Publications by authors named "Pier Luigi Zinzani"

386 Publications

Body mass index is not associated with survival outcomes and immune-related adverse events in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma treated with the immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab.

J Transl Med 2021 Dec 1;19(1):489. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Ematologia Oncologica e Trapianto di Cellule Staminali, Department of Hematology and Developmental Therapeutics, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Fondazione 'G. Pascale', IRCCS, Via Mariano Semmola 49, 80131, Naples, Italy.

Background: Overweight and obese patients with solid tumors receiving anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-ligand-1(PD-L1) immune checkpoint inhibitors exhibit improved survival and higher risk of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) than those with a normal body mass index (BMI). In classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), the impact of BMI on survival and immune-related toxicity is unknown. We evaluated for the first time associations of BMI with survival and irAEs in patients with relapsed/refractory (RR)-cHL undergoing PD-1 blockade.

Methods: Data from a multicenter study on 133 patients treated with the anti-PD1 antibody nivolumab (July 2015-December 2016) were retrieved from a prospective database. Progression-free (PFS), overall survival (OS), incidence and severity of irAEs according to BMI categories were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method, landmark-analyses and Cox regressions.

Results: Patients, mostly males (63%, n = 84) with a median age of 35 years (range, 15-82), advanced stage (75%), B symptoms (63%), bulky disease (24%), a median of 4 previous treatments (range, 1-9), received a median of 18 nivolumab doses (range, 1-57). No statistically significant differences across BMI subgroups emerged as to PFS, with 1-year rates of 67.1% for both normal weight (n = 66; 49.6%) and overweight (n = 31; 23.3%) patients. Underweight (n = 12; 9%) and obese (n = 24; 18%) patients had a 1-year PFS of 54.5% and 49%, respectively. In survival analyses, BMI either as a continuous (P = 0.5) or categorical (P for trend = 0.63) variable failed to associate with PFS. Response rates and time-to-response did not cluster in any BMI subset. No BMI-related differences in OS emerged across normal, overweight and obese patients but underweight patients had the worst survival. Occurrence of irAEs of whatever severity did not statistically associate with BMI.

Conclusions: In patients with RR-cHL receiving nivolumab, no statistically significant differences emerged in response rates, PFS and OS across BMI categories of normal weight, overweight and obese. Overweight/obese patients did not display an increased risk of irAEs. The exquisite sensitivity to anti-PD-1 antibodies, the unique cytokine milieu and effector pathways triggered by nivolumab in cHL, may represent biologic 'equalizers' counteracting the immunoregulatory effects of adiposity. Differently from solid tumors, BMI is not associated with treatment efficacy and immune-related toxicity and does not represent a predictive tool for PD-1-targeted immunotherapies in cHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-03134-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8638339PMC
December 2021

Clinical Response in Heavily Pretreated Mycosis Fungoides with Pembrolizumab: A Case Report.

Acta Haematol 2021 Oct 13:1-3. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

IRCCS - Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a disease almost impossible to cure. In the context of heavily pretreated patients, the anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD-1) pembrolizumab is a valid therapeutic option. The alteration of the PD-1-PD ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis is often present in MF, and this aspect explains the feasibility of this therapy. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman diagnosed with MF in 2003, Olsen stage IA (T1M0NXBO). Since the moment of the diagnosis, she received 10 lines of therapy, with a short duration of response after each one of them. In April 2020, our patient started pembrolizumab 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks, and she achieved a partial response after the 4th cycle, consistent with the modified severity assessment tool (mSWAT) 1, which she is still maintaining after 10 cycles. No grade ≥3 adverse events were recorded. We conclude that pembrolizumab can induce extremely rapid responses in MF, with very low toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518815DOI Listing
October 2021

PI3Kδ Inhibitors as Immunomodulatory Agents for the Treatment of Lymphoma Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Nov 4;13(21). Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Institute of Oncology Research, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, USI, 6500 Bellinzona, Switzerland.

The development of small molecules able to block specific or multiple isoforms of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) has already been an active field of research for many years in the cancer field. PI3Kδ inhibitors are among the targeted agents most extensively studied for the treatment of lymphoma patients and PI3Kδ inhibitors are already approved by regulatory agencies. More recently, it became clear that the anti-tumor activity of PI3K inhibitors might not be due only to a direct effect on the cancer cells but it can also be mediated via inhibition of the kinases in non-neoplastic cells present in the tumor microenvironment. T-cells represent an important component of the tumor microenvironment and they comprise different subpopulations that can have both anti- and pro-tumor effects. In this review article, we discuss the effects that PI3Kδ inhibitors exert on the immune system with a particular focus on the T-cell compartment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8582887PMC
November 2021

Anti-CD19 monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies: a narrative review with focus on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Nov 6. Epub 2021 Nov 6.

Department of Medicine, Center for Integrated Research and Unit of Drug Science, University Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: CD19 is a cell surface protein that is found on both healthy and malignant B cells. Accordingly, it has become an important target for novel treatments for non-Hodgkin lymphomas and B-cell leukaemia. Three anti-CD19 monoclonal antibodies with distinct mechanisms of action have been developed for the treatment of B-cell malignancies.

Methods: We reviewed the preclinical and clinical data on the development of the newly approved anti-CD19 monoclonal antibodies blinatumomab, tafasitamab and loncastuximab tesirine, and consider their place in the treatment of relapsed or refractory B-cell malignancies.

Results: Blinatumomab is a bispecific T-cell engager that binds to both CD19 on B cells and CD3 on T cells, facilitating antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Blinatumomab significantly prolongs overall survival in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, although cytokine release syndrome and severe neurotoxicity may necessitate discontinuation. Tafasitamab, which has modified anti-CD19 Fab and Fc regions, has significantly enhanced affinity for both CD19 and effector cell receptors compared with unmodified anti-CD19. In L-MIND, tafasitamab plus lenalidomide provided an overall response rate (ORR) of 57.5% in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in patients non-transplant eligible. Loncastuximab tesirine is an antibody-drug conjugate that has been studied as monotherapy and in combination with ibrutinib in 3L + relapsed or refractory DLBCL. The ORR was 48.3% in a phase II trial of loncastuximab tesirine. The optimal place of anti-CD19 monoclonal antibodies in therapy has yet to be determined, but the prospect of improved outcomes for at least some patients with treatment-resistant B-cell malignancies appears likely, particularly in those with limited therapeutic options and poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03833-xDOI Listing
November 2021

Cusatuzumab for treatment of CD70-positive relapsed or refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

Cancer 2021 Nov 2. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Inserm U976, Hôpital Saint Louis, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Background: The clinical benefit of cusatuzumab, a CD70-directed monoclonal antibody with enhanced effector functions, was investigated in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL).

Methods: In this cohort expansion of the ARGX-110-1201 study, 27 patients with R/R CTCL received cusatuzumab at 1 (n = 11) or 5 mg/kg (n = 16) once every 3 weeks to investigate its safety, dose, and exploratory efficacy. The pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, CD70 expression, and CD70/CD27 biology were also assessed.

Results: The most common adverse events included infusion-related reactions, pyrexia, and asthenia. Eighteen serious adverse events (grade 1-3) were reported in 11 patients; 1 of these (vasculitis) was considered drug-related. For 8 of the 11 patients receiving 1 mg/kg, anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) affected the minimal concentration, and this resulted in undetectable cusatuzumab concentrations at the end of treatment and, in some cases, a loss of response. This effect was greatly reduced in the patients receiving 5 mg/kg. The overall response rate was 23%; this included 1 complete response and 5 partial responses (PRs) in 26 of the 27 evaluable patients. In addition, 9 patients achieved stable disease. The mean duration on cusatuzumab was 5.2 months, and the median duration was 2.5 months. Patients with Sézary syndrome (SS) achieved a 60% PR rate with a dosage of 5 mg/kg and a 33% PR rate with a dosage of 1 mg/kg; this resulted in an overall response rate of 50% for patients with SS at both doses.

Conclusions: Cusatuzumab was well tolerated, and antitumor activity was observed at both 1 and 5 mg/kg in highly pretreated patients with R/R CTCL. The observed dose-dependent effect on exposure supports the use of 5 mg/kg for future development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.34005DOI Listing
November 2021

Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for the assessment of disease burden in hairy cell leukemia.

Hematol Oncol 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Istituto di Ematologia "Seràgnoli", Bologna, Italy.

BRAF mutation is the pathogenic driver of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) found in the vast majority of cases both at onset and during recurrences. The identification of the mutated allele in blood and marrow correlates with the presence of neoplastic cells and can be considered a marker of active disease. Likewise, the absence of the mutation after treatment may indicate a state of deep response. The BRAF burden was measured by droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and expressed as fractional abundance in 35 HCL patients at different stages of disease (onset, relapse, complete response [CR] after treatment, long-term remission) in peripheral blood and/or bone marrow (when available). Mean values of fractional abundance for patients at diagnosis, relapse and response, respectively, were 12.26%, 16.52% and 0.02% in peripheral blood and 23.51%, 13.96% and 0.26% in bone marrow. Four patients out of 6 evaluated at response were molecularly negative for BRAF in peripheral blood. Mean fractional abundance in peripheral blood tested in 14 patients with long lasting CR was 0.05%, and 10 patients were BRAF negative. These preliminary results suggest that ddPCR permits to assess the active tumor burden in HCL at different disease phases and support the hypothesis that some patients in CR qualify for a molecular CR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2932DOI Listing
October 2021

Genetic and Phenotypic Attributes of Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma.

Blood 2021 Oct 15. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

University of Milan & Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (SMZL) is a heterogeneous clinico-biological entity. The clinical course is variable, multiple genes are mutated with no unifying mechanism, essential regulatory pathways and surrounding microenvironments are diverse. We sought to clarify the heterogeneity of SMZL by resolving different subgroups and their underlying genomic abnormalities, pathway signatures and microenvironment compositions to uncover biomarkers and therapeutic vulnerabilities. We studied 303 SMZL spleen samples collected through the IELSG46 multicenter, international study (NCT02945319) by using a multiplatform approach. We carried out genetic and phenotypic analyses, defined self-organized signatures, validated the findings in independent primary tumor meta-data and in genetically modified mouse models, and determined correlations with outcome data. We identified two prominent genetic clusters in SMZL, termed NNK (58% of cases, harboring NF-κB, NOTCH and KLF2 modules) and DMT (32% of cases, with DNA-damage response, MAPK and TLR modules). Genetic aberrations in multiple genes as well as cytogenetic and immunogenetic features distinguished NNK- from DMT-SMZLs. These genetic clusters not only have distinct underpinning biology, as judged by differences in gene-expression signatures, but also different outcome, with inferior survival in NNK-SMZLs. Digital cytometry and in situ profiling segregated two basic types of SMZL immune microenvironments termed immune-suppressive SMZL (50% of cases, associated with inflammatory cells and immune checkpoint activation) and immune-silent SMZL (50% of cases, associated with an immune-excluded phenotype) with distinct mutational and clinical connotations. In summary, we propose a nosology of SMZL that can implement its classification and also aid in the development of rationally targeted treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2021012386DOI Listing
October 2021

Health-related quality of life effect of mogamulizumab by patient blood involvement.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Oct;156 Suppl 1:S65-S66

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-8049(21)00749-8DOI Listing
October 2021

Quality-of-life analysis of pembrolizumab vs brentuximab vedotin for relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

KEYNOTE-204 (NCT02684292) demonstrated progression-free survival (PFS) advantage for pembrolizumab over brentuximab vedotin (BV) in patients who had relapsed or refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma (R/R cHL) following, or who were ineligible for, autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL), measured by patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from KEYNOTE-204, are reported from patients who received ≥1 dose of study treatment and completed ≥1 PRO assessment. QLQ-C30 and EuroQoL EQ-5D were administered at baseline, every 6 weeks until week 24, and every 12 weeks thereafter. Prespecified end points included least squares mean (LSM) changes from baseline to week 24 and time to deterioration (TTD; ≥10-point decline from baseline). Comparisons were evaluated using two-sided P values uncontrolled for multiplicity. High compliance at baseline (>90%) and through week 24 (>80%) was demonstrated across treatment groups (PRO analysis set: pembrolizumab, N=146; BV, N=150). QLQ-C30 Global Health Status (GHS)/quality of life (QoL) improved from baseline to week 24 on pembrolizumab and worsened on BV, demonstrating significant LSM differences at 24 weeks (GHS/QoL: 8.60 [95% CI, 3.89-13.31]; P = 0.0004) and each QLQ-C30 domain, except emotional and cognitive functioning. Compared with BV, pembrolizumab prolonged TTD for GHS/QoL (HR, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.22-0.74]; P = 0.003) and each QLQ-C30 domain except cognitive functioning. In conclusion, pembrolizumab demonstrated overall improvements in PROs of HRQoL measures over BV in the KEYNOTE-204 study. These data and previously reported efficacy results support pembrolizumab as the preferred treatment option for patients with R/R cHL who are ineligible for or experience relapse after ASCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004970DOI Listing
October 2021

Real World Evidence of CAR T-Cell Therapies for the Treatment of Relapsed/Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Monocentric Experience.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 24;13(19). Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Istituto di Ematologia "Seràgnoli", IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Large B-cell lymphomas (LBCL) are the most common types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Although outcomes have improved thanks to the introduction of rituximab-based chemoimmunotherapy, certain LBCL still represents a challenge because of initial resistance to therapy or recurrent relapses. Axicabtagene ciloleucel (axi-cel) and tisagenlecleucel (tisa-cel) are second-generation autologous CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies approved for patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) LBCL, based on the results of phase II pivotal single-arm trials ZUMA-1 (for axi-cel) and JULIET (for tisa-cel). Here, we report patients outcomes with axi-cel and tisa-cel in the standard of care (SoC) setting for R/R LBCL, treated at our Institution. Data were collected from patients who underwent leukapheresis between August 2019 and February 2021. Toxicities were graded and managed according to the institution's guidelines. Responses were assessed as per Lugano 2014 classification. Of the 30 patients who underwent leukapheresis, 18 (60%) received axi-cel, while 12 (40%) tisa-cel. Grade 3 or higher cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity occurred in 10% and 16% patients, respectively. Best objective and complete response rates were 73.3% and 40%, respectively. Treatment in SoC setting with CD19 CAR T-cell therapies for R/R LBCL showed a manageable safety profile and high objective response rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13194789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507677PMC
September 2021

Role of radiotherapy to bulky sites of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma treated with ABVD: final results of FIL HD0801 trial.

Blood Adv 2021 11;5(21):4504-4514

IRCCS AOU di Bologna; and.

The role of consolidation radiotherapy (RT) for bulky lesions is controversial in patients with advanced-stage Hodgkin lymphoma who achieve complete metabolic response (CMR) after doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD)-based chemotherapy. We present the final results of the Fondazione Italiana Linfomi HD0801 trial, which investigated the potential benefit of RT in that setting. In this phase 3 randomized study, patients with a bulky lesion at baseline (a mass with largest diameter ≥5 cm) who have CMR after 2 and 6 ABVD cycles were randomly assigned 1:1 to RT vs observation (OBS) with a primary endpoint of event-free survival (EFS) at 2 years. The sample size was calculated estimating an EFS improvement for RT of 20% (from 60% to 80%). The secondary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). One hundred sixteen patients met the inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to RT or OBS. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed a 2-year EFS of 87.8% vs 85.8% for RT vs OBS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6-3.5; P = .34). At 2 years, ITT-PFS was 91.3% vs 85.8% (HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.5-3; P = .7). Patients in CMR randomly assigned to OBS had a good outcome, and the primary end point of a 20% benefit in EFS for RT was not met. However, the sample size was underpowered to detect a benefit of 10% or less, keeping open the question of a potential, more limited role of RT in this setting. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00784537.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8579271PMC
November 2021

Integrated safety analysis of umbralisib, a dual PI3Kδ/CK1ε inhibitor, in relapsed/refractory lymphoid malignancies.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

TG Therapeutics, Inc., New York, New York, United States.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase-delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitors are active in lymphoid malignancies, though associated toxicities can limit their use. Umbralisib is a dual inhibitor of PI3Kδ and casein kinase-1ε (CK1ε). This study analyzed integrated comprehensive toxicity data from 4 open-label, phase 1 and 2 studies that included 371 adult patients (median age, 67 years) with relapsed/refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (follicular lymphoma [n = 147]; marginal zone lymphoma [n = 82]; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma/mantle cell lymphoma [n = 74]; chronic lymphocytic leukemia [n = 43]; and other [n = 25]) who were treated with recommended phase 2 dose of umbralisib 800 mg or higher once daily. At data cutoff, median duration of umbralisib treatment was 5.9 months (range, 0.1-75.1), and 107 patients (28.8%) received umbralisib for ≥12 months. Any-grade treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 366/371 patients (98.7%), with the most frequent being diarrhea (52.3%), nausea (41.5%), and fatigue (31.8%). Grade ≥3 TEAEs occurred in 189/371 of patients (50.9%), including neutropenia (11.3%), diarrhea (7.3%), and increased aminotransferases (5.7%). Treatment-emergent serious AEs occurred in 95/371 patients (25.6%). AEs of special interest were limited and included pneumonia (29/371 [7.8%]), noninfectious colitis (9/371 [2.4%]), and pneumonitis (4/371 [1.1%]). AEs led to discontinuation of umbralisib in 51 patients (13.7%). Four patients (1.1%) died due to AEs, none of which were deemed related to umbralisib. No cumulative toxicities were reported. The favorable long-term tolerability profile and low rates of immune-mediated toxicities support the potential use of umbralisib for the benefit of a broad population of patients with lymphoid malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005132DOI Listing
September 2021

The MAGNOLIA Trial: Zanubrutinib, a Next-Generation Bruton Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor, Demonstrates Safety and Efficacy in Relapsed/Refractory Marginal Zone Lymphoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Dec 15;27(23):6323-6332. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

BeiGene, San Mateo, California.

Purpose: Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is an uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphoma with malignant cells that exhibit a consistent dependency on B-cell receptor signaling. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of zanubrutinib, a next-generation selective Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) MZL.

Patients And Methods: Patients with R/R MZL were enrolled in the phase II MAGNOLIA (BGB-3111-214) study. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR) as determined by an independent review committee (IRC) based on the Lugano 2014 classification.

Results: Sixty-eight patients were enrolled. After a median follow-up of 15.7 months (range, 1.6 to 21.9 months), the IRC-assessed ORR was 68.2% and complete response (CR) was 25.8%. The ORR by investigator assessment was 74.2%, and the CR rate was 25.8%. The median duration of response (DOR) and median progression-free survival (PFS) by independent review was not reached. The IRC-assessed DOR rate at 12 months was 93.0%, and IRC-assessed PFS rate was 82.5% at both 12 and 15 months. Treatment was well tolerated with the majority of adverse events (AE) being grade 1 or 2. The most common AEs were diarrhea (22.1%), contusion (20.6%), and constipation (14.7%). Atrial fibrillation/flutter was reported in 2 patients; 1 patient had grade 3 hypertension. No patient experienced major hemorrhage. In total, 4 patients discontinued treatment due to AEs, none of which were considered treatment-related by the investigators.

Conclusions: Zanubrutinib demonstrated high ORR and CR rate with durable disease control and a favorable safety profile in patients with R/R MZL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1704DOI Listing
December 2021

Randomized phase 3 ALCANZA study of brentuximab vedotin vs physician's choice in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: final data.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

The primary analysis of the phase 3 ALCANZA trial showed significantly-improved objective responses lasting ≥4 months (ORR4; primary endpoint) and progression-free survival (PFS) with brentuximab vedotin vs physician's choice (methotrexate or bexarotene) in CD30-expressing mycosis fungoides (MF) or primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (C-ALCL). Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas often cause pruritus and pain; brentuximab vedotin improved skin symptom burden with no negative effects on quality of life. We report final data from ALCANZA (median follow-up 45.9 months). Adults with previously treated CD30-expressing MF/C-ALCL were randomized to brentuximab vedotin (n = 64) or physician's choice (n = 64). Final data demonstrated improved responses per independent review facility with brentuximab vedotin vs physician's choice: ORR4, 54.7% vs 12.5% (P < .001); complete response, 17.2% vs 1.6% (P = .002). Median PFS with brentuximab vedotin vs physician's choice was 16.7 months vs 3.5 months (P< .001). Median time to next treatment was significantly longer with brentuximab vedotin than with physician's choice (14.2 vs 5.6 months; hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.17-0.42; P < .001). Of 44 patients in the brentuximab vedotin arm who experienced any-grade peripheral neuropathy (PN), (grade 3, n = 6; grade 4, n = 0), 86% (38/44) had complete resolution (26/44) or improvement to grade 1-2 (12/44). PN was ongoing in 18 patients (all grade 1-2). These final analyses confirm improved, clinically meaningful, durable responses and longer PFS with brentuximab vedotin vs physician's choice in CD30-expressing MF or C-ALCL. This trial was registered at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01578499 as #NCT01578499.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004710DOI Listing
September 2021

Avelumab in relapsed/refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma: phase 1b results from the JAVELIN Hodgkins trial.

Blood Adv 2021 09;5(17):3387-3396

Oxford Cancer and Haematology Centre, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom.

The 9p24.1 chromosomal alteration in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) is associated with increased expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)/PD-L2 and an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Blockade of PD-L1/PD-1 interactions with avelumab (anti-PD-L1) is hypothesized to restore antitumor immunity. JAVELIN Hodgkins was a phase 1b, multiple-dose, open-label, randomized, parallel-arm trial of avelumab in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) cHL. Primary end points included avelumab target occupancy by dose/schedule in peripheral blood immune cells and pharmacokinetic parameters. Secondary end points included safety and antitumor activity. Four dose levels and 2 dosing schedules were investigated: 70, 350, and 500 mg administered every 2 weeks; 500 mg every 3 weeks; and 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Thirty-one patients with R/R cHL were randomized; 9 (29.0%) and 20 (64.5%) had received 3 or ≥4 prior anticancer treatments, respectively. Target occupancy of >90% was observed across all treatment arms, throughout the dosing interval. Avelumab pharmacokinetic data were similar to those previously reported. The most common treatment-related adverse events of any grade were infusion-related reaction (30.0%), nausea (20.0%), increased alanine aminotransferase and rash (16.7% each), and fatigue (13.3%). The objective response rate (ORR) in all randomized patients was 41.9%, with a complete response rate of 19.4%; ORR in those with prior allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) was 55.6%. Due to decreased use of allo-HSCT in patients with R/R cHL, the expansion phase enrolling post-allo-HSCT patients was terminated. Avelumab was tolerable and demonstrated antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients with cHL, suggesting that PD-L1 blockade may be sufficient for therapeutic benefit in cHL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02603419.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8525219PMC
September 2021

COVID-19 Vaccination in Fragile Patients: Current Evidence and an Harmonized Transdisease Trial.

Front Immunol 2021;12:704110. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Milan, Italy.

Patients diagnosed with malignancy, neurological and immunological disorders, , fragile patients, have been excluded from COVID-19 vaccine trials. However, this population may present immune response abnormalities, and relative reduced vaccine responsiveness. Here we review the limited current evidence on the immune responses to vaccination of patients with different underlying diseases. To address open questions we present the VAX4FRAIL study aimed at assessing immune responses to vaccination in a large transdisease cohort of patients with cancer, neurological and rheumatological diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.704110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8383886PMC
September 2021

RE-MIND: Comparing Tafasitamab + Lenalidomide (L-MIND) with a Real-world Lenalidomide Monotherapy Cohort in Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Nov 25;27(22):6124-6134. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Purpose: Tafasitamab, an Fc-modified, humanized, anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody, in combination with lenalidomide, demonstrated efficacy in transplant-ineligible patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), in the single-arm, phase II L-MIND study (NCT02399085). RE-MIND, a retrospective observational study, generated a historic control for L-MIND to delineate the contribution of tafasitamab to the efficacy of the combination.

Patients And Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from patients with R/R DLBCL treated with lenalidomide monotherapy for comparison with tafasitamab + lenalidomide-treated patients (L-MIND). Key eligibility criteria were aligned with L-MIND. Estimated propensity score-based Nearest Neighbor 1:1 Matching methodology balanced the cohorts for nine prespecified prognostic baseline covariates. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed best overall response rate (ORR). Secondary endpoints included complete response (CR) rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS).

Results: Data from 490 patients going through lenalidomide monotherapy were collected; 140 qualified for matching with the L-MIND cohort. The primary analysis included 76 patients from each cohort who received a lenalidomide starting dose of 25 mg/day. Cohort baseline covariates were comparable. A significantly better ORR of 67.1% (95% confidence interval, 55.4-77.5) was observed for the combination therapy versus 34.2% (23.7-46.0) for lenalidomide monotherapy [odds ratio, 3.89 (1.90-8.14); < 0.0001]. Higher CR rates were achieved with combination therapy compared with lenalidomide monotherapy [39.5% (28.4-51.4) vs. 13.2% (6.5-22.9)]. Survival endpoints favored combination therapy. Lenalidomide monotherapy outcomes were similar to previously published data.

Conclusions: RE-MIND enabled the estimation of the additional treatment effect achieved by combining tafasitamab with lenalidomide in patients with R/R DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1471DOI Listing
November 2021

Feasibility of Combining the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Inhibitor Copanlisib With Rituximab-Based Immunochemotherapy in Patients With Relapsed Indolent B-cell Lymphoma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 11 2;21(11):e886-e894. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Istituto di Ematologia "Seràgnoli", Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Background: When treating indolent B-cell lymphoma, combining continuously administered oral phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors with immunochemotherapy has been associated with toxicity. CHRONOS-4 (Phase III; NCT02626455) investigates the intravenous, intermittently administered pan-class I PI3K inhibitor copanlisib in combination with rituximab plus bendamustine (R-B) or rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in patients with relapsed indolent B-cell lymphoma. We report safety run-in results.

Patients And Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years with relapsed CD20-positive indolent B-cell lymphoma received copanlisib (45 mg, increasing to 60 mg if no dose-limiting toxicities) weekly on an intermittent schedule with R-B or R-CHOP. Primary objective was to identify a recommended Phase III dose (RP3D). We also assessed objective response, safety, and tolerability.

Results: Ten patients received copanlisib plus R-B and 11 received copanlisib plus R-CHOP. No dose-limiting toxicities were reported; RP3D was 60 mg. All patients had ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE), most commonly (all grade/grade 3/4) for copanlisib plus R-B: decreased neutrophil count (80%/50%), nausea (70%/0%), decreased platelet count (60%/10%), hyperglycemia (60%/50%); for copanlisib plus R-CHOP: hyperglycemia (82%/64%), hypertension (73%/64%), decreased neutrophil count (64%/64%). Two and 8 patients had serious TEAEs with copanlisib plus R-B and R-CHOP, respectively. Among evaluable patients, objective response rates were 90% (5 complete, 4 partial) and 100% (3 complete, 7 partial) with copanlisib plus R-B and R-CHOP, respectively.

Conclusion: Copanlisib is the first PI3K inhibitor to demonstrate safe, tolerable, and effective combinability with immunochemotherapy in patients with relapsed indolent B-cell lymphoma at full dose (60 mg). Further evaluation is ongoing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.06.021DOI Listing
November 2021

Lack of impact of type and extent of prior therapy on outcomes of mogamulizumab therapy in patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma in the MAVORIC trial.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Dec 26;62(13):3109-3118. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Lymphoma Service, University Hospital Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SS) often require multiple lines of systemic therapy. In the phase 3 MAVORIC study (NCT01728805), mogamulizumab demonstrated superiority to vorinostat in median progression-free survival (PFS) and confirmed overall response rate (ORR) in patients with MF/SS. This analysis examined the effects of number and type of prior systemic therapies on mogamulizumab response. MAVORIC patients randomized to mogamulizumab (1.0 mg/kg intravenously weekly) or vorinostat (400 mg orally daily) were grouped by number of prior therapies and immunomodulatory activity of immediate prior systemic therapy while also considering time elapsed since treatment. ORR, PFS, and duration of response (DOR) did not vary with number of prior therapies. ORR and DOR remained consistent regardless of immediate prior therapy type. Additionally, immunomodulatory activity of the last prior therapy and time from prior treatment generally did not affect the ORR or PFS observed in response to mogamulizumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1953007DOI Listing
December 2021

Dual targeting of the DNA damage response pathway and BCL-2 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Leukemia 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Onco-Hematology Division, IEO European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Standard chemotherapies for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), based on the induction of exogenous DNA damage and oxidative stress, are often less effective in the presence of increased MYC and BCL-2 levels, especially in the case of double hit (DH) lymphomas harboring rearrangements of the MYC and BCL-2 oncogenes, which enrich for a patient's population characterized by refractoriness to anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Here we hypothesized that adaptive mechanisms to MYC-induced replicative and oxidative stress, consisting in DNA damage response (DDR) activation and BCL-2 overexpression, could represent the biologic basis of the poor prognosis and chemoresistance observed in MYC/BCL-2-positive lymphoma. We first integrated targeted gene expression profiling (T-GEP), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis, and characterization of replicative and oxidative stress biomarkers in two independent DLBCL cohorts. The presence of oxidative DNA damage biomarkers identified a poor prognosis double expresser (DE)-DLBCL subset, characterized by relatively higher BCL-2 gene expression levels and enrichment for DH lymphomas. Based on these findings, we tested therapeutic strategies based on combined DDR and BCL-2 inhibition, confirming efficacy and synergistic interactions in in vitro and in vivo DH-DLBCL models. These data provide the rationale for precision-therapy strategies based on combined DDR and BCL-2 inhibition in DH or DE-DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01347-6DOI Listing
July 2021

A Case of Bing-Neel Syndrome Treated Successfully With Ibrutinib Monotherapy Following Intensive Chemoimmunotherapy.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 11 26;21(11):e817-e819. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Istituto di Ematologia "Seràgnoli", Bologna, Italy; Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.06.017DOI Listing
November 2021

The treatment of hairy cell leukemia with a focus on long lasting responses to cladribine: A 30-year experience.

Am J Hematol 2021 10 23;96(10):1204-1210. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Istituto di Ematologia "Seràgnoli", Bologna, Italy.

The treatment of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) has considerably changed over years. Purine analogues, namely cladribine, now represent the treatment of choice. One hundred and eighty-four patients were followed between 1986 and 2018 and treated according to era-specific guidelines. Responses were classified by combining Consensus Resolution criteria and marrow immunohistochemistry. Patients were grouped according to the number of treatment lines they received. Patients treated first line responded in 86% of cases, with complete response (CR) in 44% of cases. Response rates remained high throughout the first four lines (84%, 81%, 79% for the second line onward, with CR in 38%, 37%, 15% of cases respectively). One hundred and twenty-two patients received cladribine as first line treatment, with a response rate of 86% and a CR rate of 54%. Among the 66 CR patients, 45 (68%) have never received further therapy: 11 patients are in continuous CR between 5 and 10 years after treatment, 14 between 10 and 20 years and three patients at more than 20 years. Median time-to-next treatment (TTNT) for frontline cladribine-treated patients was 8.2 years: partial responders had a significantly shorter median TTNT than CR patients (5.3 years vs median not reached at 25.8 years, p < 0.001). Patients with HCL require subsequent lines of therapy in more than 50% of cases. Purine analogues allow significant response rates when applied first line and upon retreatment. Some patients may enjoy long lasting treatment-free intervals after one course of cladribine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26287DOI Listing
October 2021

Methodological framework for radiomics applications in Hodgkin's lymphoma.

Eur J Hybrid Imaging 2020 Jun 1;4(1). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini 4, MI 20090, Pieve Emanuele, Italy.

Background: According to published data, radiomics features differ between lesions of refractory/relapsing HL patients from those of long-term responders. However, several methodological aspects have not been elucidated yet.

Purpose: The study aimed at setting up a methodological framework in radiomics applications in Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), especially at (a) developing a novel feature selection approach, (b) evaluating radiomic intra-patient lesions' similarity, and (c) classifying relapsing refractory (R/R) vs non-(R/R) patients.

Methods: We retrospectively included 85 patients (male:female = 52:33; median age 35 years, range 19-74). LIFEx (www.lifexsoft.org) was used for [F]FDG-PET/CT segmentation and feature extraction. Features were a-priori selected if they were highly correlated or uncorrelated to the volume. Principal component analysis-transformed features were used to build the fingerprints that were tested to assess lesions' similarity, using the silhouette. For intra-patient similarity analysis, we used patients having multiple lesions only. To classify patients as non-R/R and R/R, the fingerprint considering one single lesion (fingerprint_One) and all lesions (fingerprint_All) was tested using Random Undersampling Boosting of Tree Ensemble (RUBTE).

Results: HL fingerprints included up to 15 features. Intra-patient lesion similarity analysis resulted in mean/median silhouette values below 0.5 (low similarity especially in the non-R/R group). In the test set, the fingerprint_One classification accuracy was 62% (78% sensitivity and 53% specificity); the classification by RUBTE using fingerprint_All resulted in 82% accuracy (70% sensitivity and 88% specificity).

Conclusions: Lesion similarity analysis was developed, and it allowed to demonstrate that HL lesions were not homogeneous within patients in terms of radiomics signature. Therefore, a random target lesion selection should not be adopted for radiomics applications. Moreover, the classifier to predict R/R vs non-R/R performed the best when all the lesions were used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41824-020-00078-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8218114PMC
June 2020

Duvelisib as bridge to allotransplantation in refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma with T-follicular helper phenotype: case report.

Tumori 2021 Dec 24;107(6):NP105-NP107. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Istituto di Ematologia "Seràgnoli," Bologna, Italy.

Objective: Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are a group of heterogeneous T-cell malignancies representing 5%-10% of aggressive lymphomas. The prognosis is poor for patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) disease, with a median overall survival of less than 6 months and no standardized treatments. We discuss the role of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) γδ inhibitor duvelisib as bridge to allotransplantation in a patient with R/R PTCL.

Methods: Case report.

Results: A 55-year-old woman diagnosed with relapsed nodal PTCL with T-follicular helper phenotype received PI3K γδ inhibitor duvelisib in the context of the phase II PRIMO clinical trial. After two cycles at a dose of 75 mg twice daily, the patient achieved complete response (CR), which was subsequently consolidated with human leukocyte antigen fully matched unrelated donor allotransplantation. No major toxicities were recorded during the duvelisib treatment period or during hospitalization for allotransplantation. At the latest follow-up, the patient was alive and still in CR 10 months posttransplant.

Conclusions: Duvelisib should be further explored as a bridge to allotransplantation in patients with R/R PTCL, given the success and low toxicity in our patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03008916211027219DOI Listing
December 2021

Brentuximab vedotin with chemotherapy for stage III or IV classical Hodgkin lymphoma (ECHELON-1): 5-year update of an international, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Jun;8(6):e410-e421

University of Manchester and the Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK.

Background: Despite advances in the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma with the introduction of PET-adapted regimens, practical challenges prevent more widespread use of these approaches. The ECHELON-1 study assessed the safety and efficacy of front-line A+AVD (brentuximab vedotin, doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) versus ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine) in patients with stage III or IV classical Hodgkin lymphoma. The primary analysis showed improved modified progression-free survival with A+AVD. We present an updated analysis of ECHELON-1 at 5 years, an important landmark for this patient population.

Methods: ECHELON-1 was an international, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial done at 218 clinical sites, including hospitals, cancer centres, and community clinics, in 21 countries. Previously untreated patients (≥18 years with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of ≤2) with stage III or IV classical Hodgkin lymphoma were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive A+AVD (brentuximab vedotin, 1·2 mg/kg of bodyweight, doxorubicin 25 mg/m of body surface area, vinblastine 6 mg/m, and dacarbazine 375 mg/m) or ABVD (doxorubicin 25 mg/m, bleomycin 10 U/m, vinblastine 6 mg/m, and dacarbazine 375 mg/m) intravenously on days 1 and 15 of each 28-day cycle for up to six cycles. Stratification factors included region (Americas vs Europe vs Asia) and International Prognostic Score risk group (low, intermediate, or high risk). The primary endpoint was modified progression-free survival; this 5-year update includes analysis of progression-free survival as per investigator assessment in the intention-to-treat population, which was an exploratory endpoint, although the 5-year analysis was not prespecified in the protocol. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01712490) and EudraCT (2011-005450-60), and is ongoing.

Findings: Between Nov 19, 2012, and Jan 13, 2016, 1334 patients were randomly assigned to receive A+AVD (n=664) or ABVD (n=670). At a median follow-up of 60·9 months (IQR 52·2-67·3), 5-year progression-free survival was 82·2% (95% CI 79·0-85·0) with A+AVD and 75·3% (71·7-78·5) with ABVD (hazard ratio [HR] 0·68 [95% CI 0·53-0·87]; p=0·0017). Among PET-2-negative patients, 5-year progression-free survival was higher with A+AVD than with ABVD (84·9% [95% CI 81·7-87·6] vs 78·9% [75·2-82·1]; HR 0·66 [95% CI 0·50-0·88]; p=0·0035). 5-year progression-free survival for PET-2-positive patients was 60·6% (95% CI 45·0-73·1) with A+AVD versus 45·9% (32·7-58·2) with ABVD (HR 0·70 [95% CI 0·39-1·26]; p=0·23). Peripheral neuropathy continued to improve or resolve over time with both A+AVD (375 [85%] of 443 patients) and ABVD (245 [86%] of 286 patients); more patients had ongoing peripheral neuropathy in the A+AVD group (127 [19%] of 662) than in the ABVD group (59 [9%] of 659). Fewer secondary malignancies were reported with A+AVD (19 [3%] of 662) than with ABVD (29 [4%] of 659). More livebirths were reported in the A+AVD group (n=75) than in the ABVD group (n=50).

Interpretation: With 5 years of follow-up, A+AVD showed robust and durable improvement in progression-free survival versus ABVD, regardless of PET-2 status, and a consistent safety profile. On the basis of these findings, A+AVD should be preferred over ABVD for patients with previously untreated stage III or IV classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

Funding: Millennium Pharmaceuticals (a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company), and Seagen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00102-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Loncastuximab tesirine in relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (LOTIS-2): a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 06 11;22(6):790-800. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Oncology and Haematology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, IRCCS, Humanitas University, Milan, Italy.

Background: Patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) who do not respond to or who have progressive disease after salvage therapies have a poor prognosis. Loncastuximab tesirine is a CD19-directed antibody-drug conjugate with encouraging phase 1 single-agent antitumour activity and acceptable safety in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We aimed to evaluate the antitumour activity and safety of loncastuximab tesirine in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL.

Methods: We did a multicentre (28 hospital sites in the USA, UK, Italy, and Switzerland), open-label, single-arm, phase 2 trial (LOTIS-2) in patients aged 18 years or older with relapsed or refractory DLBCL after two or more multiagent systemic treatments, who had measurable disease and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-2. Eligible patients received loncastuximab tesirine intravenously on day 1 of each 21-day cycle, at 150 μg/kg for two cycles, then 75 μg/kg thereafter, for up to 1 year or until disease relapse or progression, unacceptable toxicity, death, major protocol deviation, pregnancy, or patient, investigator, or sponsor decision. The primary endpoint was overall response rate assessed by central review. Primary antitumour activity and safety analyses were done in the as-treated population (patients who received at least one dose of loncastuximab tesirine), when all responding patients had at least 6 months of follow-up after initial documented response. Enrolment is complete. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03589469.

Findings: Between Aug 1, 2018, and Sept 24, 2019, 184 patients were assessed for eligibility and 145 (79%) were enrolled and received at least one dose of loncastuximab tesirine, including patients with high-risk characteristics for poor prognosis, such as double-hit, triple-hit, transformed, or primary refractory DLBCL. 70 of 145 patients had complete or partial response (overall response rate 48·3% [95% CI 39·9-56·7]); 35 had complete response and 35 had partial response. The most common grade 3 or higher treatment-emergent adverse events were neutropenia (37 [26%] of 145 patients), thrombocytopenia (26 [18%]), and increased gamma-glutamyltransferase (24 [17%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 57 (39%) of 145 patients. Treatment-emergent adverse events with a fatal outcome occurred in eight (6%) of 145 patients; none were considered related to loncastuximab tesirine.

Interpretation: Loncastuximab tesirine has substantial single-agent antitumour activity and produces durable responses with an acceptable safety profile, potentially offering a new therapeutic option for heavily pretreated patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL.

Funding: ADC Therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00139-XDOI Listing
June 2021

Intravascular Large B-cell Lymphoma Successfully Treated with Autologous Transplantation.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 08 20;21(8):e678-e679. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Istituto di Ematologia "Seràgnoli," Bologna, Italy; Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Università degli Studi, Bologna, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.04.002DOI Listing
August 2021
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