Publications by authors named "Phuong Nguyen"

1,025 Publications

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Green extraction of apigenin and luteolin from celery seed using deep eutectic solvent.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Oct 5;207:114406. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Hanoi University of Pharmacy, Hanoi 11000, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

In recent years, deep eutectic solvent (DES) has attracted a great deal of attention as an environmentally friendly solvent and could be used as an alternative to conventional solvents. In this study, 34 choline and betaine-based deep eutectic solvents were prepared and investigated the ability to extract apigenin and luteolin from the celery seed. The results showed that DES composed of betaine hydrochloride and propylene glycol had the best extraction efficiency. Using one factor at a time combined with response surface methodology, the optimal conditions of extraction were determined as follows: time of extraction: 19 min, extraction temperature: 75 °C, the water content in solvent: 40% (w/w). Antisolvent (water) combined with distillation was proposed as an efficient method to recover apigenin and luteolin from the DES extract. The relationship between components of DES and solubility of apigenin, luteolin was also established which was the starting point for the prediction of extractability of DES. Molecular dynamics revealed that betaine hydrochloride and propylene glycol could interact with each other by the formation of two types of hydrogen bond while water molecules might play an important role in the ability to dissolve apigenin and luteolin of DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114406DOI Listing
October 2021

Effects of Stocking Density in Group Cages on Egg Production, Profitability, and Aggressive Pecking of Hens.

J Appl Anim Welf Sci 2021 Oct 13:1-12. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Faculty of Animal Science, Vietnam National University of Agriculture, Hanoi, Vietnam.

There is an increasing concern about welfare issues related to battery cages, which are commonly used in Vietnam, and requires a modified cage that improves hen welfare while retaining its economic and management advantages. We combined adjacent conventional cages to form group cages to examine the effects of stocking density on egg production, economic returns, and aggressive pecking of hens. The control group included triplicate conventional cages with four birds/single cage (12 hens per three cages) or 450 cm area per hen. Three group cage treatments were set up with 10, 12, and 14 birds per group cage or 540, 450, and 386 cm of floor area per hen, respectively. Compared to 14 birds per cage, hens housed at 10 birds per group cage had a higher hen-day production, consumed less feed, and thus had a better feed conversion ratio/dozen eggs. Reducing the stocking density to 10 birds per group cage resulted in additional production cost, but it was compensated for by a high egg income, and significantly decreased aggressive pecks. Group cages benefit hen performance, profitability, and welfare when decreasing the stocking density to 10 birds per cage with 540 cm/hen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10888705.2021.1983723DOI Listing
October 2021

Genetic features and clinical outcomes of patients with isolated and comutated DDX41-mutated myeloid neoplasms.

Blood Adv 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, United States.

DDX41 mutations (germline and somatic) are associated with late onset myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML). Myeloid neoplasms (MN) with germline predisposition was identified as a distinct category in the 2016 WHO classification revision, including MN with germline DDX41 mutation. We retrospectively analyzed the molecular findings and clinical characteristics of thirty-three DDX41-mutated (mDDX41) patients at our institution. We identified 14 distinct pathogenic DDX41 variants in 32 patients and 8 DDX41 variants of unknown significance (VUS) in 9 patients. Five (16%) patients had a second DDX41 somatic mutation p.R525H and 13 (40%) had at least one additional oncogenic co-mutation in other genes. The median age at the time of diagnosis was 66 years, with male predominance (72%) and the majority of patients had normal cytogenetics (91%). Two-year overall survival (OS) was 86% and 6 (21%) MDS/AML patients with relatively preserved hematopoietic function were observed without further intervention. In comparison to AML patients with prognostically more favorable subtypes [t(8;21), n=27 and inv(16), n=40], mDDX41 patients in our cohort showed similarly favorable OS. Our study highlights that mDDX41-MN patients often have an indolent course and mDDX41-AML has comparable OS to favorable-risk AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021005738DOI Listing
October 2021

Development of a Novel Ultrasonic Spectroscopy Method for Estimation of Viscosity Change during Milk Clotting.

Molecules 2021 Sep 29;26(19). Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 1118 Budapest, Hungary.

Ultrasonic testing is an emerging non-destructive testing technology with high repeatability and precision. Milk is a very complex liquid and the change of its viscosity is a highly relevant property throughout conversion into other dairy products. In the following paper, we propose a novel method for the monitoring of viscosity during enzymatic milk clotting by ultrasonic spectroscopy. An ultrasonic transducer-receiver couple with a 250 kHz nominal frequency was submerged in the samples and an enveloped sweep ("chirp") signal was applied in a through-transmission mode. Simultaneously, the change in viscosity was measured with a rotational viscometer at a constant shearing speed. The data were analyzed with an algorithm developed by the authors for spectral ultrasonic testing. Estimations yielded a high adjusted R (0.963-0.998) and low cross-validated estimation error (RPD: 4.38-14.22), suggesting that the method is suitable for industrial use given the right instrumentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26195906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512686PMC
September 2021

Developing a new approach for design support of subsurface constructed wetland using machine learning algorithms.

J Environ Manage 2021 Oct 7;301:113868. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Faculty of Environmental and Food Engineering, Nguyen Tat Thanh University, 300A Nguyen Tat Thanh, District 4, Ho Chi Minh City, 755414, Viet Nam; Department of Environmental Energy Engineering, Kyonggi University, Suwon 442-760, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Knowing the effluent quality of treatment systems in advance to enable the design of treatment systems that comply with environmental standards is a realistic strategy. This study aims to develop machine learning - based predictive models for designing the subsurface constructed wetlands (SCW). Data from the SCW literature during the period of 2009-2020 included 618 sets and 10 features. Five algorithms namely, Random forest, Classification and Regression trees, Support vector machines, K-nearest neighbors, and Cubist were compared to determine an optimal algorithm. All nine input features including the influent concentrations, C:N ratio, hydraulic loading rate, height, aeration, flow type, feeding, and filter type were confirmed as relevant features for the predictive algorithms. The comparative result revealed that Cubist is the best algorithm with the lowest RMSE (7.77 and 21.77 mg.L for NH-N and COD, respectively) corresponding to 84% of the variance in the effluents explained. The coefficient of determination of the Cubist algorithm obtained for NH-N and COD prediction from the test data were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Five case studies of the application of SCW design were also exercised and verified by the prediction model. Finally, a fully developed Cubist algorithm-based design tool for SCW was proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113868DOI Listing
October 2021

mHealth Messaging to Motivate Quitline Use and Quitting: Protocol for a Community-Based Randomized Controlled Trial in Rural Vietnam.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 Oct 7;10(10):e30947. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States.

Background: Tobacco kills more than 8 million people each year, mostly in low- and middle-income countries. In Vietnam, 1 in every 2 male adults smokes tobacco. Vietnam has set up telephone Quitline counseling that is available to all smokers, but it is underused. We previously developed an automated and effective motivational text messaging system to support smoking cessation among US smokers.

Objective: The aim of this study is to adapt the aforementioned system for rural Vietnamese smokers to promote cessation of tobacco use, both directly and by increasing the use of telephone Quitline counseling services and nicotine replacement therapy. Moreover, we seek to enhance research and health service capacity in Vietnam.

Methods: We are testing the effectiveness of our culturally adapted motivational text messaging system by using a community-based randomized controlled trial design (N=600). Participants were randomly allocated to the intervention (regular motivational and assessment text messages) or control condition (assessment text messages only) for a period of 6 months. Trial recruitment took place in four communes in the Hung Yen province in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam. Recruitment events were advertised to the local community, facilitated by community health workers, and occurred in the commune health center. We are assessing the impact of the texting system on 6-month self-reported and biochemically verified smoking cessation, as well as smoking self-efficacy, uptake of the Quitline, and use of nicotine replacement therapy. In addition to conducting the trial, the research team also provided ongoing training and consultation with the Quitline during the study period.

Results: Site preparation, staff training, intervention adaptation, participant recruitment, and baseline data collection were completed. The study was funded in August 2017; it was reviewed and approved by the University of Massachusetts Medical School Institutional Review Board in 2017. Recruitment began in November 2018. A total of 750 participants were recruited from four communes, and 700 (93.3%) participants completed follow-up by March 2021. An analysis of the trial results is in progress; results are expected to be published in late 2022.

Conclusions: This study examines the effectiveness of mobile health interventions for smoking in rural areas in low- and middle-income countries, which can be implemented nationwide if proven effective. In addition, it also facilitates significant collaboration and capacity building among a variety of international partners, including researchers, policy makers, Quitline counselors, and community health workers.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03567993; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03567993.

International Registered Report Identifier (irrid): DERR1-10.2196/30947.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/30947DOI Listing
October 2021

Factors influencing adverse events following immunization with AZD1222 in Vietnamese adults during first half of 2021.

Vaccine 2021 10 1;39(44):6485-6491. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

International University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Vietnam National University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 vaccines have been speedily developed and deployed. The more vaccine doses are delivered to users, the more common adverse events following immunization (AEFI) are reported. This study aimed to identify factors affecting AEFI in Vietnamese people receiving the COVID-19 vaccine AZD1222 developed by AstraZeneca and Oxford University.

Methods: In July 2021, an online cross-sectional survey was conducted among Vietnamese who have been vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines. The questionnaire collected demographic characteristics, medical history, types of injected vaccines, common AEFI, and post-vaccination activities from respondents. The effects of host-related factors on AEFI including 24 specific symptoms were also explored.

Results: After screening, 1028 participants who were Vietnamese, over 18 years old and received at least one dose of AZD1222, were included in the study. Only 40/1028 (3.9%) participants reported not having any AEFI, whereas 25/1028 (2.4%) reported to have severe symptoms. The most common AEFI were moderate fever (69.4%), muscle aches (68.6%), followed by fatigue/ sleepiness (62.5%), body aches (59.4%), headache (58.5%), pain at injection site (58.3%) and chills (45.7%). Data analysis showed that females complained about AEFI particularly gastrointestinal symptoms more frequently than males. Age of participants and number of doses were also important factors affecting AEFI as the increase of age or number of vaccine doses was associated with the decrease of self-reported AEFI frequency.

Conclusions: This study provides a detailed assessment of risk factors associated with AEFI in Vietnamese people vaccinated with AZD1222. It seems that gender, age and vaccine doses are important factors affecting AEFI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.09.060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8485226PMC
October 2021

Expansion of KPC-producing Enterobacterales in four large hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 Oct 1;27:200-211. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam. Electronic address:

Objectives: The incidence of carbapenem resistance among nosocomial Gram-negative bacteria in Vietnam is high and increasing, including among Enterobacterales. In this study, we assessed the presence of one of the main carbapenemase genes, bla, among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) from four large hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam, between 2010 and 2015, and described their key molecular characteristics.

Methods: KPC-producing Enterobacterales were detected using conventional PCR and were further analysed using S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE), Southern blotting and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for sequence typing and genetic characterisation.

Results: bla genes were detected in 122 (20.4%) of 599 CRE isolates. bla-carrying plasmids were diverse in size. Klebsiella pneumoniae harbouring bla genes belonged to ST15 and ST11, whereas KPC-producing Escherichia coli showed more diverse sequence types including ST3580, ST448, ST709 and ST405. Genotypic relationships supported the hypothesis of circulation of a population of 'resident' resistant bacteria in one hospital through the years and of transmission among these hospitals via patient transfer. WGS results revealed co-carriage of several other antimicrobial resistance genes and three different genetic contexts of bla. Among these, the combination of ISEcp1-bla and ISKpn27-bla-ΔISKpn6 on the same plasmid is reported for the first time.

Conclusion: We describe the dissemination of bla-expressing Enterobacterales in four large hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam, since 2010, which may have started earlier, along with their resistance patterns, sequence types, genotypic relationship, plasmid sizes and genetic context, thereby contributing to the overall picture of the antimicrobial resistance situation in Enterobacterales in Vietnam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2021.09.007DOI Listing
October 2021

Effects of Cadmium and Lead on Muscle and Liver Glycogen Levels of Climbing Perch (Anabas testudineus).

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Graduate University of Science and Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

The aim of this study was to assess the glycogen content in the muscle and liver tissues of the climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cd and Pb over 28 days of exposure and 14 days of depuration. Muscle and liver glycogen levels in A. testudineus after Pb or Cd treatment were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that of A. testudineus in the control group during the exposure phase. In the recovery phase, muscle, and liver glycogen levels in A. testudineus increased in all Pb treatment groups, whereas they continuously decreased in all Cd treatment groups. Fish affected by Cd had obvious difficulties recovering from the stress response. It was concluded that exposure to the tested concentrations of Pb and Cd could be a potent endocrine activity disruptor, which may lead to adverse impacts on the health of A. testudineus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-021-03384-4DOI Listing
October 2021

Harnessing 3D collagen hydrogel-directed conversion of human GMSCs into SCP-like cells to generate functionalized nerve conduits.

NPJ Regen Med 2021 Sep 30;6(1):59. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine, 240 South 40th Street, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Achieving a satisfactory functional recovery after severe peripheral nerve injuries (PNI) remains one of the major clinical challenges despite advances in microsurgical techniques. Nerve autografting is currently the gold standard for the treatment of PNI, but there exist several major limitations. Accumulating evidence has shown that various types of nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) combined with post-natal stem cells as the supportive cells may represent a promising alternative to nerve autografts. In this study, gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) under 3D-culture in soft collagen hydrogel showed significantly increased expression of a panel of genes related to development/differentiation of neural crest stem-like cells (NCSC) and/or Schwann cell precursor-like (SCP) cells and associated with NOTCH3 signaling pathway activation as compared to their 2D-cultured counterparts. The upregulation of NCSC-related genes induced by 3D-collagen hydrogel was abrogated by the presence of a specific NOTCH inhibitor. Further study showed that GMSCs encapsulated in 3D-collagen hydrogel were capable of transmigrating into multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM) wall of natural NGCs and integrating well with the aligned matrix structure, thus leading to biofabrication of functionalized NGCs. In vivo, implantation of functionalized NGCs laden with GMSC-derived NCSC/SCP-like cells (designated as GiSCs), significantly improved the functional recovery and axonal regeneration in the segmental facial nerve defect model in rats. Together, our study has identified an approach for rapid biofabrication of functionalized NGCs through harnessing 3D collagen hydrogel-directed conversion of GMSCs into GiSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41536-021-00170-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484485PMC
September 2021

Using Low-Cost Sensors to Assess Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration (PM) during a Wildfire Smoke Episode at a Large Inpatient Healthcare Facility.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Sep 17;18(18). Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Environmental Health Services, BC Center for Disease Control, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4R4, Canada.

Wildfire smoke exposure is associated with a range of acute health outcomes, which can be more severe in individuals with underlying health conditions. Currently, there is limited information on the susceptibility of healthcare facilities to smoke infiltration. As part of a larger study to address this gap, a rehabilitation facility in Vancouver, Canada was outfitted with one outdoor and seven indoor low-cost fine particulate matter (PM) sensors in Air Quality Eggs (EGG) during the summer of 2020. Raw measurements were calibrated using temperature, relative humidity, and dew point derived from the EGG data. The infiltration coefficient was quantified using a distributed lag model. Indoor concentrations during the smoke episode were elevated throughout the building, though non-uniformly. After censoring indoor-only peaks, the average infiltration coefficient (range) during typical days was 0.32 (0.22-0.39), compared with 0.37 (0.31-0.47) during the smoke episode, a 19% increase on average. Indoor PM concentrations quickly reflected outdoor conditions during and after the smoke episode. It is unclear whether these results will be generalizable to other years due to COVID-related changes to building operations, but some of the safety protocols may offer valuable lessons for future wildfire seasons. For example, points of building entry and exit were reduced from eight to two during the pandemic, which likely helped to protect the building from wildfire smoke infiltration. Overall, these results demonstrate the utility of indoor low-cost sensors in understanding the impacts of extreme smoke events on facilities where highly susceptible individuals are present. Furthermore, they highlight the need to employ interventions that enhance indoor air quality in such facilities during smoke events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189811DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8468682PMC
September 2021

The role of public-private partnership investment and eco-innovation in environmental abatement in USA: evidence from quantile ARDL approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Vinh University (VU), Vinh City, Vietnam.

The current research investigates the role of public-private partnership investment (PPPI) and ecological innovation (ECO) along with economic growth on the environmental abatement (i.e., carbon dioxide emission, particulate matters 2.5) in the USA. Quantile autoregressive lagged (QARDL) method was employed during the study period of 1990-2015. The study findings confirm that under long-run estimation, GDP and PPPI are causing more environmental abatement in the form of CO2 emission and haze pollution like PM2.5. The factors like ecological innovation and GDP2 are playing their role towards lowering the CO2 emission and PM2.5 under different quantiles. Furthermore, it is observed that under short-run estimation, past values of the carbon emissions and PM2.5 have their significant and positive relationship with their current values. Besides, the findings through Wald test estimation confirm that parameter constancy of the speed of adjustment parameter is rejected at 1% significance level for the CO2 emission and haze pollution like PM2.5 in USA. Besides, present study also provides some policy implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16520-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475870PMC
September 2021

We are not all the same: The importance of perceived difference in racial ideology and Afrocentricity for African American relationships.

Fam Process 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Psychology Department, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado, USA.

A large body of existing research on African American relationships perpetuates a deficit model that assumes Eurocentric norms and emphasizes between-group differences (e.g., cross-racial comparisons with the majority group-European Americans). The current study examined within-group variability and the influence of culturally unique factors, Afrocentricity, racial ideology, and perceived discrepancy between self and partner on African American relationship processes. Data were collected from 137 self-identified African American adults in same-race, cross-gender relationships. Consistent with the literature on protective values of Afrocentricity, there was an association between reported relationship quality and high levels of one's own and perceived partner's Afrocentricity. Discrepancies between self and partner Afrocentricity were not associated with relationship processes, but higher perceived discrepancies across all four subscales of racial ideology were associated with lower relationship dedication. Higher perceived discrepancies on the humanist and assimilationist subscales were also related to higher levels of conflict. These findings have important clinical implications and demonstrate a need for further research into the nuances of individual factors and dyadic processes that are unique to African American couples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/famp.12723DOI Listing
September 2021

Trends in, projections of, and inequalities in reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health service coverage in Vietnam 2000-2030: A Bayesian analysis at national and sub-national levels.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Oct 30;15:100230. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Graduate School of Public Health, St. Luke's International University, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: To assess the reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) service coverage in Vietnam with trends in 2000-2014, projections and probability of achieving targets in 2030 at national and sub-national levels; and to analyze the socioeconomic, regional and urban-rural inequalities in RMNCH service indicators.

Methods: We used national population-based datasets of 44,624 households in Vietnam from 2000 to 2014. We applied Bayesian regression models to estimate the trends in and projections of RMNCH indicators and the probabilities of achieving the 2030 targets. Using the relative index, slope index, and concentration index of inequality, we examined the patterns and trends in RMNCH coverage inequality.

Findings: We projected that 9 out of 17 health service indicators (53%) would likely achieve the 2030 targets at the national level, including at least one and four ANC visits, BCG immunization, access to improved water and adequate sanitation, institutional delivery, skilled birth attendance, care-seeking for pneumonia, and ARI treatment. We observed very low coverages and zero chance of achieving the 2030 targets at national and sub-national levels in early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding, family planning needs satisfied, and oral rehydration therapy. The most deprived households living in rural areas and the Northwest, Northeast, North Central, Central Highlands, and Mekong River Delta regions would not reach the 80% immunization coverage of DPT3, Polio3, Measles and full immunization. We found socioeconomic, regional, and urban-rural inequalities in all RMNCH indicators in 2014 and no change in inequalities over 15 years in the lowest-coverage indicators.

Interpretation: Vietnam has made substantial progress toward UHC. By improving the government's health system reform efforts, re-allocating resources focusing on people in the most impoverished rural regions, and restructuring and enhancing current health programs, Vietnam can achieve the UHC targets and other health-related SDGs.

Funding: The authors did not receive any funds for conducting this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342952PMC
October 2021

Clustering Lifestyle Risk Behaviors among Vietnamese Adolescents and Roles of School: A Bayesian Multilevel Analysis of Global School-Based Student Health Survey 2019.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Oct 30;15:100225. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, 100000, Vietnam.

Background: Adolescence is a vulnerable period for many lifestyle risk behaviors. In this study, we aimed to 1) examine a clustering pattern of lifestyle risk behaviors; 2) investigate roles of the school health promotion programs on this pattern among adolescents in Vietnam.

Methods: We analyzed data of 7,541 adolescents aged 13-17 years from the 2019 nationally representative Global School-based Student Health Survey, conducted in 20 provinces and cities in Vietnam. We applied the latent class analysis to identify groups of clustering and used Bayesian 2-level logistic regressions to evaluate the correlation of school health promotion programs on these clusters. We reassessed the school effect size by incorporating different informative priors to the Bayesian models.

Findings: The most frequent lifestyle risk behavior among Vietnamese adolescents was physical inactivity, followed by unhealthy diet, and sedentary behavior. Most of students had a cluster of at least two risk factors and nearly a half with at least three risk factors. Latent class analysis detected 23% males and 18% females being at higher risk of lifestyle behaviors. Consistent through different priors, high quality of health promotion programs associated with lower the odds of lifestyle risk behaviors (highest quality schools vs. lowest quality schools; males: Odds ratio (OR) = 0·67, 95% Highest Density Interval (HDI): 0·46 - 0·93; females: OR = 0·69, 95% HDI: 0·47 - 0·98).

Interpretation: Our findings demonstrated the clustering of specific lifestyle risk behaviors among Vietnamese in-school adolescents. School-based interventions separated for males and females might reduce multiple health risk behaviors in adolescence.

Funding: The 2019 Global School-based Student Health Survey was conducted with financial support from the World Health Organization. The authors received no funding for the data analysis, data interpretation, manuscript writing, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lanwpc.2021.100225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342779PMC
October 2021

Where Are We Headed? Diagnosing Abnormal Head Shapes Through Virtual Care Visits.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McGovern Medical School at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX.

Purpose: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in early March, there has been a push to expand virtual patient care visits instead of in-person clinic visits. Studies have found that telemedicine can provide efficient triaging, reduction in emergency room visits, and conservation of health care resources and personnel. Although virtual patient care has been implicated in providing similar outcomes to traditional face-to-face care in patients affected with coronavirus disease 2019, there are a lack of studies on the effectiveness of virtual care visits (VCVs) for patients with craniosynostosis or deformational plagiocephaly. This study aims to develop an understanding of whether physicians can accurately diagnose pediatric patients with craniosynostosis or deformational plagiocephaly via VCVs, and whether they can determine if affected patients will benefit from helmet correction or if surgical treatment is required.

Methods: An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective chart analysis over a 4-month period (March 1, 2020 to June 30, 2020) was performed analyzing all pediatric patients (<18 years old) who underwent virtual care calls for diagnosis and treatment of abnormal head shape. Patients were referred to UT Physicians Pediatric Surgery clinic for evaluation by a member of the Texas Cleft-Craniofacial Team (2 surgeons or 1 physician's assistant). Variables such as patient demographics, diagnosis, and need for confirmation were pulled and recorded from Allscripts Electronic Medical Records software.

Results: Thirty-five patients were identified who fit our search criteria. Out of these patients, eleven (31.43%) cases were diagnosed with craniosynostosis, twenty-two (62.86%) cases were diagnosed with deformational plagiocephaly, and 2 (5.71%) cases were diagnosed as being normocephalic. Median age at virtual care evaluation was 14.10 months (Interquartile Range [IQR] 5.729, 27.542) for patients diagnosed with craniosynostosis and 6.51 months (IQR 4.669, 7.068) for patients diagnosed with deformational plagiocephaly. All eleven (100%) patients diagnosed with craniosynostosis were referred for a confirmatory computed tomography scan before undergoing surgical intervention and saw an alleviation in head shape postoperatively. Eighteen (81.82%) of patients diagnosed with deformational plagiocephaly were recommended to undergo conservative treatment and the remaining 4 (18.18%) were recommended for helmet therapy. Two cases were unable to be diagnosed virtually. These patients needed a follow-up visit in person to establish a diagnosis and plan of treatment.

Conclusions: Virtual care visits are increasing in frequency and this includes consultations for abnormal head shapes. Our experience demonstrates that the majority of patients can be evaluated safely in this modality, with only 5.71% requiring additional imaging or in-person visits to confirm the diagnosis. Our study underscores the feasibility of virtually diagnosing and recommending a plan for treatment in pediatric patients with abnormal head shapes. This information can be implemented to further our knowledge on the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment options for patients with craniosynostosis and deformational plagiocephaly. Further analyses are needed to quantify the financial and patient-reported outcomes of VCVs for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000008118DOI Listing
September 2021

Isolation of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants used in traditional medicine: Rautandiol B, a potential lead compound against Plasmodium falciparum.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Sep 13;21(1):231. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, Faculty of Science Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia.

Background: Neorautanenia mitis, Hydnora abyssinica, and Senna surattensis are medicinal plants with a variety of traditional uses. In this study, we sought to isolate the bioactive compounds responsible for some of these activities, and to uncover their other potential medicinal properties.

Methods: The DCM and ethanol extracts of the roots of N. mitis and H. abyssinica, and the leaves of S. surattensis were prepared and their phytochemical components were isolated and purified using chromatographic methods. These extracts and their pure phytochemical components were evaluated in in-vitro models for their inhibitory activities against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, α-amylase (AA), and α-glucosidase (AG).

Results: Rautandiol B had significant inhibitory activities against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum showing a high safety ratio (SR) and IC values of 0.40 ± 0.07 μM (SR - 108) and 0.74 ± 0.29 μM (SR - 133) against TM4/8.2 and K1CB1, respectively. While (-)-2-isopentenyl-3-hydroxy-8-9-methylenedioxypterocarpan showed the highest inhibitory activity against T. brucei rhodesiense with an IC value of 4.87 ± 0.49 μM (SR > 5.83). All crude extracts showed inhibitory activities against AA and AG, with three of the most active phytochemical components; rautandiol A, catechin, and dolineon, having only modest activities against AG with IC values of 0.28 mM, 0.36 mM and 0.66 mM, respectively.

Conclusion: These studies have led to the identification of lead compounds with potential for future drug development, including Rautandiol B, as a potential lead compound against Plasmodium falciparum. The relatively higher inhibitory activities of the crude extracts against AG and AA over their isolated components could be due to the synergistic effects between their phytochemical components. These crude extracts could potentially serve as alternative inhibitors of AG and AA and as therapeutics for diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-021-03406-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8438977PMC
September 2021

Maternal resources for care are associated with child growth and early childhood development in Bangladesh and Vietnam.

Child Care Health Dev 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Nutrition International, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Suboptimal child growth and development are significant problems in low- and middle-income countries. Maternal resources for care may help to improve growth and development. This study examined the association of maternal resources for care on child length, motor development and language development of children 12-23.9 months old.

Methods: We used baseline data from the Alive & Thrive household surveys collected in Bangladesh (n = 803) and Vietnam (n = 635). Resources for care were represented by maternal education, knowledge, height, well-nourishment, mental well-being, decision-making, employment, support in chores and perceived support. The regression analyses were adjusted for household wealth and other covariates on households, children and parents and accounted for geographical clustering.

Results: Maternal height (Bangladesh β = 0.150 p < 0.001, Vietnam β = 0.156 p < 0.001), well-nourishment (Vietnam β = 0.882 p = 0.007) and mental well-being (Bangladesh β = 0.0649 p = 0.008, Vietnam β = 0.0742 p = 0.039) were associated with child length. Well-nourishment (Vietnam β = 0.670 p = 0.042) and support in chores (Bangladesh β = 0.0983 p = 0.021) were associated with child motor development. Mental well-being (Vietnam β = 0.0735 p = 0.013), decision-making autonomy (Bangladesh β = 0.0886 p = 0.029) and perceived support (Vietnam β = 0.445 p = 0.003) were associated with child language development.

Conclusion: Maternal height, well-nourishment, mental well-being, decision-making, support in chores and perceived social support were associated with child outcomes. Interventions that help to improve resources among mothers have potential to foster child growth and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cch.12911DOI Listing
September 2021

The Embodied Crossmodal Self Forms Language and Interaction: A Computational Cognitive Review.

Front Psychol 2021 16;12:716671. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Knowledge Technology, Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.

Human language is inherently embodied and grounded in sensorimotor representations of the self and the world around it. This suggests that the body schema and ideomotor action-effect associations play an important role in language understanding, language generation, and verbal/physical interaction with others. There are computational models that focus purely on non-verbal interaction between humans and robots, and there are computational models for dialog systems that focus only on verbal interaction. However, there is a lack of research that integrates these approaches. We hypothesize that the development of computational models of the self is very appropriate for considering joint verbal and physical interaction. Therefore, they provide the substantial potential to foster the psychological and cognitive understanding of language grounding, and they have significant potential to improve human-robot interaction methods and applications. This review is a first step toward developing models of the self that integrate verbal and non-verbal communication. To this end, we first analyze the relevant findings and mechanisms for language grounding in the psychological and cognitive literature on ideomotor theory. Second, we identify the existing computational methods that implement physical decision-making and verbal interaction. As a result, we outline how the current computational methods can be used to create advanced computational interaction models that integrate language grounding with body schemas and self-representations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.716671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8415221PMC
August 2021

Molecular detection of bla gene to predict phenotypic cephalosporin resistance and clinical outcome of Escherichia coli bloodstream infections in Vietnam.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2021 Sep 4;20(1):60. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

108 Institute of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Blood stream infections (BSI) caused by Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) producing Enterobacteriaceae is a clinical challenge leading to high mortality, especially in developing countries. In this study, we sought to describe the epidemiology of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from Vietnamese individuals with BSI, to investigate the concordance of genotypic-phenotypic resistance, and clinical outcome of ESBL E. coli BSI.

Methods: A total of 459 hospitalized patients with BSI were screened between October 2014 and May 2016. 115 E. coli strains from 115 BSI patients were isolated and tested for antibiotic resistance using the VITEK®2 system. The ESBL phenotype was determined by double disk diffusion method following the guideline of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Screening for beta-lactamase (ESBL and carbapenemase) genes was performed using a multiplex-PCR assay.

Results: 58% (67/115) of the E. coli strains were ESBL-producers and all were susceptible to both imipenem and meropenem. Resistance to third-generation cephalosporin was common, 70% (81/115) were cefotaxime-resistant and 45% (52/115) were ceftazidime-resistant. bla was the most common ESBL gene detected (70%; 80/115) The sensitivity and specificity of bla-detection to predict the ESBL phenotype was 87% (76-93% 95% CI) and 54% (39-48% 95% CI), respectively. 28%% (22/80) of bla were classified as non-ESBL producers by phenotypic testing for ESBL production. The detection of bla in ESBL-negative E. coli BSI was associated with fatal clinical outcome (27%; 6/22 versus 8%; 2/26, p = 0.07).

Conclusion: A high prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates harbouring bla was observed in BSI patients in Vietnam. The genotypic detection of bla may have added benefit in optimizing and guiding empirical antibiotic therapy of E. coli BSI to improve clinical outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12941-021-00466-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418716PMC
September 2021

Suppression of LPS-Induced Inflammation and Cell Migration by Azelastine through Inhibition of JNK/NF-κB Pathway in BV2 Microglial Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 23;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 23.

College of Pharmacy and Integrated Research Institute for Drug Development, Dongguk University-Seoul, Goyang 10326, Korea.

The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are implicated in many neuropathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. To explore potential JNK3 inhibitors from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drug library, we performed structure-based virtual screening and identified azelastine (Aze) as one of the candidates. NMR spectroscopy indicated its direct binding to the ATP-binding site of JNK3, validating our observations. Although the antihistamine effect of Aze is well documented, the involvement of the JNK pathway in its action remains to be elucidated. This study investigated the effects of Aze on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced JNK phosphorylation, pro-inflammatory mediators, and cell migration in BV2 microglial cells. Aze was found to inhibit the LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and c-Jun. It also inhibited the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and nitric oxide. Wound healing and transwell migration assays indicated that Aze attenuated LPS-induced BV2 cell migration. Furthermore, Aze inhibited LPS-induced IκB phosphorylation, thereby suppressing nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Aze exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-migratory effects through inhibition of the JNK/NF-κB pathway in BV2 cells. Based on our findings, Aze may be a potential candidate for drug repurposing to mitigate neuroinflammation in various neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22169061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8396433PMC
August 2021

Pathophysiological Roles of Histamine Receptors in Cancer Progression: Implications and Perspectives as Potential Molecular Targets.

Biomolecules 2021 08 18;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

College of Pharmacy and Integrated Research Institute for Drug Development, Dongguk University-Seoul, Goyang, Gyeonggi 10326, Korea.

High levels of histamine and histamine receptors (HRs), including H1R~H4R, are found in many different types of tumor cells and cells in the tumor microenvironment, suggesting their involvement in tumor progression. This review summarizes the latest evidence demonstrating the pathophysiological roles of histamine and its cognate receptors in cancer biology. We also discuss the novel therapeutic approaches of selective HR ligands and their potential prognostic values in cancer treatment. Briefly, histamine is highly implicated in cancer development, growth, and metastasis through interactions with distinct HRs. It also regulates the infiltration of immune cells into the tumor sites, exerting an immunomodulatory function. Moreover, the effects of various HR ligands, including H1R antagonists, H2R antagonists, and H4R agonists, on tumor progression in many different cancer types are described. Interestingly, the expression levels of HR subtypes may serve as prognostic biomarkers in several cancers. Taken together, HRs are promising targets for cancer treatment, and HR ligands may offer novel therapeutic potential, alone or in combination with conventional therapy. However, due to the complexity of the pathophysiological roles of histamine and HRs in cancer biology, further studies are warranted before HR ligands can be introduced into clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11081232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8392479PMC
August 2021

Para-aminosalicylic acid significantly reduced tenofovir exposure in human subjects; mismatched findings from in vitro to in vivo translational research.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Aim: Tenofovir and para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) may be co-prescribed to treat patients with concomitant infections of human immunodeficiency virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria. Both drugs are known to have remarkable renal uptake transporter-mediated clearance. Owing to the lack of clinical studies on drug-drug interaction between the two drugs, we conducted a translational clinical study to investigate the effect of PAS on tenofovir pharmacokinetics.

Methods: Initially, we studied in vitro renal uptake transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions using stably transfected cells with human organic anion transporters (organic anion transporter 1 and 3 [OAT1 and OAT3]). Later, we estimated clinical drug interactions using static and physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Finally, we investigated the effects of PAS-calcium formulation (PAS-Ca) on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate pharmacokinetics in healthy male Korean subjects.

Results: PAS inhibited OAT1- and OAT3-mediated tenofovir uptake in vitro. The PBPK drug-drug interaction model suggested a 1.26-fold increase in tenofovir peak plasma concentration when co-administered with PAS. By contrast, an open-label, randomized, crossover clinical trial evaluating the effects of PAS-Ca on tenofovir pharmacokinetics showed significantly altered geometric mean ratio (90% confidence intervals) of maximum plasma concentration (C ) and area under the curve (AUC ) by 0.33 (0.28-0.38) and 0.29 (0.26-0.33), respectively.

Conclusions: Our study findings suggest that the PAS-Ca formulation significantly reduced systemic exposure to tenofovir through an unexplained mechanism, which was contrary to the initial prediction. Caution should be exercised while predicting in vivo PK profiles from in vitro data, particularly when there are potential confounders such as pharmaceutical interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.15056DOI Listing
August 2021

A Multiple Logistic Regression Model Based on Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase as a Biomarker for Early Prediction of Drug-Induced Liver Injury in Vietnamese Patients.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Hai Phong University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hai Phong, Vietnam.

The discovery of new biomarkers and the causality of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major focus in modern medicine. Alcoholism is considered a risk factor for DILI. However, the extraction and assessment of alcohol history are difficult due to noncooperation by patients and intermittent management. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study of 1277 patients diagnosed with DILI according to the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scale to evaluate gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) as a biomarker for predicting DILI in Vietnamese patients, where the proportion of alcoholism is quite high. Further, we built and validated a logistic regression model to predict the risk of DILI in hospitalized patients. The risk of DILI increased by 10% for 1 UI/L higher levels of GGT before prescription (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.01). A history of alcoholism was not a risk factor for DILI occurrence (OR, 1.83; 95%CI, 0.99-3.04; P = .057). A logistic regression model was successfully built and validated based on age; sex; initial levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatate, GGT, likelihood score of the suspected drug, and history of liver disease; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the model was 0.883 (95%CI, 0.868-0.897). Our results thus suggest the necessity of exercising caution when prescribing to patients without a history of alcoholism but having high GGT levels. This model can be applied clinically to assess the risk of DILI before prescribing to reduce the risk of DILI in the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1955DOI Listing
August 2021

Predictive Factors for Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Following Primary Cleft Palate Repair.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2021 Aug 16:10556656211026861. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McGovern School of Medicine at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston and Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) remains a known complication of primary palatoplasty. We sought to identify factors associated with the incidence of VPI and create a predictive model for VPI development in our population.

Design: A single-institution, retrospective review.

Setting: Multidisciplinary clinic in a tertiary academic institution.

Patients: A total of 453 consecutive patients undergoing primary palatoplasty from 1999 to 2016 were reviewed. Inclusion required follow-up past age 5. Patients who were non-verbal, and thus unable to undergo speech evaluation, were excluded.

Main Outcome Measures: Primary outcome was VPI, defined as revision palatoplasty or recommendation by speech-language pathology.

Results: Of 318 patients included, 179 (56%) were male. Median age at primary repair was 1.0 years (0.9-1.1) with a median age of 8.8 years at last follow-up. One hundred nineteen (37%) patients developed VPI at a median age of 5.0 years (3.8-6.5). Higher rates were seen with posterior fistula (65% vs 14%, <.01) and straight-line repair (41% vs 9%, <.01), with lower rates in patients with Veau I clefts (22% vs 39%, <.05). Patients with VPI were older at last follow-up. Following multivariate regression, factors remaining significant were posterior fistula (odds ratio [OR]: 11.3, 95% CI: 6.1-22.0), primary Furlow repair (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.03-0.68), genetic diagnoses (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.1-7.9), and age at last follow-up (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.01-1.2).

Conclusions: Length of follow-up, posterior fistulae, and genetic diagnoses are associated with VPI formation. Furlow repair may protect against formation of VPI. Use of allograft, Veau class, birth type, birth weight, and race are not independently associated with VPI formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10556656211026861DOI Listing
August 2021

COVID-19-related music-video-watching among the Vietnamese population: lessons on health education.

AIMS Public Health 2021 18;8(3):428-438. Epub 2021 May 18.

Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Health education through music video plays a vital role in raising a person's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors positively connected to health during COVID-19 pandemic.

Objective: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19-related music-video-watching and examine associated factors among the Vietnamese population.

Methods: A cross-sectional study in Vietnam was conducted in February 2021 via the Internet.

Results: Among 658 participants, the prevalence of COVID-19-related music-video-watching was 89.1% among people. In the multivariable regression models, significant factors for COVID-19-related music-video-watching were living area, types of housemate, age groups, and current occupation.

Conclusions: Lessons on health education to fight against the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam could be useful for similar settings in the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/publichealth.2021033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8334633PMC
May 2021

The additive memory and healthspan enhancement effects by the combined treatment of mature silkworm powders and Korean angelica extracts.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Dec 12;281:114520. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Ilsong Institute of Life Sciences, Hallym University, Anyang, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea; Department of Biomedical Gerontology, Hallym University Graduate School, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Silkworm (Bombyx mori) and Korean angelica (KoAg; Angelica gigas Nakai) have been widely used as traditional oriental medicines in Korea, China, and Japan to treat various diseases such as anemia, cold, diabetes, palsy, stroke, etc. Steamed and freeze-dried mature silkworm powder, also known as HongJam (HJ), and extracts of KoAg root (KoAgE) are currently sold in Korea as functional foods to improve memory, cognition, and liver functions. However, the molecular and pharmacological basis for the improvement of brain functions of HJ and KoAgE has not yet been elucidated.

Aim Of Study: This study aimed to elucidate the molecular basis underlying the memory-enhancing effects of HJ and KoAgE and determine whether administration of HJ and KoAgE complexes (HJ+KoAgC) has additive memory and healthspan-enhancing effects.

Materials And Methods: The MCI mouse models generated by intraperitoneal injection of Scopolamine (Sco-IP) were orally administered with HJ and KoAgE alone or as complexes. Their memory-enhancing effects were examined on spatial, fear-aggravated, and social memories and compared with control or Donepezil (Dp) treatment. The activities of mitochondria complex (MitoCom) I-IV and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the amounts of ATP in the mouse brains were examined. The Drosophila model was used to investigate lifespan- and healthspan-promoting effects of HJ+KoAgC.

Results: Administration of HJ+KoAgC produced more memory-enhancing effects than administration of HJ or KoAgE alone or Dp. The increase in MitoCom I-IV activities and ATP amounts and the decrease in AChE activities in the mouse brains were the molecular basis for the memory enhancement. The greatest improvement in memory and mitochondrial function was observed when the mice were administered the 1:0.8 ratio of HJ+KoAgC. Administration of HJ+KoAgC to Drosophila prolonged the lifespan and the healthspan and increased the amounts of ATP.

Conclusion: HJ+KoAgC had superior effects on memory improvement and healthspan extension by increasing mitochondrial activities and ATP amounts in treated animal models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114520DOI Listing
December 2021

Spectrum of hematological malignancies, clonal evolution and outcomes in 144 Mayo Clinic patients with germline predisposition syndromes.

Am J Hematol 2021 Nov 27;96(11):1450-1460. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Division of Hematology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Germline predisposition syndromes (GPS) result from constitutional aberrations in tumor suppressive and homeostatic genes, increasing risk for neoplasia in affected kindred. In this study, we present clinical and genomic data on 144 Mayo Clinic patients with GPS; 59 evaluated prospectively using an algorithm-based diagnostic approach in the setting of a dedicated GPS/ inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) clinic. Seventy-two (50%) patients had IBMFS (telomere biology disorders-32,Fanconi anemia-18, Diamond Blackfan Anemia - 11, congenital neutropenia-5, Schwachman-Diamond Syndrome-5 and Bloom Syndrome-1), 27 (19%) had GPS with antecedent thrombocytopenia (RUNX1-FPD-15, ANKRD26-6, ETV6-2, GATA1-1, MPL-3), 28 (19%) had GPS without antecedent thrombocytopenia (GATA2 haploinsufficiency-16, DDX41-10, CBL-1 and CEBPA-1) and 17 (12%) had general cancer predisposition syndromes (ataxia telangiectasia-7, heterozygous ATM variants-3, CHEK2-2, TP53-2, CDK2NA-1, NF1-1 and Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome-1). Homozygous and heterozygous ATM pathogenic variants were exclusively associated with lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD), while DDX41 GPS was associated with LPD and myeloid neoplasms. The use of somatic NGS-testing identified clonal evolution in GPS patients, with ASXL1, RAS pathway genes, SRSF2 and TET2 being most frequently mutated. Fifty-two (91%) of 59 prospectively identified GPS patients had a change in their management approach, including additional GPS-related screening in 42 (71%), referral for allogenic HSCT workup and screening of related donors in 16 (27%), medication initiation and selection of specific conditioning regimens in 14 (24%), and genetic counseling with specific intent of fertility preservation and preconceptual counseling in 10 (17%) patients; highlighting the importance of dedicated GPS screening, detection and management programs for patients with hematological neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26321DOI Listing
November 2021

Identification of transmissible proteotoxic oligomer-like fibrils that expand conformational diversity of amyloid assemblies.

Commun Biol 2021 08 5;4(1):939. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Department of Chemistry, Université du Québec à Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Protein misfolding and amyloid deposition are associated with numerous diseases. The detailed characterization of the proteospecies mediating cell death remains elusive owing to the (supra)structural polymorphism and transient nature of the assemblies populating the amyloid pathway. Here we describe the identification of toxic amyloid fibrils with oligomer-like characteristics, which were assembled from an islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) derivative containing an Asn-to-Gln substitution (N21Q). While N21Q filaments share structural properties with cytocompatible fibrils, including the 4.7 Å inter-strand distance and β-sheet-rich conformation, they concurrently display characteristics of oligomers, such as low thioflavin-T binding, high surface hydrophobicity and recognition by the A11 antibody, leading to high potency to disrupt membranes and cause cellular dysfunction. The toxic oligomer-like conformation of N21Q fibrils, which is preserved upon elongation, is transmissible to naïve IAPP. These stable fibrils expanding the conformational diversity of amyloid assemblies represent an opportunity to elucidate the structural basis of amyloid disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02466-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8342456PMC
August 2021
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