Publications by authors named "Pia Oksanen"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Long-term outcome of patients with acute ulcerative colitis after first course of intravenous corticosteroids.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 26;56(3):234-238. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Background And Aims: Every fifth patient with ulcerative colitis (UC) experiences severe acute flare at some point in the course of the disease. Corticosteroids (Cs) remain the treatment of choice in acute flare. Data on the efficacy of first intravenous Cs in the long-term prognosis of UC are scarce and were investigated here.

Materials And Methods: All episodes of patients with acute UC admitted to Tampere University Hospital and treated with intravenous Cs between January 2007 and January 2016 were identified from patient records and reviewed. The risks for colectomy and for continuous use of Cs were evaluated. Predictive factors were analysed.

Results: The study comprised 217 patients of whom 184 (85%) responded to intravenous Cs at index flare. Of the 33 non-responders, 31 (94%) were treated with intravenous cyclosporine A and 28 responded. Five (2.3%) patients needed emergency colectomy. Twenty-six (12%) patients underwent colectomy within 1 year of index flare. Overall colectomy rate was 56 (26%) during follow-up (median 7.5 years, range 0.1-10.5). Six months after index flare 66 (30%) patients were still on steroids. In this series 149 (69%) required further Cstherapy and 104 (48%) needed rehospitalization for new flare at some point during follow-up. Overall 155 patients were treated with thiopurines, of whom 72% within the first year after admission. A total of 36 patients had infliximab as a first-line biological treatment, nine needed second-line therapy with adalimumab or vedolizumab after infliximab failed.

Conclusion: Although intravenous Cs were efficient in inducing clinical response in patients with severe acute UC, only one fifth maintained remission in the long term. Two-thirds of patients required further Cs and the overall colectomy rate remained at 26%. High relapse rate indicates the need for closer monitoring of these patients. Enhancement of maintenance therapy should be considered at early stage after acute flare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2020.1867892DOI Listing
March 2021

The use of 5-aminosalicylate for patients with Crohn's disease in a prospective European inception cohort with 5 years follow-up - an Epi-IBD study.

United European Gastroenterol J 2020 10 26;8(8):949-960. Epub 2020 Jul 26.

Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull, UK.

Background: The lack of scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of 5-aminosalicylate in patients with Crohn's disease is in sharp contrast to its widespread use in clinical practice.

Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the use of 5-aminosalicylate in patients with Crohn's disease as well as the disease course of a subgroup of patients who were treated with 5-aminosalicylate as maintenance monotherapy during the first year of disease.

Methods: In a European community-based inception cohort, 488 patients with Crohn's disease were followed from the time of their diagnosis. Information on clinical data, demographics, disease activity, medical therapy and rates of surgery, cancers and deaths was collected prospectively. Patient management was left to the discretion of the treating gastroenterologists.

Results: Overall, 292 (60%) patients with Crohn's disease received 5-aminosalicylate period during follow-up for a median duration of 28 months (interquartile range 6-60). Of these, 78 (16%) patients received 5-aminosalicylate monotherapy during the first year following diagnosis. Patients who received monotherapy with 5-aminosalicylate experienced a mild disease course with only nine (12%) who required hospitalization, surgery, or developed stricturing or penetrating disease, and most never needed more intensive therapy. The remaining 214 patients were treated with 5-aminosalicylate as the first maintenance drug although most eventually needed to step up to other treatments including immunomodulators (75 (35%)), biological therapy (49 (23%)) or surgery (38 (18%)).

Conclusion: In this European community-based inception cohort of unselected Crohn's disease patients, 5-aminosalicylate was commonly used. A substantial group of these patients experienced a quiescent disease course without need of additional treatment during follow-up. Therefore, despite the controversy regarding the efficacy of 5-aminosalicylate in Crohn's disease, its use seems to result in a satisfying disease course for both patients and physicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050640620945949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707880PMC
October 2020

Health-care costs of inflammatory bowel disease in a pan-European, community-based, inception cohort during 5 years of follow-up: a population-based study.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 05 13;5(5):454-464. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Hull University Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull, UK; Hull York Medical School, Hull, UK.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) places a significant burden on health-care systems because of its chronicity and need for expensive therapies and surgery. With increasing use of biological therapies, contemporary data on IBD health-care costs are important for those responsible for allocating resources in Europe. To our knowledge, no prospective long-term analysis of the health-care costs of patients with IBD in the era of biologicals has been done in Europe. We aimed to investigate cost profiles of a pan-European, community-based inception cohort during 5 years of follow-up.

Methods: The Epi-IBD cohort is a community-based, prospective inception cohort of unselected patients with IBD diagnosed in 2010 at centres in 20 European countries plus Israel. Incident patients who were diagnosed with IBD according to the Copenhagen Diagnostic Criteria between Jan 1, and Dec 31, 2010, and were aged 15 years or older the time of diagnosis were prospectively included. Data on clinical characteristics and direct costs (investigations and outpatient visits, blood tests, treatments, hospitalisations, and surgeries) were collected prospectively using electronic case-report forms. Patient-level costs incorporated procedures leading to the initial diagnosis of IBD and costs of IBD management during the 5-year follow-up period. Costs incurred by comorbidities and unrelated to IBD were excluded. We grouped direct costs into the following five categories: investigations (including outpatient visits and blood tests), conventional medical treatment, biological therapy, hospitalisation, and surgery.

Findings: The study population consisted of 1289 patients with IBD, with 1073 (83%) patients from western Europe and 216 (17%) from eastern Europe. 488 (38%) patients had Crohn's disease, 717 (56%) had ulcerative colitis, and 84 (6%) had IBD unclassified. The mean cost per patient-year during follow-up for patients with IBD was €2609 (SD 7389; median €446 [IQR 164-1849]). The mean cost per patient-year during follow-up was €3542 (8058; median €717 [214-3512]) for patients with Crohn's disease, €2088 (7058; median €408 [133-1161]) for patients with ulcerative colitis, and €1609 (5010; median €415 [92-1228]) for patients with IBD unclassified (p<0·0001). Costs were highest in the first year and then decreased significantly during follow-up. Hospitalisations and diagnostic procedures accounted for more than 50% of costs during the first year. However, in subsequent years there was a steady increase in expenditure on biologicals, which accounted for 73% of costs in Crohn's disease and 48% in ulcerative colitis, in year 5. The mean annual cost per patient-year for biologicals was €866 (SD 3056). The mean yearly costs of biological therapy were higher in patients with Crohn's disease (€1782 [SD 4370]) than in patients with ulcerative colitis (€286 [1427]) or IBD unclassified (€521 [2807]; p<0·0001).

Interpretation: Overall direct expenditure on health care decreased over a 5-year follow-up period. This period was characterised by increasing expenditure on biologicals and decreasing expenditure on conventional medical treatments, hospitalisations, and surgeries. In light of the expenditures associated with biological therapy, cost-effective treatment strategies are needed to reduce the economic burden of inflammatory bowel disease.

Funding: Kirsten og Freddy Johansens Fond and Nordsjællands Hospital Forskningsråd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30012-1DOI Listing
May 2020

Inflammatory bowel disease in patients undergoing renal biopsies.

Clin Kidney J 2019 Oct 28;12(5):645-651. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Background: There are no good data in the literature on the prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients with kidney disease and we do not know whether IBD affects the course of kidney disease or if the type of IBD is an influential factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of IBD among patients who have undergone renal biopsies due to clinical indications and to elucidate whether the presence of IBD influences renal and patient outcomes.

Methods: We collected retrospective data on concomitant diseases, especially IBD, from adult patients undergoing renal biopsy for any clinical indication between 2000 and 2012 at Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. Information was systematically collected on the activity of IBD, medication for IBD, surgery performed for IBD and markers of kidney function.

Results: Of the 819 patients biopsied, 35 (4.3%) had IBD. The prevalence of IBD was 13.3 and 4.6% in patients with tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) and immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN), respectively. In comparison, the prevalence of IBD in the Finnish population is 0.6%. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease were equally represented. The presence of IBD showed no impact on renal and patient outcomes.

Conclusions: IBD should not be overlooked in patients undergoing renal biopsies, especially those diagnosed with TIN or IgAN. The renal findings did not associate with the activity of intestinal inflammation. Whether a concomitant IBD truly affects the course of chronic kidney disease should be examined in further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfz004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6768292PMC
October 2019

Gluten Challenge Induces Skin and Small Bowel Relapse in Long-Term Gluten-Free Diet-Treated Dermatitis Herpetiformis.

J Invest Dermatol 2019 10 15;139(10):2108-2114. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Dermatology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland; Celiac Disease Research Center, Tampere University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere, Finland. Electronic address:

Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is an extraintestinal manifestation of celiac disease causing an itchy, blistering rash. Granular IgA deposits in the skin are pathognomonic for DH, and the treatment of choice is a lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD). Preliminary evidence suggests that there are patients with DH who redevelop gluten tolerance after adherence to a GFD treatment. To evaluate this, we performed a 12-month gluten challenge with skin and small-bowel mucosal biopsy samples in 19 patients with DH who had adhered to a GFD for a mean of 23 years. Prechallenge biopsy was negative for skin IgA and transglutaminase 3 deposits in 16 patients (84%) and indicated normal villous height-to-crypt depth ratios in the small bowel mucosa in all 19 patients. The gluten challenge caused a relapse of the rash in 15 patients (79%) in a mean of 5.6 months; of these 15 patients, 13 had skin IgA and transglutaminase 3 deposits, and 12 had small-bowel villous atrophy. In addition, three patients without rash or immune deposits in the skin developed villous atrophy, whereas one patient persisted without any signs of relapse. In conclusion, 95% of the patients with DH were unable to tolerate gluten even after long-term adherence to a GFD. Therefore, lifelong GFD treatment remains justified in all patients with DH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2019.03.1150DOI Listing
October 2019

Disease course of inflammatory bowel disease unclassified in a European population-based inception cohort: An Epi-IBD study.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2019 Jun 21;34(6):996-1003. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece.

Background And Aim: A definitive diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) is not always possible, and a proportion of patients will be diagnosed as inflammatory bowel disease unclassified (IBDU). The aim of the study was to investigate the prognosis of patients initially diagnosed with IBDU and the disease course during the following 5 years.

Methods: The Epi-IBD study is a prospective population-based cohort of 1289 IBD patients diagnosed in centers across Europe. Clinical data were captured prospectively throughout the follow-up period.

Results: Overall, 476 (37%) patients were initially diagnosed with CD, 701 (54%) with UC, and 112 (9%) with IBDU. During follow-up, 28 (25%) IBDU patients were changed diagnoses to either UC (n = 20, 71%) or CD (n = 8, 29%) after a median of 6 months (interquartile range: 4-12), while 84 (7% of the total cohort) remained IBDU. A total of 17 (15%) IBDU patients were hospitalized for their IBD during follow-up, while 8 (7%) patients underwent surgery. Most surgeries (n = 6, 75%) were performed on patients whose diagnosis was later changed to UC; three of these colectomies led to a definitive diagnosis of UC. Most patients (n = 107, 96%) received 5-aminosalicylic acid, while 11 (10%) patients received biologicals, of whom five remained classified as IBDU.

Conclusions: In a population-based inception cohort, 7% of IBD patients were not given a definitive diagnosis of IBD after 5 years of follow-up. One in four patients with IBDU eventually was classified as CD or UC. Overall, the disease course and medication burden in IBDU patients were mild.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.14563DOI Listing
June 2019

Natural Disease Course of Ulcerative Colitis During the First Five Years of Follow-up in a European Population-based Inception Cohort-An Epi-IBD Study.

J Crohns Colitis 2019 Feb;13(2):198-208

IBD Clinical and Research Centre, ISCARE, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background And Aims: Few population-based cohort studies have assessed the disease course of ulcerative colitis [UC] in the era of biological therapy and widespread use of immunomodulators. The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year outcome and disease course of patients with UC in the Epi-IBD cohort.

Methods: In a prospective, population-based inception cohort of unselected patients with UC, patients were followed up from the time of their diagnosis, which included the collection of their clinical data, demographics, disease activity, medical therapy, and rates of surgery, cancers, and deaths. Associations between outcomes and multiple covariates were analysed by Cox regression analysis.

Results: A total of 717 patients were included in the study. During follow-up, 43 [6%] patients underwent a colectomy and 163 [23%] patients were hospitalised. Of patients with limited colitis [distal to the left flexure], 90 [21%] progressed to extensive colitis. In addition, 92 [27%] patients with extensive colitis experienced a regression in disease extent, which was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalisation (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.5 95% CI: 0.3-0.8]. Overall, patients were treated similarly in both geographical regions; 80 [11%] patients needed biological therapy and 210 [29%] patients received immunomodulators. Treatment with immunomodulators was found to reduce the risk of hospitalisation [HR: 0.5 95% CI: 0.3-0.8].

Conclusions: Although patients in this population-based cohort were treated more aggressively with immunomodulators and biological therapy than in cohorts from the previous two decades, their disease outcomes, including colectomy rates, were no different. However, treatment with immunomodulators was found to reduce the risk of hospitalisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjy154DOI Listing
February 2019

Vitamin D deficiency in a European inflammatory bowel disease inception cohort: an Epi-IBD study.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 11;30(11):1297-1303

Pekka Collin Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Serum vitamin D level is commonly low in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although there is a growing body of evidence that links low vitamin D level to certain aspects of IBD such as disease activity and quality of life, data on its prevalence and how it varies across disease phenotype, smoking status and treatment groups are still missing.

Materials And Methods: Patients diagnosed with IBD between 2010 and 2011 were recruited. Demographic data and serum vitamin D levels were collected. Variance of vitamin D level was then assessed across different treatment groups, disease phenotype, disease activity and quality of life scores.

Results: A total of 238 (55.9% male) patients were included. Overall, 79% of the patients had either insufficient or deficient levels of vitamin D at diagnosis. Patients needing corticosteroid treatment at 1 year had significantly lower vitamin D levels at diagnosis (median 36.0 nmol/l) (P=0.035). Harvey-Bradshaw Index (P=0.0001) and Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index scores (P=0.0001) were significantly lower in patients with higher vitamin D level. Serum vitamin D level correlated significantly with SIBQ score (P=0.0001) and with multiple components of SF12. Smokers at diagnosis had the lowest vitamin D levels (vitamin D: 34 nmol/l; P=0.053).

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the high prevalence of low vitamin D levels in treatment-naive European IBD populations. Furthermore, it demonstrates the presence of low vitamin D levels in patients with IBD who smoke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001238DOI Listing
November 2018

Natural disease course of Crohn's disease during the first 5 years after diagnosis in a European population-based inception cohort: an Epi-IBD study.

Gut 2019 03 23;68(3):423-433. Epub 2018 Jan 23.

IBD Clinical and Research Centre, ISCARE, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objective: The Epi-IBD cohort is a prospective population-based inception cohort of unselected patients with inflammatory bowel disease from 29 European centres covering a background population of almost 10 million people. The aim of this study was to assess the 5-year outcome and disease course of patients with Crohn's disease (CD).

Design: Patients were followed up prospectively from the time of diagnosis, including collection of their clinical data, demographics, disease activity, medical therapy, surgery, cancers and deaths. Associations between outcomes and multiple covariates were analysed by Cox regression analysis.

Results: In total, 488 patients were included in the study. During follow-up, 107 (22%) patients received surgery, while 176 (36%) patients were hospitalised because of CD. A total of 49 (14%) patients diagnosed with non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease progressed to either stricturing and/or penetrating disease. These rates did not differ between patients from Western and Eastern Europe. However, significant geographic differences were noted regarding treatment: more patients in Western Europe received biological therapy (33%) and immunomodulators (66%) than did those in Eastern Europe (14% and 54%, respectively, P<0.01), while more Eastern European patients received 5-aminosalicylates (90% vs 56%, P<0.05). Treatment with immunomodulators reduced the risk of surgery (HR: 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.6) and hospitalisation (HR: 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.5).

Conclusion: Despite patients being treated early and frequently with immunomodulators and biological therapy in Western Europe, 5-year outcomes including surgery and phenotype progression in this cohort were comparable across Western and Eastern Europe. Differences in treatment strategies between Western and Eastern European centres did not affect the disease course. Treatment with immunomodulators reduced the risk of surgery and hospitalisation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315568DOI Listing
March 2019

Occurrence of Anaemia in the First Year of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a European Population-based Inception Cohort-An ECCO-EpiCom Study.

J Crohns Colitis 2017 Oct;11(10):1213-1222

Institute for Digestive Research, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Background And Aims: Anaemia is an important complication of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the practice of anaemia screening during the first year following diagnosis, in a European prospective population-based inception cohort.

Methods: Newly diagnosed IBD patients were included and followed prospectively for 1 year in 29 European and one Australian centre. Clinical data including demographics, medical therapy, surgery and blood samples were collected. Anaemia was defined according to the World Health Organization criteria.

Results: A total of 1871 patients (Crohn's disease [CD]: 686, 88%; ulcerative colitis [UC]: 1,021, 87%; IBD unclassified [IBDU] 164. 81%) were included in the study. The prevalence of anaemia was higher in CD than in UC patients and, overall, 49% of CD and 39% of UC patients experienced at least one instance of anaemia during the first 12 months after diagnosis. UC patients with more extensive disease and those from Eastern European countries, and CD patients with penetrating disease or colonic disease location, had higher risks of anaemia. CD and UC patients in need of none or only mild anti-inflammatory treatment had a lower risk of anaemia. In a significant proportion of patients, anaemia was not assessed until several months after diagnosis, and in almost half of all cases of anaemia a thorough work-up was not performed.

Conclusions: Overall, 42% of patients had at least one instance of anaemia during the first year following diagnosis. Most patients were assessed for anaemia regularly; however, a full anaemia work-up was frequently neglected in this community setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjx077DOI Listing
October 2017