Publications by authors named "Pierre Elie"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Growth potential can affect timing of maturity in a long-lived semelparous fish.

Biol Lett 2018 07;14(7)

Marine Institute, Furnace, Newport, Co. Mayo, Ireland.

Many diadromous fishes such as salmon and eels that move between freshwater and the ocean have evolved semelparous reproductive strategies, but both groups display considerable plasticity in characteristics. Factors such as population density and growth, predation risk or reproduction cost have been found to influence timing of maturation. We investigated the relationship between female size at maturity and individual growth trajectories of the long-lived semelparous European eel, A Bayesian model was applied to 338 individual growth trajectories of maturing migration-stage female silver eels from France, Ireland, the Netherlands and Hungary. The results clearly showed that when growth rates declined, the onset of maturation was triggered, and the eels left their growth habitats and migrated to the spawning area. Therefore, female eels tended to attain larger body size when the growth conditions were good enough to risk spending extra time in their growth habitats. This flexible maturation strategy is likely related to the ability to use diverse habitats with widely ranging growth and survival potentials in the catadromous life-history across its wide species range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2018.0269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6083232PMC
July 2018

Transcriptome profile analysis reveals specific signatures of pollutants in Atlantic eels.

Ecotoxicology 2015 Jan 26;24(1):71-84. Epub 2014 Sep 26.

Univ. Bordeaux, UMR EPOC CNRS 5805, 33400, Talence, France.

Identifying specific effects of contaminants in a multi-stress field context remain a challenge in ecotoxicology. In this context, "omics" technologies, by allowing the simultaneous measurement of numerous biological endpoints, could help unravel the in situ toxicity of contaminants. In this study, wild Atlantic eels were sampled in 8 sites presenting a broad contamination gradient in France and Canada. The global hepatic transcriptome of animals was determined by RNA-Seq. In parallel, the contamination level of fish to 8 metals and 25 organic pollutants was determined. Factor analysis for multiple testing was used to identify genes that are most likely to be related to a single factor. Among the variables analyzed, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lindane (γ-HCH) and the hepato-somatic index (HSI) were found to be the main factors affecting eel's transcriptome. Genes associated with As exposure were involved in the mechanisms that have been described during As vasculotoxicity in mammals. Genes correlated with Cd were involved in cell cycle and energy metabolism. For γ-HCH, genes were involved in lipolysis and cell growth. Genes associated with HSI were involved in protein, lipid and iron metabolisms. Our study proposes specific gene signatures of pollutants and their impacts in fish exposed to multi-stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-014-1356-xDOI Listing
January 2015

Abnormal ovarian DNA methylation programming during gonad maturation in wild contaminated fish.

Environ Sci Technol 2014 Oct 19;48(19):11688-95. Epub 2014 Sep 19.

University of Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805 , F-33400 Talence, France.

There is increasing evidence that pollutants may cause diseases via epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation participate in the regulation of gene transcription. Surprisingly, epigenetics research is still limited in ecotoxicology. In this study, we investigated whether chronic exposure to contaminants experienced by wild female fish (Anguilla anguilla) throughout their juvenile phase can affect the DNA methylation status of their oocytes during gonad maturation. Thus, fish were sampled in two locations presenting a low or a high contamination level. Then, fish were transferred to the laboratory and artificially matured. Before hormonal treatment, the DNA methylation levels of the genes encoding for the aromatase and the receptor of the follicle stimulating hormone were higher in contaminated fish than in fish from the clean site. For the hormone receptor, this hypermethylation was positively correlated with the contamination level of fish and was associated with a decrease in its transcription level. In addition, whereas gonad growth was associated with an increase in DNA methylation in fish from the clean site, no changes were observed in contaminated fish in response to hormonal treatment. Finally, a higher gonad growth was observed in fish from the reference site in comparison to contaminated fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es503712cDOI Listing
October 2014

PBDE and PCB contamination of eels from the Gironde estuary: from glass eels to silver eels.

Chemosphere 2011 Mar 21;83(2):175-85. Epub 2011 Jan 21.

Université Bordeaux 1, Laboratoire de Physico-Toxico Chimie de l'environnement, Institut des Sciences Moléculaires (ISM - UMR 5255 CNRS), 341 cours de la Libération, Talence, France.

Since the 1980s, the eel population has been decreasing dangerously. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) such as Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the suspected causes of this decline. A preliminary study of PCB contamination carried out on different fish from the Gironde estuary (southwest of France, Europe) has shown a relatively high level of contamination of eel muscles. In order to characterize the contamination level of PCBs and PBDEs (PolyBrominated Diphenyl-Ethers) in eels from this estuary more than 240 eels were collected during the years 2004-2005 in the Gironde estuarine system, from glass eels to silver eels. Individual European eels were grouped according to length and localization sites. The results have shown a low contamination level of glass eels: respectively 28±11 ng g(-1)dw for PCBs and 5±3 ng g(-1)dw for PBDEs. The contamination level in eels (expressed in ng g(-1)dw) increases from glass eels to silver eels up to 3399 ng g(-1)dw of PCBs for the most contaminated silver eel. Such levels of PCBs similar to those observed in Northern Europe, could raise sanitary problems connected with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. These results are worrying for the local people who regularly eat eels caught in the Gironde estuary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.12.044DOI Listing
March 2011

Exoskeletal deformities in Palaemonidae: are they a threat to survival?

Mar Environ Res 2010 Apr 4;69(3):109-17. Epub 2009 Sep 4.

Cemagref, Ecosema Unit, 50 Avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas, France.

Shrimps of the Palaemon genus have been affected for over 15 years by a problem of exoskeletal deformities, particularly in the Gironde estuary (France). Given the large numbers of individuals affected, this study focus on a better description of the phenomenon to estimate its impact on shrimps. This study, on Palaemon longirostris and Palaemon macrodactylus, is based on samples collected from 1992 to 2007 in the Gironde estuary with particular focus on the year 2007, and on a 4-month rearing of adult shrimps in experimental system. The different approaches reveal the relative persistence of the phenomenon since 1992 (with on average more than 58% of ovigerous females affected) and its persistence during shrimp life cycle, even after several moults. Important consequences associated with deformities at the individual level were demonstrated: a higher mortality, a lighter egg mass and a lower weight for a given size. The presence of exoskeletal deformities is now a major phenomenon, with profound effects on individual shrimps, and which may in turn have an important impact on the survival of the P. longirostris population in particular.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2009.09.001DOI Listing
April 2010

Ovarian gene transcription and effect of cadmium pre-exposure during artificial sexual maturation of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

Biometals 2009 Dec;22(6):985-94

UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Université Bordeaux 1 et CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon, France.

European eels are dangerously threatened with extinction. Recent advances tend to show that pollution could, in addition to other already identified factors, contribute to this drama. In a previous report, cadmium (Cd) pre-exposure was found to strongly stimulate the pituitary-liver-gonad axis of maturing female silver eels, leading, lastly, to oocytes atresia and eels mortality. The present work was performed to get more insights into the effects of Cd preexposure on eels' ovaries. The transcription levels of various genes involved in mitochondrial metabolism, in the cellular response to metal (metallothioneins, MTs) and oxidative stress (catalase, CAT) were investigated. Our results show that ovarian growth is associated with an up-regulation of mitochondrial genes. However, Cd pre-exposure was found to significantly impair this up-regulation. Such findings could explain, at least in part, why oocytes of Cd pre-contaminated eels could not reach final maturation. Concerning MTs, despite the end of the experiment was marked by a strong increase in their gene transcription levels in both eel groups, MTs protein content was found to increase only in the case of Cd pre-contaminated eels. Since this increase in MTs protein content was associated with a massive entry of Cd in gonads, our findings suggest that MTs mRNA, that are normally accumulated in oocytes to cope with the future needs, can be activated and translated in response to Cd exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-009-9250-3DOI Listing
December 2009

How cadmium could compromise the completion of the European eel's reproductive migration.

Environ Sci Technol 2008 Jun;42(12):4607-12

UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, team GEMA, Université Bordeaux 1 et CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120, Arcachon, France.

The European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) is severely threatened with extinction. Surprisingly, even though their unusual life cycle makes them particularly vulnerable to pollution, the possible contribution of contamination remains especially poorly known. Here we have investigated the possible effect of cadmium (Cd), a widespread nonessential metal, on eel reproductive capacities. Both control and Cd precontaminated female silver eels were experimentally matured and forced to swim in metal-free conditions to mimic their reproductive migration. Cd pre-exposure was found to strongly stimulate the pituitary-gonad-liver axis of maturing female silver eels leading to early and enhanced vitellogenesis. This was followed by a strong phenomenon of oocyte atresia and eel mortality. These phenomena occurred before oocytes could reach full maturation and were associated with a large entry of both vitellogenin and Cd into the ovaries. Indeed, a redistribution of previously stored cadmium, even from the low Cd levels of control eels, was observed during sexual maturation. Atresia and mortality phenomena were also associated with an overexpression of the pituitary gene encoding the growth hormone, a marker of physiological stress and energy reserves exhaustion. Significantly, these devastating effects of Cd were observed in organisms that presented liver and kidney Cd concentrations still below those observed in eels from Cd contaminated hydrosystems. Our research shows how common levels of cadmium contamination could disrupt endocrine pathways implicated in gonad maturation and subsequently impair reproductive capacity of eel future genitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es703127cDOI Listing
June 2008

Cadmium uptake by the European eel: trophic transfer in field and experimental investigations.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2008 May 22;70(1):10-9. Epub 2008 Jan 22.

UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Université Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon, France.

Due to its status of threatened species and being heavily contaminated by metals, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) was selected to investigate cadmium contamination levels of fish settled along a historically cadmium-contaminated hydrosystem, the Garonne-Gironde continuum (France), according to its various location sites and fish length. Results have shown an important site effect on cadmium concentrations in liver but not in gills, highlighting the possible predominance of the trophic exposure route. Subsequently, uncontaminated eels were experimentally exposed to cadmium by water uptake and/or trophic route(s). Eels were fed with different preys: white shrimps collected in an unpolluted area in the Gironde estuary, and cadmium-enriched shrimps. Data obtained tend to show that the use of cadmium-enriched food during experimental investigations triggers an underestimation of the metal trophic transfer rate. These two complementary approaches provide some elements to suggest that the trophic route plays an important role in cadmium contamination of wild eels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.11.018DOI Listing
May 2008

Relationships between locomotor behavior, morphometric characters and thyroid hormone levels give evidence of stage-dependent mechanisms in European eel upstream migration.

Horm Behav 2008 Jan 4;53(1):69-81. Epub 2007 Sep 4.

Cemagref, Unité Ecosystèmes Estuariens et Poissons Migrateurs Amphihalins (EPBX), 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas cedex, France.

In order to decipher movements during freshwater eel colonization, we experimentally characterized individual locomotor behavior of two eel life history stages: elvers and yellow eels. A ramp located at the flume tank upstream side required a specific locomotor behavior to be ascended. Placing individually tagged eels in the middle of the tank three times successively tested behavioral consistency. Eels climbing the ramp on each trial were classified as "upstream climbers" whereas eels settling in the tank middle were classified as "inactive". Both stages exhibited these two opposite consistent behaviors. However, elvers were predominantly "upstream climbers" (58.1%) whereas yellow eels were predominantly "inactive" (79.6%). We measured morphometric characters and thyroid hormones to determine if upstream activity was related to body condition and thyroid status. Elver upstream climbers had higher body condition as well as higher thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) levels compared with inactive elvers. Yellow eel upstream climbers had lower body length as well as higher T(3) and (T(3):T(4)) ratio compared with inactive yellow eels. This indicated that the physiological release factors for eel upstream migration may be stage dependent. For elvers, high thyroid gland activity, together with high body condition, may be the physiological release factors for migration. In contrast, for yellow eels, physiological stress may be the release factor with an increase in T(4) deiodination activity in the smallest eels. Our study revealed inter-stage and intra-stage locomotor behavior plasticity and suggested stage-dependent opposite impacts of physiological condition on eel upstream migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2007.06.011DOI Listing
January 2008

Common pattern of gene expression in response to hypoxia or cadmium in the gills of the European glass eel (Anguilla anguilla).

Environ Sci Technol 2007 Apr;41(8):3005-11

UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, team GEMA, Université Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120, Arcachon, France.

European eel (Anguilla anguilla) populations are in decline. Glass eel recruitment has fallen 10-fold since the early 1980s. Estuaries play a fundamental role in the life history of eels because glass eels must pass through them to reach freshwater ecosystems. Unfortunately, because of their geographical position at the upstream basin slopes, estuaries accumulate metals like cadmium and are important sites of hypoxia events. In this context, we studied the effect of the oxygen level on the ventilation of the glass eel. In parallel, glass eels were submitted to different dissolved cadmium concentrations (0, 2, and 10 microg L(-1)) under two oxygen levels (normoxia PO2 = 21 kPa and Hypoxia PO2 = 6 kPa). The expression level of various genes involved in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, in the cellular response to metal and oxidative stresses, was investigated. Our results showed that hypoxia enhances (1) ventilation of the postlarval stage and (2) Cd accumulation in gills only at the lowest metal water concentration tested (2 microg Cd L(-1)). At the gene level, Cd exposure mimics the effect of hypoxia since we observed a decrease in expression of genes involved in the respiratory chain and in the defense against oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es062415bDOI Listing
April 2007

Impairment of lipid storage by cadmium in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla).

Aquat Toxicol 2007 Mar 14;81(3):304-11. Epub 2007 Jan 14.

UMR CNRS 5805 EPOC, Team GEMA, Université Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Place du Dr Peyneau, 33120 Arcachon, France.

Because European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla) fast during their reproductive migration to the Sargasso Sea, the successful completion of their unusual life cycle depends on quantity of lipids stored beforehand. These lipids are mainly accumulated during the growth phase stage of the animals, called yellow eel, as triglycerides in muscle. They are then catabolized to provide sufficient energy to enable migration, gonad maturation and spawning. In the laboratory, we investigated the possible impact of cadmium on the lipid storage efficiency of yellow eels in order to evaluate the possible contribution of this pollutant to the reported decline of European eel populations. Eels were exposed to dissolved cadmium at nominal concentrations of 0 and 5 microgL(-1) for 1 month. Cd toxicity was then examined by studying the activity and expression level of several enzymes involved in liver lipolysis and lipogenesis and by determining lipid content in muscle. Contaminated eels showed a lower body weight growth with a lower efficiency of lipid storage compared to controls. Using two complementary approaches, genetic and enzymatic, it was possible to conclude that this impairment is mainly explained by an increased utilisation of triglycerides since cadmium contamination did not trigger a reduced fatty acid synthesis. These observations suggest an increased fat consumption in presence of cadmium, which could compromise successful reproduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.12.014DOI Listing
March 2007

Differential regulation of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone expression during ovarian development and under sexual steroid feedback in the European eel.

Neuroendocrinology 2005 16;81(2):107-19. Epub 2005 Jun 16.

Department of Aquaculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea, Sweden.

Pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are, in teleosts as in mammals, under the control of hypothalamic factors and steroid feedbacks. In teleosts, feedback regulations largely vary depending on species and physiological stage. In the present study the regulation of FSH and LH expression was investigated in the European eel, a fish of biological and phylogenetical interest as a representative of an early group of teleosts. The eel FSHbeta subunit was cloned, sequenced and together with earlier isolated eel LHbeta and glycoprotein hormone alpha (GPalpha) subunits used to study the differential regulation of LH and FSH. In situ hybridization indicated that FSHbeta and LHbeta are expressed by separate cells of the proximal pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, differently from the situation in mammals. The profiles of LHbeta and FSHbeta subunit expression were compared during experimental ovarian maturation, using dot-blot assays. Expression levels for LHbeta and GPalpha increased throughout ovarian development with a positive correlation between these two subunits. Conversely, FSHbeta mRNA levels decreased. To understand the role of sex steroids in these opposite variations, immature eels were treated with estradiol (E2)and testosterone (T), both steroids being produced in eel ovaries during gonadal development. E2 treatment induced increases in both LHbeta and GPalpha mRNA levels, without any significant effect on FSHbeta. In contrast, T treatment induced a decrease in FSHbeta mRNA levels, without any significant effect on the other subunits. These data demonstrate that steroids exert a differential feedback on eel gonadotropin expression, with an E2-specific positive feedback on LH and a T-specific negative feedback on FSH, leading to an opposite regulation of LH and FSH during ovarian development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000086404DOI Listing
August 2005

Endocrine control of Anguilla anguilla glass eel dispersal: effect of thyroid hormones on locomotor activity and rheotactic behavior.

Horm Behav 2005 Jun 17;48(1):53-63. Epub 2005 Mar 17.

Cemagref, Unité Ecosystèmes Estuariens et Poissons Migrateurs Amphihalins (EPBX), 50 avenue de Verdun, 33612 Cestas Cedex, France.

Dispersal, one of the most important processes in population ecology, is an issue linking physiological and behavioral features. However, the endocrine control of animal dispersal remains poorly understood. Here, we tested whether and how thyroid hormones may influence dispersal in glass eels of Anguilla anguilla, by testing their influence on locomotor activity and rheotactic behavior. Glass eels were caught during their estuarine migration and treated by immersion in either a l-thyroxine (T(4)) or a thiourea (TU) solution. As measured by radioimmunoassay, T(4) and TU treatments induced, respectively, increased and decreased whole-body thyroid hormone levels relative to untreated controls. We tested a total of 960 glass eels distributed into control, and T(4) and TU treatment groups, on their swimming behavior in experimental flume tanks equipped with upstream and downstream traps that allowed us to concurrently measure both the locomotor activity and the rheotactic behavior. Compared to controls, locomotor activity significantly increased among the hyperthyroid, T(4)-treated eels, but significantly decreased among the hypothyroid, TU-treated eels. The results on rheotactic behavior suggested a more complex regulatory mechanism, since TU but not T(4) treatment significantly affected rheotactic behavior. The influence of thyroid hormones on locomotor activity suggests a central role for these hormones in the regulation of mechanisms leading to the colonization of continental habitats by glass eels. Thyroid hormones are also implicated in the control of locomotor activity in mammals and migratory behavior in birds, suggesting that these hormones represent conserved, proximate mediators of dispersal in vertebrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2005.02.001DOI Listing
June 2005