Publications by authors named "Phillip Chown"

2 Publications

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Toxicity reduction evaluation, toxicity identification evaluation and toxicity tracking in direct toxicity assessment.

Ecotoxicology 2004 Jul;13(5):475-84

AstraZeneca, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham Devon TQ5 8BA, UK.

Toxicity reduction evaluations (TREs) in the River Esk and Lower Tees Estuary were based on the approach described by USEPA, but adapted to tackle the specific problems of the two sites. A combination of toxicity tracking and toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was used at both locations to enhance the understanding of source and type of toxicants present. The assessment of toxicity at Langholm focussed on pesticides present in the sewerage network. The TIE programme indicated that the most likely toxic agents within the effluent were the organophosphate pesticides diazinon and to lesser extent propetamphos, although these did not account for all of the observed toxicity. The exact source of these toxicants was not clear although toxicity tracking identified two potential candidates. The TRE undertaken on the discharge to the lower Tees utilised high-throughput methods with standard test organisms to generate toxicity information throughout a complex sewerage network. The toxicity tracking information was used in conjunction with TIEs to identify a number of key sources of toxicity. Substantial toxicity was associated with a currently untreated industrial effluent. Chemical analysis and TIE highlighted cyanide as the likely toxicant in this effluent and its possible significance in the final discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:ectx.0000035297.90620.73DOI Listing
July 2004

The use of direct toxicity assessment in the assessment and control of complex effluents in the UK: a demonstration programme.

Ecotoxicology 2004 Jul;13(5):423-36

Environment Agency, National Centre for Ecotoxicology and Hazardous Substances, Evenlode House, Howbery Park, Wallingford, Oxon. OX10 8BD, UK.

This paper outlines the background, objectives, methodology, findings, outputs and recommendations from the Direct Toxicity Assessment (DTA) Demonstration Programme. This was a trial of a suite of bioassay methods and a seven-step protocol designed to deliver water quality improvements in catchments with well-defined water quality problems, where ecotoxicity from effluents was a contributing factor. The trial was run as a collaborative venture between the environmental regulators and water and manufacturing industries in the UK and was conducted at three project sites: -a reach of the river Aire near the city of Bradford in Yorkshire; -a reach of the River Esk near the town of Langholm on the border between Scotland and England; and -the lower Tees estuary on the north-east coast of England. The outcomes of each project are summarised in this paper. The learning points delivered by the programme were used to make recommendations to the regulators on how best to use bioassays for the assessment and control of complex effluents in the UK. Guidance was provided on how to carry out the bioassays and on how to use the data generated for regulatory decision-making. The programme also demonstrated how the regulators and the regulated can successfully work together to tackle environmental issues and deliver effective and workable solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/b:ectx.0000035293.45360.f6DOI Listing
July 2004