International Workshop to Standardize Response Criteria, at the end of induction treatment. Safety was assessed in all patients who completed treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01393756, and is closed to accrual.

Findings: Between Dec 21, 2010, and Jan 25, 2012, 80 patients were enrolled, and 68 (85%) completed six cycles of R2-CHOP. At the end of the induction phase, 59 patients achieved a complete response (74%, 95% CI 63-83). 55 patients achieved a complete response at 30 months from enrolment (69%, 57-78). The most frequent adverse event was grade 4 neutropenia in 52 (65%) patients. The most frequent non-haematological side-effects included grade 1-2 sensory neuropathy in 28 (35%) patients and grade 1-2 transient rash in 27 (34%) patients. Four patients died during the study period; none of these deaths were judged to be related to treatment.

Interpretations: Lenalidomide in combination with R-CHOP had an acceptable safety profile and showed anti-cancer activity in patients with previously untreated high burden follicular lymphoma. A future comparative study showing evidence of a survival advantage would be necessary for this combination to be proposed as a treatment for follicular lymphoma.

Funding: French Ministry of Health, Celgene Corporation, and Amgen France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(18)30131-5DOI Listing
September 2018

A phase 2 study of rituximab, bendamustine, bortezomib and dexamethasone for first-line treatment of older patients with mantle cell lymphoma.

Haematologica 2019 01 31;104(1):138-146. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Hematology Department, Catherine de Sienne Clinic, Nantes.

We present results of a prospective, multicenter, phase II study evaluating rituximab, bendamustine, bortezomib and dexamethasone as first-line treatment for patients with mantle cell lymphoma aged 65 years or older. A total of 74 patients were enrolled (median age, 73 years). Patients received a maximum of six cycles of treatment at 28-day intervals. The primary objective was to achieve an 18-month progression-free survival rate of 65% or higher. Secondary objectives were to evaluate toxicity and the prognostic impact of mantle cell lymphoma prognostic index, Ki67 expression, [F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography and molecular minimal residual disease, in peripheral blood or bone marrow. With a median follow-up of 52 months, the 24-month progression-free survival rate was 70%, hence the primary objective was reached. After six cycles of treatment, 91% (54/59) of responding patients were analyzed for peripheral blood residual disease and 87% of these (47/54) were negative. Four-year overall survival rates of the patients who did not have or had detectable molecular residual disease in the blood at completion of treatment were 86.6% and 28.6%, respectively (<0.0001). Neither the mantle cell lymphoma index, nor fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography nor Ki67 positivity (cut off of ≥30%) showed a prognostic impact for survival. Hematologic grade 3-4 toxicities were mainly neutropenia (51%), thrombocytopenia (35%) and lymphopenia (65%). Grade 3-4 non-hematologic toxicities were mainly fatigue (18.5%), neuropathy (15%) and infections. In conclusion, the tested treatment regimen is active as frontline therapy in older patients with mantle cell lymphoma, with manageable toxicity. Minimal residual disease status after induction could serve as an early predictor of survival in mantle cell lymphoma. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.191429DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312036PMC
January 2019

Bendamustine and rituximab in elderly patients with low-tumour burden follicular lymphoma. Results of the LYSA phase II BRIEF study.

Br J Haematol 2018 10 16;183(1):76-86. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Lysa, University Hospital, Lyon, France.

The treatment of low-tumour burden follicular lymphoma (LTBFL) remains a challenge. Rituximab-based strategies may be improved by adding chemotherapy. This Lymphoma Study Association multicentre phase II study assessed rituximab and bendamustine in 63 patients with untreated LTBFL who were aged over 60 years old and had a follicular lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI) score ≥2. Induction comprised 4 weekly cycles of rituximab 375 mg/m intravenously combined with 2 cycles of bendamustine 90 mg/m days 1-2 with a 28-day interval, followed by twelve cycles of 375 mg/m rituximab maintenance therapy every 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR)/unconfirmed CR (CRu), at 12 weeks. Median age was 67·4 years and median FLIPI was 3. Ultimately, 18 patients (29%) had high tumour burden according to Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes Folliculaires criteria. The 12-week CR/CRu rate was 54·0% and the overall response rate was 93·7%. Surprisingly, 3 patients died during maintenance (2 sepsis, 1 neoplasm). Progression-free survival was 85·4% at 24 months. In LTBFL patients with FLIPI ≥2, two cycles of rituximab and bendamustine result in a CR rate of 54·0%. However, the treatment-related deaths observed do not allow this regimen to be recommended for LTBFL patients aged over 60 years. EudraCT: 2010-020757-14; ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01313611.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15513DOI Listing
October 2018