Publications by authors named "Pierina Sueli Bonato"

61 Publications

Bioanalytical method for in vitro metabolism study of repaglinide using 96-blade thin-film solid-phase microextraction and LC-MS/MS.

Bioanalysis 2015 ;7(1):65-77

Núcleo de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Lagarto, SE, Brazil.

Background: A high-throughput bioanalytical method using 96-blade thin film microextraction (TFME) and LC-MS/MS for the analysis of repaglinide (RPG) and two of its main metabolites was developed and used for an in vitro metabolism study.

Results: The target analytes were extracted from human microsomal medium by a 96-blade-TFME system employing the low-cost prototype 'SPME multi-sampler' using C18 coating. Method validation showed recoveries around 90% for all analytes and was linear over the concentration range of 2-1000 ng ml(-1) for RPG and of 2-500 ng ml(-1) for each RPG metabolite.

Conclusion: The method was applied to an in vitro metabolism study of RPG employing human liver microsomes and proved to be very useful for this purpose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.14.203DOI Listing
September 2015

Hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction and chiral LC-MS/MS analysis of venlafaxine and its metabolites in plasma.

Bioanalysis 2013 Mar;5(6):721-30

Department of Physics & Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, 14040-903, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Background: An enantioselective analytical method was developed and validated for determination of venlafaxine and its metabolites O-desmethylvenlafaxine and N-desmethylvenlafaxine in plasma samples. The method employed LC-MS/MS analysis and hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF LPME) for sample preparation.

Results: After HF LPME optimization the following condition was established: sample volume of 4 ml, sample agitation at 1750 rpm, 20 min of extraction, 0.1 mol/l acetic acid as acceptor phase, 1-octanol as organic phase and donor phase pH adjustment to 10. Under these conditions, the method was linear over the concentration range of 5-500 ng/ml with quantification limits of 5 ng/ml.

Conclusion: The use of HF LPME for sample preparation provided suitable recoveries, efficient clean-up and low consumption of organic solvent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.13.22DOI Listing
March 2013

Combination of hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction and capillary electrophoresis for pioglitazone and its main metabolites determination in rat liver microsomal fraction.

Electrophoresis 2013 Mar 25;34(6):862-9. Epub 2013 Feb 25.

Department of Physics and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

Pioglitazone (PGZ), a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agent, is reported as a potent and selective activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ). This drug has been widely prescribed for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this regard, this manuscript presents, for the first time, an alternative electrophoretic method for PGZ and its main metabolites determination in rat liver microsomal fraction. The electrophoretic analyses were performed using an uncoated fused-silica capillary of 50 μm id, 48 cm in total length and 40 cm in effective length, and 50 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer solution (pH 2.5). All experiments were carried out under the normal mode. The capillary temperature was set at 35°C and a constant voltage of +30 kV was applied during the analyses. Samples were introduced into the capillary by hydrodynamic injection (50 mbar, 15 s) and detection was performed at 190 nm. The sample preparation procedure, based on hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction, was optimized using multifactorial experiments. Next, the following optimal condition was established: sample agitation at 1500 rpm, extraction for 15 min, 0.01 mol/L hydrochloric acid as acceptor phase, 1-octanol as organic phase, and donor phase pH adjustment to 6.0. The method demonstrated LOQs of 200 ng/mL. Additionally, it was linear over the concentration range of 200-25,000 ng/mL for PGZ and 200-2000 ng/mL for the metabolites. Finally, the validated method was employed to study the in vitro metabolism of PGZ using rat liver microsomal fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201200430DOI Listing
March 2013

Enantioselective analysis of ranolazine and desmethyl ranolazine in microsomal medium using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and LC-MS/MS.

Bioanalysis 2013 Jan;5(2):171-83

Núcleo de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Lagarto, Sergipe, Brazil.

Background: An enantioselective bioanalytical method using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and LC-MS/MS was developed for the chiral analysis of ranolazine (RNZ) and one of its metabolites (desmethyl ranolazine [DRNZ]).

Results: The analytes were extracted from microsomal medium by DLLME, using chloroform as extractor solvent and acetone as dispersive solvent. The enantiomers of RNZ and DRNZ were analyzed simultaneously for the first time using a Chiralcel OD-H(®). Method validation showed recoveries in the order of 55 and 45%, and LLOQ of 25 and 10 ng ml(-1) for the enantiomers of RNZ and DRNZ, respectively. Linearity was established in the concentration range of 10 to 1000 and 25 to 2500 ng ml(-1) for each DRNZ and RNZ enantiomer, respectively.

Conclusion: The unprecedented use of DLLME was demonstrated to be very useful for sample preparation of microsomal matrix. Furthermore, the in vitro metabolism of RNZ was enantioselective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.12.308DOI Listing
January 2013

Enantioselective analysis of zopiclone in rat brain by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2013 Jan 6;405(1):267-73. Epub 2012 Nov 6.

Department of Physics and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14040-903 SP, Brazil.

A new high-performance liquid chromatographic method with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry detection was developed and validated for the quantification of zopiclone enantiomers in rat brain samples. Zopiclone enantiomers were resolved on a CHIRALPAK AD column with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile/ethanol/methanol (60:20:20, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 1.3 mL min(-1). Moclobemide was used as internal standard. The sample treatment procedure was carried out employing solid-phase extraction, yielding mean absolute recoveries of 89.6 and 91.7% for each zopiclone enantiomer. The validated method showed linearity in the range of 0.29-344.8 ng g(-1), with quantification limits of 0.29 ng g(-1) for both enantiomers. Precision and accuracy were within acceptable levels of confidence (<15%). The method was applied in a pilot study of zopiclone kinetic disposition in rats. It could be observed that the levels of (+)-(S)-zopiclone were always higher than those of (-)-(R)-zopiclone, confirming the stereoselective disposition of zopiclone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-012-6487-4DOI Listing
January 2013

HPLC analysis of midodrine and desglymidodrine in culture medium: evaluation of static and shaken conditions on the biotransformation by fungi.

J Chromatogr Sci 2013 May-Jun;51(5):460-7. Epub 2012 Oct 9.

Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, 14040-903, Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil.

A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is presented for the simultaneous determination of midodrine and desglymidodrine (DMAE) in Czapek-Dox culture medium, to be used in biotransformation studies by fungi. The HPLC analysis was conducted using a Lichrospher 100 RP18 column, acetonitrile-40 mmol/L formic acid solution (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase, and ultraviolet detection at 290 nm. The sample preparation was conducted by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate as extractor solvent. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.4-40.0 µg/mL for midodrine (r ≥ 0.9997) and DMAE (r ≥ 0.9998). Within-day and between-day precision and accuracy were evaluated by relative standard deviations (≤ 8.2%) and relative errors (-7.3 to 7.4%), respectively. The validated method was used to assess midodrine biotransformation by the fungi Papulaspora immersa Hotson SS13, Botrytis cinerea UCA 992 and Botrytis cinerea 2100 under static and shaken conditions. Under shaken conditions, the biotransformation of midodrine to DMAE was more efficient for all studied fungi, especially for the fungus Botrytis cinerea 2100, which converted 42.2% of midodrine to DMAE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bms163DOI Listing
September 2013

Capillary electrophoretic enantioselective determination of zopiclone and its impurities.

Electrophoresis 2012 Jun;33(11):1606-12

Department of Physics and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

A capillary electrophoretic enantioselective method with UV detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of zopiclone enantiomers and its impurities, zopiclone-N-oxide enantiomers, and 2-amino-5-chloropyridine, in tablets. The analytes were extracted from the tablets using ACN and were separated in an uncoated fused-silica capillary (50 μm, 42 cm effective length, 50 cm total length) using 80 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 2.5 and 5 mM carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin as running buffer. The analytes and the internal standard (trimethoprim) were detected at 305 and 200 nm, respectively. A voltage of 27 kV was applied and the capillary temperature was maintained at 25°C. All enantiomers were analyzed within 8 min and linear calibration curves over the concentration range of 0.4-0.8 mg mL⁻¹ for each zopiclone enantiomer, 0.8-1.6 μg mL⁻¹ for 2-amino-5-chloropyridine and 0.4-0.8 μg mL⁻¹ for each zopiclone-N-oxide enantiomer were obtained. The coefficients of correlation obtained for the linear curves were greater than 0.99. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were lower than 2% for all analytes. This validated method was employed to study the degradation and racemization of zopiclone under stress conditions. This application demonstrated the importance of a stability-indicating assay method for this drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201100583DOI Listing
June 2012

Chiral HPLC analysis of donepezil, 5-O-desmethyl donepezil and 6-O-desmethyl donepezil in culture medium: application to fungal biotransformation studies.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2012 Jul 29;404(1):257-66. Epub 2012 May 29.

Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

An high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the enantioselective determination of donepezil (DPZ), 5-O-desmethyl donepezil (5-ODD), and 6-O-desmethyl donepezil (6-ODD) in Czapek culture medium to be applied to biotransformation studies with fungi is described for the first time. The HPLC analysis was carried out using a Chiralpak AD-H column with hexane/ethanol/methanol (75:20:5, v/v/v) plus 0.3 % triethylamine as mobile phase and UV detection at 270 nm. Sample preparation was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate as extractor solvent. The method was linear over the concentration range of 100-10,000 ng mL(-1) for each enantiomer of DPZ (r ≥ 0.9985) and of 100-5,000 ng mL(-1) for each enantiomer of 5-ODD (r ≥ 0.9977) and 6-ODD (r ≥ 0.9951). Within-day and between-day precision and accuracy evaluated by relative standard deviations and relative errors, respectively, were lower than 15 % for all analytes. The validated method was used to assess DPZ biotransformation by the fungi Beauveria bassiana American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 7159 and Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 10028B. Using the fungus B. bassiana ATCC 7159, a predominant formation of (R)-5-ODD was observed while for the fungus C. elegans ATCC 10028B, DPZ was biotransformed to (R)-6-ODD with an enantiomeric excess of 100 %.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-012-6107-3DOI Listing
July 2012

Methods for the analysis of nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drugs in biological matrices.

Bioanalysis 2012 Feb;4(3):291-304

Department of Physics & Chemistry, University of São Paulo, 14040-903, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon (Z-drugs) are nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drugs that are used for the treatment of insomnia. These drugs were developed with the intent to overcome some disadvantages of benzodiazepines, such as dependence and next day sedation. In general, the nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drugs are administered in oral doses daily and are widely biotransformed in the body. A large number of analytical methods based on chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques for the quantification of Z-drugs and their metabolites in biological matrices have been reported. In this review, the bioanalytical methods for Z-drugs were reviewed with the focus placed on sample preparation procedures and the separation techniques used. Furthermore, as these drugs are also reported as drugs of abuse or in drug-facilitated crime, screening methods that simultaneously cover these drugs and also other drugs of abuse were included in this review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.11.313DOI Listing
February 2012

Glutaraldehyde release from heat-polymerized acrylic resins after disinfection and chemical and mechanical polishing.

Braz Dent J 2011 ;22(6):490-6

Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontic, Ribeirão Preto Dental School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

This study evaluated the release of glutaraldehyde from heat-polymerized acrylic resins subjected to disinfection followed by chemical and mechanical polishing. Ninety disc-shaped specimens (15 x 4 mm), 30 per resin (Lucitone 550, QC-20 and Classico), were made and assigned to 2 groups according to the type of polishing. One side of each specimen was not polished and the other was either mechanically (n = 45) or chemically (n = 45) polished, and immersed in water at 50 °C for 1 h to allow the release of intrinsic substances and then kept in distilled water for 7 days. The specimens were disinfected by immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde for 10 min. After this period, 3 specimens from each group were immersed in water for 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min. For the 15-, 30-, 60-min immersions, 4 water exchanges were done at the end of period. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to detect and quantify the glutaraldehyde released after each period. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and multiple comparisons were done by Tukey's and Scheffé's tests (α = 0.05). No glutaraldehyde release was observed from the specimens with chemical polishing at any of the immersion periods, while the mechanically polished specimens released glutaraldehyde. In the groups with water exchanges, Lucitone released more disinfectant in the 15-min period (0.040 μg/mL), Classico in the 30-min (0.021 μg/mL) and 60-min (0.018 μg/mL) periods, and QC-20 the same amount (-1.760 μg/mL) in all periods. In the groups without water exchanges, Lucitone released the highest amount of disinfectant (-1.370 μg/mL), differing significantly from QC-20 (0022 g/mL) and Classico (0019 g/mL), which were similar. The findings of this showed that chemically polished specimens from the 3 resin brands did not release glutaraldehyde after different periods of immersion, while glutaraldehyde release was observed from the mechanically polished specimens, especially from those made of Lucitone resin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0103-64402011000600009DOI Listing
May 2012

Enantioselective analysis of zopiclone and its metabolites in plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2011 Jul 6;400(10):3517-25. Epub 2011 May 6.

Department of Physics and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS-MS) was developed and validated for the first time for the simultaneous quantification of zopiclone and its metabolites in rat plasma samples. The analytes were isolated from rat plasma by liquid-liquid extraction and separated using a chiral stationary phase based on an amylose derivative, Chiralpak ADR-H column, and ethanol-methanol-acetonitrile (50:45:5, v/v/v) plus 0.025% diethylamine as the mobile phase, at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). Moclobemide was used as the internal standard. The developed method was linear over the concentration range of 7.5-500 ng mL(-1). The mean absolute recoveries were 74.6 and 75.7; 61.6 and 56.9; 72.5, and 70.7 for zopiclone enantiomers, for N-desmethyl zopiclone enantiomers and for zopiclone-N-oxide enantiomers, respectively, and 75.9 for the internal standard. Precision and accuracy were within acceptable levels of confidence (<15%). The method application in a pilot study of zopiclone kinetic disposition in rats showed that the levels of (+)-(S)-zopiclone were always higher than those of (-)-R-zopiclone. Higher concentrations were also observed for (+)-(S)-N-desmethyl zopiclone and (+)-(S)-N-oxide zopiclone, confirming the stereoselective disposition of zopiclone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-5033-0DOI Listing
July 2011

In vitro characterization of rosiglitazone metabolites and determination of the kinetic parameters employing rat liver microsomal fraction.

Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 2011 Sep 17;36(3):159-66. Epub 2011 Apr 17.

Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14040-903, Brazil.

Rosiglitazone (RSG), a thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drug, is metabolized by CYP450 enzymes into two main metabolites: N-desmethyl rosiglitazone (N-Dm-R) and ρ-hydroxy rosiglitazone (ρ-OH-R). In humans, CYP2C8 appears to have a major role in RSG metabolism. On the other hand, the in vitro metabolism of RSG in animals has not been described in literature yet. Based on these concerns, the kinetic metabolism study of RSG using rat liver microsomal fraction is described for the first time. Maximum velocity (V (max)) values of 87.29 and 51.09 nmol/min/mg protein were observed for N-Dm-R and ρ-OH-R, respectively. Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) values were of 58.12 and 78.52 μM for N-Dm-R and ρ-OH-R, respectively. Therefore, these results demonstrated that this in vitro metabolism model presents the capacity of forming higher levels of N-Dm-R than of ρ-OH-R, which also happens in humans. Three other metabolites were identified employing mass spectrometry detection under positive electrospray ionization: ortho-hydroxy-rosiglitazone (ο-OH-R) and two isomers of N-desmethyl hydroxy-rosiglitazone. These metabolites have also been observed in humans. The results observed in this study indicate that rats could be a satisfactory model for RSG metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13318-011-0039-8DOI Listing
September 2011

Ultra-fast gradient LC method for omeprazole analysis using a monolithic column: assay development, validation, and application to the quality control of omeprazole enteric-coated pellets.

J AOAC Int 2010 Nov-Dec;93(6):1811-20

Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

A method was optimized for the analysis of omeprazole (OMZ) by ultra-high speed LC with diode array detection using a monolithic Chromolith Fast Gradient RP 18 endcapped column (50 x 2.0 mm id). The analyses were performed at 30 degrees C using a mobile phase consisting of 0.15% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water (solvent A) and 0.15% (v/v) TFA in acetonitrile (solvent B) under a linear gradient of 5 to 90% B in 1 min at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detection at 220 nm. Under these conditions, OMZ retention time was approximately 0.74 min. Validation parameters, such as selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, and robustness, showed results within the acceptable criteria. The method developed was successfully applied to OMZ enteric-coated pellets, showing that this assay can be used in the pharmaceutical industry for routine QC analysis. Moreover, the analytical conditions established allow for the simultaneous analysis of OMZ metabolites, 5-hydroxyomeprazole and omeprazole sulfone, in the same run, showing that this method can be extended to other matrixes with adequate procedures for sample preparation.
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March 2011

Young investigator.

Bioanalysis 2011 Jan;3(2):143-4

Supervisor's supporting comments Keyller B Borges carried out his MS and PhD studies in toxicology under my supervision. During the time he spent in my laboratory, he worked on the development of analytical methods and studied the biotransformation of several drugs by fungi. Characteristics such as dedication, ability, initiative and dynamism had been the basis for the success of his projects developed under my supervision, resulting in several publications in prestigious periodics of the area. Therefore, I consider Dr Keyller highly capable for the development of activities in the area of bioanalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.10.174DOI Listing
January 2011

Hollow fiber-based liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) of isradipine and its main metabolite followed by chiral HPLC analysis: application to an in vitro biotransformation study.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2011 Mar 19;399(7):2435-43. Epub 2011 Jan 19.

Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

An enantioselective liquid chromatographic method using two-phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME-HPLC) was developed for the determination of isradipine (ISR) enantiomers and its main metabolite (pyridine derivative of isradipine, PDI) in microsomal fractions isolated from rat liver. The analytes were extracted from 1 mL of microsomal medium using a two-phase HF-LPME procedure with hexyl acetate as the acceptor phase, 30 min of extraction, and sample agitation at 1,500 rpm. For the first time, ISR enantiomers and PDI were resolved. For this separation, a Chiralpak(®) AD column with hexane/2-propanol/ethanol (94:04:02, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min(-1) was used. The column was kept at 23 ± 2 °C. The drug and metabolite detection was performed at 325 nm and the internal standard oxybutynin was detected at 225 nm. The recoveries were 23% for PDI and 19% for each ISR enantiomer. The method presented quantification limits (LOQ) of 50 ng mL(-1) and was linear over the concentration range of 50-5,000 and 50-2,500 ng mL(-1) for PDI and each ISR enantiomer, respectively. The validated method was employed to an in vitro biotransformation study of ISR using rat liver microsomal fraction showing that (+)-(S)-ISR is preferentially biotransformed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-4635-2DOI Listing
March 2011

LC-MS-MS determination of ibuprofen, 2-hydroxyibuprofen enantiomers, and carboxyibuprofen stereoisomers for application in biotransformation studies employing endophytic fungi.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2011 Jan 16;399(2):915-25. Epub 2010 Nov 16.

Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, 14040-903, Brazil.

The purpose of this study was the development and validation of an LC-MS-MS method for simultaneous analysis of ibuprofen (IBP), 2-hydroxyibuprofen (2-OH-IBP) enantiomers, and carboxyibuprofen (COOH-IBP) stereoisomers in fungi culture medium, to investigate the ability of some endophytic fungi to biotransform the chiral drug IBP into its metabolites. Resolution of IBP and the stereoisomers of its main metabolites was achieved by use of a Chiralpak AS-H column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size), column temperature 8 °C, and the mobile phase hexane-isopropanol-trifluoroacetic acid (95: 5: 0.1, v/v) at a flow rate of 1.2 mL min(-1). Post-column infusion with 10 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate in methanol at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1) was performed to enhance MS detection (positive electrospray ionization). Liquid-liquid extraction was used for sample preparation with hexane-ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) as extraction solvent. Linearity was obtained in the range 0.1-20 μg mL(-1) for IBP, 0.05-7.5 μg mL(-1) for each 2-OH-IBP enantiomer, and 0.025-5.0 μg mL(-1) for each COOH-IBP stereoisomer (r ≥ 0.99). The coefficients of variation and relative errors obtained in precision and accuracy studies (within-day and between-day) were below 15%. The stability studies showed that the samples were stable (p > 0.05) during freeze and thaw cycles, short-term exposure to room temperature, storage at -20 °C, and biotransformation conditions. Among the six fungi studied, only the strains Nigrospora sphaerica (SS67) and Chaetomium globosum (VR10) biotransformed IBP enantioselectively, with greater formation of the metabolite (+)-(S)-2-OH-IBP. Formation of the COOH-IBP stereoisomers, which involves hydroxylation at C3 and further oxidation to form the carboxyl group, was not observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-4329-9DOI Listing
January 2011

Simultaneous determination of rosiglitazone and its metabolites in rat liver microsomal fraction using hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction for sample preparation.

J Sep Sci 2010 Sep;33(17-18):2872-80

Department of Physics and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil.

A three-phase hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction method for the analysis of rosiglitazone and its metabolites N-desmethyl rosiglitazone and ρ-hydroxy rosiglitazone in microsomal preparations is described for the first time. The drug and metabolites HPLC determination was carried out using an X-Terra RP-18 column, at 22°C. The mobile phase was composed of water, acetonitrile and acetic acid (85:15:0.5, v/v/v) and the detection was performed at 245 nm. The hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction procedure was optimized using multifactorial experiments and the following optimal condition was established: sample agitation at 1750 rpm, extraction for 30 min, hydrochloric acid 0.01 mol/L as acceptor phase, 1-octanol as organic phase, and donor phase pH adjustment to 8.0. The recovery rates, obtained by using 1 mL of microsomal preparation, were 47-70%. The method presented LOQs of 50 ng/mL and it was linear over the concentration range of 50-6000 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9960, for all analytes. The validated method was employed to study the in vitro biotransformation of rosiglitazone using rat liver microsomal fraction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.201000380DOI Listing
September 2010

Assessment of ametryn contamination in river water, river sediment, and mollusk bivalves in São Paulo state, Brazil.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2011 Apr 22;60(3):452-61. Epub 2010 Jun 22.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Phylosophy, Sciences and Letters of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo University, Av. Bandeirantes, 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane agriculture in the world. Herbicides, in particular, ametryn, are extensively used in this extensive area, which implies that this herbicide is present in the environment and can contaminate the surface water by running off. Thereby, residues of ametryn were analyzed in samples of river water an river sediment and in freshwater bivalves obtained from the rivers Sapucaí, Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples were taken in the winter of 2003 and 2004 in two locations in each river. The specimens of freshwater bivalves collected and analyzed were Corbicula fluminea, an exotic species, and Diplodon fontaineanus, a native species. Additionally, the evaluation of the ability of bioconcentration and depuration of ametryn by the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was also performed. Ametryn concentrations in the samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Residues of ametryn in water (50 ng/L) and in freshwater bivalves (2-7 ng/g) were found in the Mogi-Guaçu River in 2004, and residues in river sediments were found in all rivers in 2003 and 2004 (0.5-2 ng/g). The observation of the aquatic environment through the analysis of these matrixes, water, sediment, and bivalves, revealed the importance of the river sediment in the accumulation of the herbicide ametryn, which can contaminate the biota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-010-9552-zDOI Listing
April 2011

Assignment of the absolute configuration at the sulfur atom of thioridazine metabolites by the analysis of their chiroptical properties: the case of thioridazine 2-sulfoxide.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2010 Sep;52(5):796-801

Dipartimento Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università di Bologna, via Belmeloro 6, 40126 Bologna, Italy.

Thioridazine (THD) is a commonly prescribed phenotiazine neuroleptic drug, which is extensively biotransformed in the organism producing as main metabolites sulfoxides and a sulfone by sulfur oxidation. Significant differences have been observed in the activity of the THD enantiomers as well as for its main metabolites, and enantioselectivity phenomena have been proved in the metabolic pathway. Here the assignment of the absolute configuration at the sulfur atom of enantiomeric THD-2-sulfoxide (THD-2-SO) has been carried out by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The stereoisomers were separated by HPLC on Chiralpak AS column, recording the CD spectra for the two collected enantiomeric fractions. The theoretical electronic CD spectrum has been obtained by the TDDFT/B3LYP/6-31G*, as Boltzmann averaging of the contributions calculated for the most stable conformations of the drug. The comparison of the simulated and experimental spectra allowed the absolute configuration at the sulfur atom of the four THD-2-SO stereoisomers to be assigned. The developed method should be useful for a reliable correlation between stereochemistry and activity and/or toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2010.01.047DOI Listing
September 2010

Stereoselective determination of midodrine and desglymidodrine in culture medium: application to a biotransformation study employing endophytic fungi.

Electrophoresis 2010 May;31(9):1521-8

Department of Physics and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

A CE method was developed and validated for the stereoselective determination of midodrine and desglymidodrine in Czapek culture medium to be applied to a stereoselective biotransformation study employing endophytic fungi. The electrophoretic analyses were performed using an uncoated fused-silica capillary and 70 mmol/L sodium acetate buffer solution (pH 5.0) containing 30 mmol/L heptakis (2, 3, 6-tri-O-methyl)-beta-CD as running electrolyte. The applied voltage and temperature used were 15 kV and 15 degrees C, respectively. The UV detector was set at 200 nm. The sample preparation was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate as extractor solvent. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.1-12 microg/mL for each enantiomer of midodrine and desglymidodrine (r> or =0.9975). Within-day and between-day precision and accuracy evaluated by RSDs and relative errors, respectively, were lower than 15% for all analytes. The method proved to be robust by a fractional factorial design evaluation. The validated method was used to assess the midodrine biotransformation to desglymidodrine by the fungus Phomopsis sp. (TD2), which biotransformed 1.1% of (-)-midodrine to (-)-desglymidodrine and 6.1% of (+)-midodrine to (+)-desglymidodrine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200900685DOI Listing
May 2010

Enantioselective analysis of mirtazapine, demethylmirtazapine and 8-hydroxy mirtazapine in human urine after solid-phase microextraction.

J Sep Sci 2010 Feb;33(2):268-76

Departamento de Fisiologia, Curso de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Sergipe, Brazil.

A selective and reproducible off-line solid-phase microextraction procedure was developed for the simultaneous enantioselective determination of mirtazapine (MRT), demethylmirtazapine and 8-hydroxymirtazapine in human urine. CE was used for optimization of the extraction procedure whereas LC-MS was used for method validation and application. The influence of important factors in the solid-phase microextraction efficiency is discussed, such as the fiber coatings, extraction time, pH, ionic strength, temperature and desorption time. Before extraction, human urine samples were submitted to enzymatic hydrolysis at 37 degrees C for 16 h. Then, the enzyme was precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and the pH was adjusted to 8 with 1 mol/L pH 11 phosphate buffer solution. In the extraction, the analytes were transferred from the aqueous solution to the polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber coating and then desorbed in methanol. The mean recoveries were 5.4, 1.7 and 1.0% for MRT, demethylmirtazapine and 8-hydroxymirtazapine enantiomers, respectively. The method was linear over the concentration range of 62-1250 ng/mL. The within-day and between-day assay precision and accuracy were lower than 15%. The method was successfully employed in a preliminary cumulative urinary excretion study after administration of racemic MRT to a healthy volunteer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.200900534DOI Listing
February 2010

Chiral HPLC analysis of venlafaxine metabolites in rat liver microsomal preparations after LPME extraction and application to an in vitro biotransformation study.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2010 Jan 25;396(2):817-24. Epub 2009 Nov 25.

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, USP-Av. Café SN, CEP 14040-903, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14040-903, Brazil.

A three-phase LPME (liquid-phase microextraction) method for the enantioselective analysis of venlafaxine (VF) metabolites (O-desmethylvenlafaxine (ODV) and N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV) in microsomal preparations is described for the first time. The assay involves the chiral HPLC separation of drug and metabolites using a Chiralpak AD column under normal-phase mode of elution and detection at 230 nm. The LPME procedure was optimized using multifactorial experiments and the following optimal condition was established: sample agitation at 1,750 rpm, 20 min of extraction, acetic acid 0.1 mol/L as acceptor phase, 1-octanol as organic phase and donor phase pH adjustment to 10.0. Under these conditions, the mean recoveries were 41% and 42% for (-)-(R)-ODV and (+)-(S)-ODV, respectively, and 47% and 48% for (-)-(R)-NDV and (+)-(S)-NDV, respectively. The method presented quantification limits of 200 ng/mL and it was linear over the concentration range of 200-5,000 ng/mL for all analytes. The validated method was employed to study the in vitro biotransformation of VF using rat liver microsomal fraction. The results demonstrated the enantioselective biotransformation of VF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-009-3271-1DOI Listing
January 2010

Enantioselective analysis of propranolol and 4-hydroxypropranolol by CE with application to biotransformation studies employing endophytic fungi.

Electrophoresis 2009 Nov;30(22):3910-7

Department of Physics and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

A CE method is described for the enantioselective analysis of propranolol (Prop) and 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-OH-Prop) in liquid Czapek medium with application in the study of the enantioselective biotransformation of Prop by endophytic fungi. The electrophoretic conditions previously optimized were as follows: an uncoated fused-silica capillary, 4% w/v carboxymethyl-beta-CD in 25 mmol/L triethylamine/phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) buffer at pH 9 as running electrolyte and 17 kV of voltage. UV detection was carried out at 208 nm. Liquid-liquid extraction using diethyl ether: ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v) as extractor solvent was employed for sample preparation. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 0.25-10.0 microg/mL for each 4-OH-Prop enantiomer and 0.10-10.0 microg/mL for each Prop enantiomer (r>or=0.995). Within-day and between-day relative standard deviations and relative errors for precision and accuracy were lower than 15% for all the enantiomers. Finally, the validated method was used to evaluate Prop biotransformation in its mammalian metabolite 4-OH-Prop by some selected endophytic fungi. The screening of five strains of endophytic fungi was performed and all of them could biotransform Prop to some extent. Specifically, Glomerella cingulata (VA1) biotransformed 47.8% of (-)-(S)-Prop to (-)-(S)-4-OH-Prop with no formation of (+)-(R)-4-OH-Prop in 72 h of incubation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200900216DOI Listing
November 2009

Box-Behnken design for the optimization of an enantioselective method for the simultaneous analysis of propranolol and 4-hydroxypropranolol by CE.

Electrophoresis 2009 Aug;30(16):2874-81

Department of Physics and Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

An experimental design optimization (Box-Behnken design, BBD) was used to develop a CE method for the simultaneous resolution of propranolol (Prop) and 4-hydroxypropranolol enantiomers and acetaminophen (internal standard). The method was optimized using an uncoated fused silica capillary, carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (CM-beta-CD) as chiral selector and triethylamine/phosphoric acid buffer in alkaline conditions. A BBD for four factors was selected to observe the effects of buffer electrolyte concentration, pH, CM-beta-CD concentration and voltage on separation responses. Each factor was studied at three levels: high, central and low, and three center points were added. The buffer electrolyte concentration ranged from 25 to 75 mM, the pH ranged from 8 to 9, the CM-beta-CD concentration ranged from 3.5 to 4.5% w/v, and the applied run voltage ranged from 14 to 20 kV. The responses evaluated were resolution and migration time for the last peak. The obtained responses were processed by Minitab to evaluate the significance of the effects and to find the optimum analysis conditions. The best results were obtained using 4% w/v CM-beta-CD in 25 mM triethylamine/H3PO4 buffer at pH 9 as running electrolyte and 17 kV of voltage. Resolution values of 1.98 and 1.95 were obtained for Prop and 4-hydroxypropranolol enantiomers, respectively. The total analysis time was around of 15 min. The BBD showed to be an adequate design for the development of a CE method, resulting in a rapid and efficient optimization of the pH and concentration of the buffer, cyclodextrin concentration and applied voltage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200800821DOI Listing
August 2009

Enantioseparations.

Electrophoresis 2009 Aug;30(16):2757

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200990080DOI Listing
August 2009

Enantioselective analysis of praziquantel and trans-4-hydroxypraziquantel in human plasma by chiral LC-MS/MS: Application to pharmacokinetics.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2009 Oct 3;877(27):3083-8. Epub 2009 Aug 3.

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

A simple enantioselective method for the determination of praziquantel (PZQ) and trans-4-hydroxypraziquantel (4-OHPZQ) in human plasma was developed and validated by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The plasma samples were prepared by liquid-liquid extraction using a mixture of methyl-tert-butylether/dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) as extraction solvent. The direct resolution of PZQ and 4-OHPZQ enantiomers was performed on a Chiralpak AD column using hexane-isopropanol (75:25, v/v) as the mobile phase. Diazepam was used as internal standard. The method described here is simple and reproducible. The quantitation limit of 1.25ng/ml for each PZQ enantiomer and of 12.5ng/ml for each 4-OHPZQ enantiomer permits the use of the method in studies investigating the kinetic disposition of a single dose of 1.5g racemic PZQ. Enantioselectivity in the kinetic disposition of PZQ and 4-OHPZQ was observed in the clinical study, with the demonstration of a higher proportion of the (+)-(S)-PZQ and (-)-(R)-4-OHPZQ enantiomers in plasma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2009.07.036DOI Listing
October 2009

In vitro metabolism study of a new nitrosyl ruthenium complex [Ru(NH.NHq)(terpy)NO]3+ nitric oxide donor using rat microsomes.

Nitric Oxide 2009 Aug 9;21(1):14-9. Epub 2009 Apr 9.

Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

A new nitrosyl ruthenium complex [Ru(NH.NHq)(terpy)NO](3+) nitric oxide donor was recently developed and due to its excellent vasodilator activity, it has been considered as a potential drug candidate. Drug metabolism is one of the main parameters that should be evaluated in the early drug development, so the biotransformation of this complex by rat hepatic microsomes was investigated. In order to perform the biotransformation study, a simple, sensitive and selective HPLC method was developed and carefully validated. The parameters evaluated in the validation procedure were: linearity, recovery, precision, accuracy, selectivity and stability. Except for the stability study, all the parameters evaluated presented values below the recommended by FDA guidelines. The stability study showed a time-dependent degradation profile. After method validation, the biotransformation study was accomplished and the kinetic parameters were determined. The biotransformation study obeyed the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The V(max) and K(m) were, respectively, 0.1625+/-0.010 micromol/mg protein/min and 79.97+/-11.52 microM. These results indicate that the nitrosyl complex is metabolized by CYP450.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.niox.2009.03.003DOI Listing
August 2009

Chiral determination of antidepressant drugs and their metabolites in biological samples.

Bioanalysis 2009 Apr;1(1):221-37

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto-USP. Av. Café SN, CEP 14040-903, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

The determination of chiral drugs and their metabolites in biological samples is key to gaining a full understanding of enantioselective drug action and disposition, as well as establishing the advantages of using racemate or isolated enantiomers. In this review, methods published in the last 8 years regarding the analysis of chiral antidepressant drugs and their metabolites in biological fluids (e.g., plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid) are reviewed. The importance and interest in analyzing the enantiomers of the active compound and its metabolites in biological samples are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.09.13DOI Listing
April 2009

Two-step liquid-phase microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous analysis of the enantiomers of mefloquine and its main metabolite carboxymefloquine in plasma.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2009 Mar 31;393(6-7):1805-13. Epub 2009 Jan 31.

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. do Café S/N, 14040-903, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

A method for the simultaneous analysis of the enantiomers of mefloquine (MQ) and its main metabolite carboxymefloquine (CMQ) in plasma is described for the first time. The assay involves two-step liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography. In the first LPME step, the enantiomers of MQ were extracted from an alkalinized sample through a thin layer of di-n-hexyl ether immobilized in the pores of the hollow fiber and into 0.01 M perchloric acid as acceptor solution. In the second LPME step, the same sample was acidified to enable the extraction of CMQ using the same organic solvent and 0.05 M sodium hydroxide as acceptor phase. The analytes were resolved on a Chirobiotic T column in the polar-organic mode of elution and detected at 285 nm. The recovery rates from 1 mL of plasma were in the range 35-38%. The method presented limits of quantification of 50 ng/mL for all analytes and was linear up to 1,500 and 3,000 ng/mL for the enantiomers of MQ and CMQ, respectively. The plasmatic concentrations of (+)-(RS)-MQ were higher than those of (-)-(SR)-MQ after oral administration of the racemic drug to rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-009-2620-4DOI Listing
March 2009
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