Publications by authors named "Philippe Quittet"

32 Publications

Effect of Recombinant Zoster Vaccine on Incidence of Herpes Zoster After Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2019 07;322(2):123-133

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Importance: Herpes zoster, a frequent complication following autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), is associated with significant morbidity. A nonlive adjuvanted recombinant zoster vaccine has been developed to prevent posttransplantation zoster.

Objective: To assess the efficacy and adverse event profile of the recombinant zoster vaccine in immunocompromised autologous HSCT recipients.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Phase 3, randomized, observer-blinded study conducted in 167 centers in 28 countries between July 13, 2012, and February 1, 2017, among 1846 patients aged 18 years or older who had undergone recent autologous HSCT.

Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive 2 doses of either recombinant zoster vaccine (n = 922) or placebo (n = 924) administered into the deltoid muscle; the first dose was given 50 to 70 days after transplantation and the second dose 1 to 2 months thereafter.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary end point was occurrence of confirmed herpes zoster cases.

Results: Among 1846 autologous HSCT recipients (mean age, 55 years; 688 [37%] women) who received 1 vaccine or placebo dose, 1735 (94%) received a second dose and 1366 (74%) completed the study. During the 21-month median follow-up, at least 1 herpes zoster episode was confirmed in 49 vaccine and 135 placebo recipients (incidence, 30 and 94 per 1000 person-years, respectively), an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.22-0.44; P < .001), equivalent to 68.2% vaccine efficacy. Of 8 secondary end points, 3 showed significant reductions in incidence of postherpetic neuralgia (vaccine, n=1; placebo, n=9; IRR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.00-0.78; P = .02) and of other prespecified herpes zoster-related complications (vaccine, n=3; placebo, n=13; IRR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.04-0.81; P = .02) and in duration of severe worst herpes zoster-associated pain (vaccine, 892.0 days; placebo, 6275.0 days; hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.42-0.89; P = .01). Five secondary objectives were descriptive. Injection site reactions were recorded in 86% of vaccine and 10% of placebo recipients, of which pain was the most common, occurring in 84% of vaccine recipients (grade 3: 11%). Unsolicited and serious adverse events, potentially immune-mediated diseases, and underlying disease relapses were similar between groups at all time points.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among adults who had undergone autologous HSCT, a 2-dose course of recombinant zoster vaccine compared with placebo significantly reduced the incidence of herpes zoster over a median follow-up of 21 months.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01610414.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.9053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6618796PMC
July 2019

Association of Occupational Pesticide Exposure With Immunochemotherapy Response and Survival Among Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.

JAMA Netw Open 2019 04 5;2(4):e192093. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Biostatistics, Clinical Epidemiology, Public Health, and Innovation in Methodology, Nîmes University Hospital, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Importance: Professional use of pesticides is a risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The main biological mechanisms of pesticides and chemotherapy are genotoxicity and reactive oxygen species generation. Cellular adaptation among patients exposed to low doses of genotoxic and oxidative compounds might hinder chemotherapy efficiency in patients with lymphoma.

Objective: To examine the association of occupational exposure to pesticides with immunochemotherapy response and survival among patients treated for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This retrospective cohort study assessed patients treated from July 1, 2010, to May 31, 2015, for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, with a 2-year follow-up. The study took place at 6 university and nonuniversity hospitals in Languedoc-Roussillon, France. A total of 404 patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated with anthracycline-based immunochemotherapy were included before the study began. Occupational history was reconstructed for 244 patients and analyzed with the PESTIPOP French job-exposure matrix to determine likelihood of occupational exposure to pesticides. Analysis of the data was performed from July 15, 2017, to July 15, 2018.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Treatment failure (ie, partial response, stable disease, disease progression, or interruption for toxic effects) rate, 2-year event-free survival, and overall survival between exposed and nonexposed patients after adjustment for confounding factors.

Results: A total of 244 patients (mean [SD] age, 61.3 [15.2] years; 153 [62.7%] male) had complete occupational data. Of these patients, 67 (27.4%) had occupational exposure to pesticides, with 38 exposed through agricultural occupations. Occupational exposure was not associated with clinical and biological characteristics at diagnosis. Occupationally exposed patients had a significantly higher treatment failure rate (22.4% vs 11.3%; P = .03; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for confounding factors, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.3-6.9); this difference was higher among patients with exposing agricultural occupations compared with other patients (29.0% vs 11.7%; AOR, 5.1; 95% CI, 2.0-12.8). Two-year event-free survival was 70% in the occupationally exposed group vs 82% in the unexposed group (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for confounding factors, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9). Among patients with exposing agricultural occupations compared with other patients, the difference was more pronounced (2-year event-free survival, 56% vs 83%; AHR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.9-6.5). Similarly, 2-year overall survival was lower in the group of patients with exposing agricultural occupations compared with other patients (81% vs 92%; AHR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.5-10.0).

Conclusions And Relevance: This retrospective study showed that agricultural occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with treatment failure, event-free survival, and overall survival among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.2093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6481431PMC
April 2019

PET-adapted treatment for newly diagnosed advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (AHL2011): a randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority, phase 3 study.

Lancet Oncol 2019 02 15;20(2):202-215. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

LYSA Imaging, Hôpital H Mondor, Creteil, France.

Background: Increased-dose bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (BEACOPP) improves progression-free survival in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma compared with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD), but is associated with increased risks of haematological toxicity, secondary myelodysplasia or leukaemia, and infertility. We investigated whether PET monitoring during treatment could allow dose de-escalation by switching regimen (BEACOPP to ABVD) in early responders without loss of disease control compared with standard treatment without PET monitoring.

Methods: AHL2011 is a randomised, non-inferiority, phase 3 study done in 90 centres across Belgium and France. Eligible patients were aged 16-60 years and had newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma, excluding nodular lymphocyte predominant subtype, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score less than 3, a life expectancy of at least 3 months, an Ann Arbor disease stage III, IV, or IIB with mediastinum-to-thorax ratio of 0·33 or greater than or extranodal localisation, and had received no previous treatment for Hodgkin lymphoma. Randomisation was unmasked and done centrally by the permuted block method. Patients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (BEACOPP given every 21 days for six cycles) or PET-driven treatment. All patients received two cycles of upfront BEACOPP, after which PET assessment was done (PET2). In the standard treatment group, PET2 patients completed two additional cycles of BEACOPP induction therapy irrespective of PET2 findings. In the PET-driven treatment group, patients with positive PET2 scans received the further two cycles of BEACOPP and those with a negative PET2 scan switched to two cycles of ABVD for the remaining induction therapy. In both treatment groups, PET at the end of induction therapy was used to decide whether to continue with consolidation therapy in those with negative scans or start salvage therapy in patients with positive scans (either two cycles of ABVD in PET2-negative patients in the PET-driven arm or two cycles of BEACOPP). BEACOPP consisted of bleomycin 10 mg/m and vincristine 1·4 mg/m intravenously on day 8, etoposide 200 mg/m intravenously on days 1-3, doxorubicin 35 mg/m and cyclophosphamide 1250 mg/m intravenously on day 1, 100 mg/m oral procarbazine on days 1-7, and 40 mg/m oral prednisone on days 1-14. ABVD was given every 28 days (doxorubicin 25 mg/m, bleomycin 10 mg/m, vinblastine 6 mg/m, and dacarbazine 375 mg/m intravenously on days 1 and 15). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. Non-inferiority analyses were done by intention to treat and per protocol. The study had a non-inferiority margin of 10%, to show non-inferiority of PET-guided treatment versus standard care with 80% power and an alpha of 2·5% (one-sided). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01358747.

Findings: From May 19, 2011, to April 29, 2014, 823 patients were enrolled-413 in the standard care group and 410 in the PET-driven group. 346 (84%) of 410 patients in the PET-driven treatment group were assigned to receive ABVD and 51 (12%) to continue receiving BEACOPP after PET2. With a median follow-up of 50·4 months (IQR 42·9-59·3), 5-year progression-free survival by intention to treat was 86·2%, 95% CI 81·6-89·8 in the standard treatment group versus 85·7%, 81·4-89·1 in the PET-driven treatment group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·084, 95% CI 0·737-1·596; p=0·65) and per protocol the values were 86·7%, 95% CI 81·9-90·3 and 85·4%, 80·7-89·0, respectively (HR 1·144, 0·758-1·726; p=0·74). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were leucopenia (381 [92%] in the standard treatment group and 387 [95%] in the PET-driven treatment group), neutropenia (359 [87%] and 366 [90%]), anaemia (286 [69%] vs 114 [28%]), thrombocytopenia (271 [66%] and 163 [40%]), febrile neutropenia (145 [35%] and 93 [23%]), infections (88 [22%] and 47 [11%]), and gastrointestinal disorders (49 [11%] and 48 [11%]). Serious adverse events related to treatment were reported in 192 (47%) patients in the standard treatment group and 114 (28%) in the PET-driven treatment group, including infections (84 [20%] of 412 vs 50 [12%] of 407) and febrile neutropenia (21 [5%] vs 23 [6%]). Six (1%) patients in the standard care group died from treatment-related causes (two from septic shock, two from pneumopathy, one from heart failure, and one from acute myeloblastic leukaemia), as did two (<1%) in the PET-driven treatment group (one from septic shock and one from acute myeloblastic leukaemia).

Interpretation: PET after two cycles of induction BEACOPP chemotherapy safely guided treatment in patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma and allowed the use of ABVD in early responders without impairing disease control and reduced toxicities. PET staging allowed accurate monitoring of treatment in this trial and could be considered as a strategy for the routine management of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma.

Funding: Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30784-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Tandem haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for High Risk relapsed/refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma: a LYSA study.

Br J Haematol 2018 05 2;181(3):341-349. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

Hopital Saint Louis, Paris, France.

Tandem stem cell transplantation (SCT) is an option for high-risk relapsed/refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) patients. We evaluated the tolerance/efficacy of double autologous or autologous SCT (ASCT) followed by allogenic SCT (alloSCT) in 120 HL patients prospectively registered on a French nationwide database. Median age was 26 (14-56) years. Complete remission rate was 60%, including 33% after a single line, and another 27% after two or more salvage regimens. Partial response rate was 32%, and 8% suffered treatment failure. Overall, 115 (96%) patients underwent a first ASCT, and 73 (61%) had a tandem SCT, including alloSCT in 44 (60%) and ASCT in 29 (40%). The median follow-up was 43 months (4.8-73.7 months). The two-year progression-free survival rate for the whole population and for patients receiving tandem transplant was 56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 46-65%) and 71% (95% CI: 49-84%), respectively. Among tandem transplants, we observed 20 deaths (17%), 10 of which were transplant-related (6 alloSCT and 4 ASCT). We suggest that tandem SCT is efficient in high-risk relapsed/refractory HL patients, although transplant-related mortality remains high. The benefit of tandem SCT should be balanced with the efficacy of Brentuximab vedotin-based post-transplant consolidative strategies in high-risk relapsed/refractory HL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15184DOI Listing
May 2018

Interim PET Response-adapted Strategy in Untreated Advanced Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Results of GOELAMS LH 2007 Phase 2 Multicentric Trial.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2018 03 31;18(3):191-198. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Hematology Department, Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble, France.

Background: Patients with advanced stage Hodgkin lymphoma still present unsatisfactory outcomes.

Patients And Methods: The Groupe d'étude des Leucémies Aigues et des Maladies du Sang (GOELAMS) group conducted a prospective multicentric trial (NCT00920153) for advanced stage Hodgkin lymphoma to evaluate a positron emission tomography (PET)-adapted strategy. Patients received an intensive regimen (VABEM [vindesine, doxorubicin, carmustine, etoposide, and methylprednisolone]) in front-line and interim FDG-PET evaluation after 2 courses (PET-2). Patients with negative PET-2 findings received 1 additional course. Patients with positive PET-2 findings underwent early salvage therapy followed by high-dose therapy/autologous stem cell transplantation.

Results: Fifty-one patients were included. The final complete remission rate was 88%. With a median follow up of 5.3 years, 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 75.3% and 85.3%, respectively, for the whole cohort. Patients who were PET-2-negative had 5-year event-free survival and overall survival rates of, respectively, 77.8% and 88.2% versus 85.1% and 91.7% for patients who were PET-2-positive.

Conclusion: A PET-guided strategy with early salvage therapy and high-dose therapy/autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with interim PET-2-positive findings is safe and feasible and provide similar outcome as patients with a negative PET-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2018.01.003DOI Listing
March 2018

Nilotinib after imatinib first-line: a real-life longitudinal cohort of patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia in chronic phase.

Br J Haematol 2018 02 19;180(3):356-364. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Fi LMC group, Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux, France.

This prospective, observational study enrolled 150 adult patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in chronic phase (CP) treated with nilotinib as second-line after imatinib, in a real life setting in France. Two-thirds of patients switched to nilotinib treatment due to lack of imatinib efficacy. Of 146 evaluable patients, 16 (11·0%) (95% confidence interval: 6·4-17·2%) achieved uMR , defined as undetectable molecular disease in cDNA with MR sensitivity (≥10 000 ABL1 transcripts) at 18 months and confirmed at 24 months (primary endpoint). Among patients without major molecular response (MMR) or deep molecular response (DMR) at study entry, 66·3% achieved MMR and 44·2% DMR within a median of 5·7 and 6·24 months, respectively. Fifty-three patients (36·3%) have prematurely terminated the study before 24 months of follow-up, primarily due to nilotinib treatment discontinuation (n = 43; 29·5%), mainly motivated by treatment intolerance (n = 27; 18·5%) and inefficacy (n = 10; 6·8%). The most frequent extra-haematological adverse events (AEs) reported as related to treatment with nilotinib were pruritus (16·4%), asthenia (13·7%) and dry skin (13·0%). Ischaemic cardiovascular AEs were reported in 18 patients (12·3%). This French nationwide large cohort adds valuable information to the body of evidence on the efficiency and safety of nilotinib in the treatment of patients with CP-CML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15042DOI Listing
February 2018

Comparison of 36 Gy, 20 Gy, or No Radiation Therapy After 6 Cycles of EBVP Chemotherapy and Complete Remission in Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma Without Risk Factors: Results of the EORT-GELA H9-F Intergroup Randomized Trial.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 04 27;100(5):1133-1145. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

Centre de Traitement des Données du Cancéropôle Nord-Ouest, Centre François Baclesse, Caen, France. Electronic address:

Purpose: While patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) have an excellent outcome with combined treatment, the radiation therapy (RT) dose and treatment with chemotherapy alone remain questionable. This noninferiority trial evaluates the feasibility of reducing the dose or omitting RT after chemotherapy.

Methods And Materials: Patients with untreated supradiaphragmatic HL without risk factors (age ≥ 50 years, 4 to 5 nodal areas involved, mediastinum-thoracic ratio ≥ 0.35, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate ≥ 50 mm in first hour without B symptoms or erythrocyte sedimentation rate ≥ 30 mm in first hour with B symptoms) were eligible for the trial. Patients in complete remission after chemotherapy were randomized to no RT, low-dose RT (20 Gy in 10 fractions), or standard-dose involved-field RT (36 Gy in 18 fractions). The limit of noninferiority was 10% for the difference between 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) estimates. From September 1998 to May 2004, 783 patients received 6 cycles of epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and prednisone; 592 achieved complete remission or unconfirmed complete remission, of whom 578 were randomized to receive 36 Gy (n=239), 20 Gy of involved-field RT (n=209), or no RT (n=130).

Results: Randomization to the no-RT arm was prematurely stopped (≥20% rate of inacceptable events: toxicity, treatment modification, early relapse, or death). Results in the 20-Gy arm (5-year RFS, 84.2%) were not inferior to those in the 36-Gy arm (5-year RFS, 88.6%) (difference, 4.4%; 90% confidence interval [CI] -1.2% to 9.9%). A difference of 16.5% (90% CI 8.0%-25.0%) in 5-year RFS estimates was observed between the no-RT arm (69.8%) and the 36-Gy arm (86.3%); the hazard ratio was 2.55 (95% CI 1.44-4.53; P<.001). The 5-year overall survival estimates ranged from 97% to 99%.

Conclusions: In adult patients with early-stage HL without risk factors in complete remission after epirubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and prednisone chemotherapy, the RT dose may be limited to 20 Gy without compromising disease control. Omitting RT in these patients may jeopardize the treatment outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.10.015DOI Listing
April 2018

Cytomegalovirus Infection With Retinitis After Brentuximab Vedotin Treatment for CD30 Lymphoma.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2017 5;4(2):ofx091. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Département d'Hématologie Clinique.

Brentuximab vedotin is an antibody-conjugated chemotherapy targeting CD30 indicated in treatment of several lymphomas. We report the first 3 cases of cytomegalovirus severe infections with retinitis following this treatment. Evolution was favorable, but relapse occurred after treatment rechallenge. We suggest vigilance about cytomegalovirus in patients treated with brentuximab vedotin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofx091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5473439PMC
April 2017

A large observational study of patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia receiving romiplostim in European clinical practice.

Eur J Haematol 2017 Feb 26;98(2):112-120. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

International Medical Development and Research, Amgen (Europe) GmbH, Zug, Switzerland.

Objective: Romiplostim has maintained long-term platelet counts in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) for up to 5 yr in clinical studies. This prospective observational study aimed to describe romiplostim utilisation and outcomes in European clinical practice.

Methods: Adults with primary ITP who received romiplostim in routine care were eligible.

Results: Three-hundred and forty patients were eligible for analysis, of whom 299 (88%) completed the 2-yr observation period. The median age was 62 yr, with 43% of patients aged ≥65 yr, and two-thirds of patients initiated romiplostim before splenectomy. The median average weekly dose of romiplostim was 2.8 μg/kg. The median baseline platelet count was 20 × 10 /L, which increased after 2 wk of romiplostim treatment and remained >50 × 10 /L thereafter. After romiplostim initiation, there was a decrease in rates of grade ≥3 bleeding events (from 12 to 2 per 100 patient-years) and ITP-related hospitalisations (from 87 to 33 per 100 patient-years). The rate of thrombotic events was 2 per 100 patient-years, and bone marrow fibrosis occurred in two patients.

Conclusions: Romiplostim dosing, effectiveness and safety in an unselected real-world ITP population seemed comparable with that observed in clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12807DOI Listing
February 2017

Immune thrombocytopenia in adults: a prospective cohort study of clinical features and predictors of outcome.

Haematologica 2016 09 26;101(9):1039-45. Epub 2016 May 26.

Centre de Référence des Cytopénies Auto-Immunes de l'Adulte, Service de Médecine Interne, CHU Henri Mondor, Créteil, France.

This prospective observational cohort study aimed to explore the clinical features of incident immune thrombocytopenia in adults and predictors of outcome, while determining if a family history of autoimmune disorder is a risk factor for immune thrombocytopenia. All adults, 18 years of age or older, recently diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia were consecutively recruited across 21 hospital centers in France. Data were collected at diagnosis and after 12 months. Predictors of chronicity at 12 months were explored using logistic regression models. The association between family history of autoimmune disorder and the risk of developing immune thrombocytopenia was explored using a conditional logistic regression model after matching each case to 10 controls. One hundred and forty-three patients were included: 63% female, mean age 48 years old (Standard Deviation=19), and 84% presented with bleeding symptoms. Median platelet count was 10×10(9)/L. Initial treatment was required in 82% of patients. After 12 months, only 37% of patients not subject to disease-modifying interventions achieved cure. The sole possible predictor of chronicity at 12 months was a higher platelet count at baseline [Odds Ratio 1.03; 95%CI: 1.00, 1.06]. No association was found between outcome and any of the following features: age, sex, presence of either bleeding symptoms or antinuclear antibodies at diagnosis. Likewise, family history of autoimmune disorder was not associated with incident immune thrombocytopenia. Immune thrombocytopenia in adults has been shown to progress to a chronic form in the majority of patients. A lower platelet count could be indicative of a more favorable outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2016.146373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5060020PMC
September 2016

[Management of the cardiovascular disease risk during nilotinib treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia: 2015 recommendations from the France Intergroupe des Leucémies Myéloïdes Chroniques].

Bull Cancer 2016 Feb 11;103(2):180-9. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou, service de médecine vasculaire, Inserm U970, 20, rue Leblanc, 75015 Paris, France.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the BCR-ABL oncoprotein represent an outstanding progress in chronic myeloid leukemia and long-term progression-free survival has become a reality for a majority of patients. However, tyrosine kinase inhibitors may at best chronicize rather than cure the disease thus current recommendation is to pursue treatment indefinitely. As a consequence, high quality treatment and care must integrate optimal disease control and treatment tolerability. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have an overall favorable safety profile in clinical practice since most adverse events are mild to moderate in intensity. However, recent evidence has emerged that new generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors may sometimes damage vital organs and if not adequately managed, morbidity and mortality may increase. The 2nd generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib is licensed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia with resistance or intolerance to imatinib and newly diagnosed chronic phase-chronic myeloid leukemia. Nilotinib represents an important therapeutic option but it is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of this article by the France Intergroupe des Leucémies Myéloïdes Chroniques is to provide an overview of nilotinib efficacy and cardiovascular safety profile and to propose practical recommendations with the goal to minimize the risk and severity of cardiovascular events in nilotinib-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2015.11.008DOI Listing
February 2016

Impact of post-brentuximab vedotin consolidation on relapsed/refractory CD30+ Hodgkin lymphomas: a large retrospective study on 240 patients enrolled in the French Named-Patient Program.

Haematologica 2016 Apr 14;101(4):466-73. Epub 2016 Jan 14.

Hôpital Saint Louis AP-HP, Université Diderot, Paris, France.

Brentuximab vedotin was reported to be effective and safe against refractory/relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma in cohorts of between 12 to 102 patients. Herein we report our retrospective analysis of the French experience with brentuximab vedotin used alone to treat 240 refractory/relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma patients enrolled in a named patient program between 2011 and 2013. All patients had histologically documented CD30+ Hodgkin lymphoma; 74% had refractory disease or early relapses. After a median of 3 lines of chemotherapy, brentuximab vedotin was infused intravenously (1.8 mg/kg every 3 weeks). The primary endpoint was best response. Response at the end of treatment, its duration, survival data and toxicity profile were secondary endpoints. Patients received a median of 6 cycles; 68 underwent a consolidation thereafter. The best response was observed after a median of 4 cycles in 145 (60.4%) patients: 33.8% complete response/unconfirmed complete response, 26.7% partial response. Objective responses were observed as decreased (39.3%) in the 28 patients >60 years. The median response duration was 8.4 months. With median follow-up at 16.1 months, median progression-free survival was 6.8 months and this was significantly longer for patients transplanted after brentuximab vedotin (a median of 18,8 months); median overall survival was not reached. No death has been linked to brentuximab vedotin toxicity. The most common adverse events were peripheral sensory neuropathy (29.3%) and hematological toxicity. The results of this analysis support the previously reported brentuximab vedotin efficacy with manageable toxicity. Because of the short-term responses in most patients, a high-dose therapy with stem cell transplantation for responders should be considered as quickly as possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2015.134213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5004383PMC
April 2016

A phase 1 clinical trial of the selective BTK inhibitor ONO/GS-4059 in relapsed and refractory mature B-cell malignancies.

Blood 2016 Jan 5;127(4):411-9. Epub 2015 Nov 5.

Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Service d'Hématologie, Pierre-Bénite, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France;

We report the results of a multicenter phase 1 dose-escalation study of the selective Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ONO/GS-4059 in 90 patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell malignancies. There were 9 dose-escalation cohorts ranging from 20 mg to 600 mg once daily with twice-daily regimens of 240 mg and 300 mg. Twenty-four of 25 evaluable chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients (96%) responded to ONO/GS-4059, with a median treatment duration of 80 weeks; 21 CLL patients remain on treatment. Lymph node responses were rapid and associated with a concurrent lymphocytosis. Eleven of 12 evaluable patients with mantle cell lymphoma (92%) responded (median treatment duration, 40 weeks). Eleven of 31 non-germinal center B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients (35%) responded but median treatment duration was 12 weeks due to development of progressive disease. ONO/GS-4059 was very well tolerated with 75% of adverse events (AEs) being Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 grade 1 or grade 2. Grade 3/4 AEs were mainly hematologic and recovered spontaneously during therapy. One CLL patient experienced a grade 3 treatment-related bleeding event (spontaneous muscle hematoma) but no clinically significant diarrhea, cardiac dysrhythmias, or arthralgia were observed. No maximal tolerated dose (MTD) was reached in the CLL cohort. In the non-Hodgkin lymphoma cohort, 4 patients developed a dose-limiting toxicity, yielding an MTD of 480 mg once daily. ONO/GS-4059 has significant activity in relapsed/refractory B-cell malignancies without major drug-related toxicity. The selectivity of ONO/GS-4059 should confer advantages in combination therapies. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01659255.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-08-664086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4731845PMC
January 2016

Reversible hypothalamic-pituitary axis involvement in a patient with intravascular lymphomatosis.

J Neuroradiol 2014 Dec 30;41(5):360-2. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

Neurology Department, Montpellier University Hospital Center, Gui-de-Chauliac Hospital, 80, avenue Augustin-Fliche, 34295 Montpellier cedex 5, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2014.03.003DOI Listing
December 2014

High response rate and acceptable toxicity of a combination of rituximab, vinorelbine, ifosfamide, mitoxantrone and prednisone for the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in first relapse: results of the R-NIMP GOELAMS study.

Br J Haematol 2013 Jul 21;162(2):240-9. Epub 2013 May 21.

Department of Haematology and Cell Therapy, CHRU de Tours, Tours, France.

The optimal management of relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is not standardized. The Groupe Ouest Est des Leucémies et aAutres Maladies du Sang developed a combination of vinorelbine, ifosfamide, mitoxantrone and prednisone (NIMP) for the treatment of relapsed DLBCL, and assessed its efficacy and safety in association with rituximab (R). This multicentric phase II study included 50 patients with DLBCL in first relapse, aged 18-75 years. Patients received rituximab 375 mg/m² day 1, ifosfamide 1000 mg/m² days 1-5, vinorelbine 25 mg/m² days 1 and 15, mitoxantrone 10 mg/m² day 1, and prednisone 1 mg/kg days 1-5, every 28 days for three cycles. Responding patients underwent autologous transplantation or received three additional R-NIMP cycles. All patients were evaluable for toxicity and 49 for response. Centralized pathology review confirmed DLBCL in all cases. Toxicities were mainly haematological with infectious events needing hospitalization in nine cases. Two toxic deaths were observed. After three cycles, 22 patients (44%) achieved complete response/unconfirmed complete response, 11 achieved partial response (24%), 2 had stable disease and 13 progressed. The non-germinal centre B immunophenotype was associated with shorter progression-free survival. in conclusion, the R-NIMP regimen displayed significant activity in relapsed DLBCL, with acceptable toxicity and should be considered a candidate for combination with new agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.12379DOI Listing
July 2013

Cost effectiveness of pegfilgrastim versus filgrastim after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with lymphoma and myeloma: an economic evaluation of the PALM Trial.

Appl Health Econ Health Policy 2013 Apr;11(2):129-38

Department Cancer and Environment, Cancer Centre Léon Bérard, University of Lyon, GATE Lyon-St Etienne, UMR-CNRS 5824, 28 rue Laënnec, 69373, Lyon Cedex 08, France.

Background: Use of the recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) filgrastim accelerates neutrophil recovery following myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Since filgrastim requires multiple daily administrations, forms of rhG-CSF with a longer half life, including pegfilgrastim, have been developed. Pegfilgrastim is safe and effective in supporting neutrophil recovery and reducing febrile neutropenia after conventional chemotherapy. Pegfilgrastim has also been successfully used to support patients undergoing peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation for haematological malignancies. To our knowledge, no cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of pegfilgrastim in this setting has been published yet.

Objective: We undertook a CEA to compare a single injection of pegfilgrastim versus repeated administrations of filgrastim in patients who had undergone PBSC transplantation for lymphoma or myeloma. The CEA was set in France and covered a period of 100 ± 10 days from transplant.

Methods: The CEA was designed as part of an open-label, multicentre, randomized phase II trial. Costs were assessed from the hospital's point of view and are expressed in 2009 euros. Costs computation focused on inpatient, outpatient, and home care. Costs in the two arms of the study were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. When differences were statistically significant, multiple regression analyses were performed in order to identify cost drivers. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated for the major endpoints of the trial; i.e., duration of febrile neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] <0.5 × 10(9)/L and temperature ≥38 °C), duration of neutropenia (ANC <1.0 × 10(9)/L and ANC <0.5 × 10(9)/L), duration of thrombopenia (platelets <50 × 10(9)/L and <20 × 10(9)/L), and days with a temperature ≥38 °C). Uncertainty around the ICER was captured by a probabilistic analysis using a non-parametric bootstrap method.

Results: 151 patients were enrolled at ten French centres from October 2008 to September 2009. The mean total cost in the pegfilgrastim arm of the study (n = 74) was 25,024 (SD 9,945). That in the filgrastim arm (n = 76) was 28,700 (SD 20,597). Pegfilgrastim strictly dominated filgrastim for days of febrile neutropenia avoided, days of neutropenia (ANC <1.0 × 10(9)/L) avoided, days of thrombopenia (platelets <20 × 10(9)/L) avoided, and days with temperature ≥38 °C) avoided. Pegfilgrastim was less costly and less effective than filgrastim for the number of days with ANC <0.5 × 10(9)/L avoided and the number of days with platelets <50.0 × 10(9)/L avoided. Taking uncertainty into account, the probabilities that pegfilgrastim strictly dominated filgrastim were 67 % for febrile neutropenia, 86 % for neutropenia (ANC <1.0 × 10(9)/L), 59 % for thrombopenia (platelets <20 × 10(9)/L), 86 % for temperature ≥38 °C, 32 % for neutropenia (ANC <0.5 × 10(9)/L), and 43 % for thrombopenia (platelets <50 × 10(9)/L). Conversely, the probability that filgrastim strictly dominated pegfilgrastim for neutropenia (ANC <0.5 × 10(9)/L) is 5 %.

Conclusion: This study found no evidence that the use of pegfilgrastim is associated with greater cost in lymphoma and myeloma patients after high-dose chemotherapy and PBSC transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40258-013-0011-7DOI Listing
April 2013

Residual malignant and normal plasma cells shortly after high dose melphalan and stem cell transplantation. Highlight of a putative therapeutic window in Multiple Myeloma?

Oncotarget 2012 Nov;3(11):1335-47

INSERM, U1040, Montpellier, France.

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is an incurable malignant plasma cell disorder. We have evaluated the counts of Multiple Myeloma Cells (MMCs) and normal plasma cells (N-PCs), seven days after high-dose melphalan (HDM) and autologous stem transplantation (ASCT). Two third of patients had detectable minimal residual disease (MRD+) (71.7 MMCs/µL) after induction treatment with dexamethasone and proteasome inhibitor. MMC counts were reduced by 92% (P ≤ .05) but not eradicated 7 days after HDM+ASCT. Post-HDM+ASCT MMCs were viable and bathed in a burst of MMC growth factors, linked with post-HDM aplasia. In one third of patients (MRD- patients), MMCs were not detectable after induction treatment and remained undetectable after HDM+ASCT. Major difference between MRD- and MRD+ patients is that N-PC counts were increased 3 fold (P〈.05) by HDM+ASCT in MRD- patients, but were unaffected in MRD+ patients. Possible explanation could be that clearance of MMCs in MRD- patients makes more niches available for N-PCs. Thus, MMCs are not fully eradicated shortly after HDM, are bathed in high concentrations of MMC growth factors in an almost desert BM, are viable in short-term culture, which suggests providing additional therapies shortly after HDM to kill resistant MMCs before full repair of lesions.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4539173PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.650DOI Listing
November 2012

A case-control study to assess the risk of immune thrombocytopenia associated with vaccines.

Blood 2012 Dec 24;120(25):4938-44. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

LA-SER, 10 Place de Catalogne, Paris, France.

The cause of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) remains unknown. Studies have suggested immunizations as possible triggering factors of ITP through molecular mimicry. This case-control study explored potential associations between adult ITP and various routinely administered vaccines. A network of internal medicine and hematology centers across France recruited 198 incident (ie, newly diagnosed) cases of ITP between April 2008 and June 2011. These cases were compared with 878 age- and sex-matched controls without ITP recruited in general practice. Information on vaccination was obtained from patients' standardized telephone interviews. Sixty-six of 198 cases (33.3%) and 303 of 878 controls (34.5%) received at least 1 vaccine within the 12 months before the index date. We found no evidence of an increase in ITP after vaccination in the previous 6 or 12 months (adjusted odds ratio [OR] for the previous 12 months = 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.4). When the 2-month time window was used, higher ORs were observed for all vaccines (OR = 1.3). This increase was mainly attributable to the vaccination against diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-poliomyelitis (OR = 1.5) and was not statistically significant. The results of the present study show that in an adult population, the exposure to common vaccines is on average not associated with an observable risk of developing ITP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2012-05-431098DOI Listing
December 2012

Intermediate stage Hodgkin lymphoma in partial remission after three or four courses of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine dacarbazine: no benefit of one course of intensive chemotherapy before irradiation.

Leuk Lymphoma 2013 Jan 9;54(1):76-82. Epub 2012 Jul 9.

Molecular Oncology and Virology Laboratory, Paris-Descartes University, Paris, France.

The H97-I trial (1997-2004) for Hodgkin lymphoma at intermediate stage (HL-I) included 269 patients who were randomized to receive three or four cycles of doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD). The 197 patients who reached complete remission (CR) (73.2%, p = 0.41 between arms) received radiotherapy (RT); their 10-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 87.7 ± 3.0%, similar to that of the 180 patients of a historical control group (HCG) in CR after three ABVD cycles before RT. The 59 patients who reached post-ABVD partial remission (PR) received one course of intensive chemotherapy (i.v., mg/m(2), vindesine 5, adriamycin 90, BCNU 140, etoposide 600, methylprednisolone 600) before RT. In spite of this additional intensive chemotherapy, their PFS rate (78.4 ± 6.3%) remained significantly lower (p = 0.03) than that of the 197 patients who reached post-ABVD CR, and was similar to that of the 60 patients of the HCG in PR after three ABVD cycles who did not receive additional chemotherapy before RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2012.701737DOI Listing
January 2013

Rituximab before splenectomy in adults with primary idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a meta-analysis.

Br J Haematol 2012 Aug 22;158(3):386-98. Epub 2012 May 22.

Haematology Department, University Hospital Saint-Eloi, Montpellier, France.

Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired immune-mediated disorder with absence of any underlying cause. Corticosteroids are the standard initial treatment. Splenectomy is the main second-line treatment. A trend to delay or avoid splenectomy has developed thanks to new agents like rituximab. Few studies have assessed the response rate to rituximab in chronic ITP. We performed the first meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials and observational studies on rituximab as an effective splenectomy-avoiding option in adult chronic ITP. Overall methods were adapted from published guidelines for meta-analysis (meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology and preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses). Two haematologist investigators carried out study selection and data extraction independently, recording overall response rate (ORR) and complete response (CR) as primary assessment criteria. Of 364 records were identified through electronic databases. Of 19 retrospective or prospective observational studies were retained after removing duplicate studies and full-text analyses. The ORR was 57% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 48-65), for 368 non-splenectomized patients after rituximab; CR was 41% (95% CI: 0·33-0·51) for 346 patients. Results were stable for ORR and CR in all sub-analyses. In univariate or multivariate mixed-effect meta-regression, age was the most relevant effect. According to our results, rituximab should be used in earlier in non-splenectomized patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2012.09169.xDOI Listing
August 2012

Romiplostim safety and efficacy for immune thrombocytopenia in clinical practice: 2-year results of 72 adults in a romiplostim compassionate-use program.

Blood 2011 Oct 10;118(16):4338-45. Epub 2011 Aug 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri-Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris Est Créteil, Créteil, France.

Romiplostim, a thrombopoietic agent with demonstrated efficacy against immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in prospective controlled studies, was recently licensed for adults with chronic ITP. Only France has allowed romiplostim compassionate use since January 2008. ITP patients could receive romiplostim when they failed to respond to successive corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, rituximab, and splenectomy, or when splenectomy was not indicated. We included the first 80 patients enrolled in this program with at least 2 years of follow-up. Primary platelet response (platelet count ≥ 50 × 10(9)/L and double baseline) was observed in 74% of all patients. Long-term responses (2 years) were observed in 47 (65%) patients, 37 (79%) had sustained platelet responses with a median platelet count of 106 × 10(9)/L (interquartile range, 75-167 × 10(9)/L), and 10 (21%) were still taking romiplostim, despite a median platelet count of 38 × 10(9)/L (interquartile range, 35-44 × 10(9)/L), but with clinical benefit (lower dose and/or fewer concomitant treatment(s) and/or diminished bleeding signs). A high bleeding score and use of concomitant ITP therapy were baseline factors predicting romiplostim failure. The most frequently reported adverse events were: arthralgias (26%), fatigue (13%), and nausea (7%). Our results confirmed that romiplostim use in clinical practice is effective and safe for severe chronic ITP. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01013181.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2011-03-340166DOI Listing
October 2011

Stomatin-deficient cryohydrocytosis results from mutations in SLC2A1: a novel form of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome.

Blood 2011 Nov 26;118(19):5267-77. Epub 2011 Jul 26.

Bristol Institute for Transfusion Sciences, NHS Blood and Transplant, Bristol, United Kingdom.

The hereditary stomatocytoses are a series of dominantly inherited hemolytic anemias in which the permeability of the erythrocyte membrane to monovalent cations is pathologically increased. The causative mutations for some forms of hereditary stomatocytosis have been found in the transporter protein genes, RHAG and SLC4A1. Glucose transporter 1 (glut1) deficiency syndromes (glut1DSs) result from mutations in SLC2A1, encoding glut1. Glut1 is the main glucose transporter in the mammalian blood-brain barrier, and glut1DSs are manifested by an array of neurologic symptoms. We have previously reported 2 cases of stomatin-deficient cryohydrocytosis (sdCHC), a rare form of stomatocytosis associated with a cold-induced cation leak, hemolytic anemia, and hepatosplenomegaly but also with cataracts, seizures, mental retardation, and movement disorder. We now show that sdCHC is associated with mutations in SLC2A1 that cause both loss of glucose transport and a cation leak, as shown by expression studies in Xenopus oocytes. On the basis of a 3-dimensional model of glut1, we propose potential mechanisms underlying the phenotypes of the 2 mutations found. We investigated the loss of stomatin during erythropoiesis and find this occurs during reticulocyte maturation and involves endocytosis. The molecular basis of the glut1DS, paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia, and sdCHC phenotypes are compared and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2010-12-326645DOI Listing
November 2011

High ratio of interfollicular CD8/FOXP3-positive regulatory T cells is associated with a high FLIPI index and poor overall survival in follicular lymphoma.

Exp Ther Med 2010 Nov 1;1(6):933-938. Epub 2010 Sep 1.

Department of Pathology, ; INSERM U847.

Several studies have highlighted the importance of the microenvironment in the behaviour of follicular lymphoma (FL). We conducted an immunohistochemical analysis to assess the role of different cell subpopulations, i.e. CD8, CD68 and forkhead box protein P3 (FOXP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in 84 lymph nodes of 58 patients with FL (58 at diagnosis, 26 at relapse). Since the overall effect of Tregs is considered to depend on their number in relation to CD8(+) effector T cells, we determined the corresponding ratio for each patient and correlated the results with clinical parameters. The interfollicular CD8/FOXP3(+) cell ratio was significantly higher in patients with histological grade 3 tumours (2.04 vs. 1.63) and with a high risk FLIPI index (2.99 vs. 1.53) compared to those with grade 1-2 tumours or a low-intermediate FLIPI index. Similar results were obtained for the follicular CD8(+)/FOXP3(+) cell ratio. The interfollicular CD8/FOXP3 ratio was found to have prognostic value [a 5-year overall survival (OS) of 82 vs. 59% for a ratio of ±1.68]. In addition, an interfollicular FOXP3(+) cell number of more than 86 cells/mm(2) was correlated with a more favourable outcome (p=0.03). When patients at diagnosis and relapse were compared, a significant difference (p=0.05) in the localization (interfollicular vs. intrafollicular) of FOXP3(+) cells was observed. The CD8/FOXP3 ratio in the interfollicular areas was significantly different (1.66 at diagnosis vs. 2.2 at relapse, p=0.05). The presence of a small number of FOXP3(+) cells with a high CD8/FOXP3 ratio is probably the indicator of an active immune response during tumour development, with lymphoma cells acting as targets or bystanders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2010.146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3446740PMC
November 2010

Increased plasma-immune cytokines throughout the high-dose melphalan-induced lymphodepletion in patients with multiple myeloma: a window for adoptive immunotherapy.

J Immunol 2010 Jan 4;184(2):1079-84. Epub 2009 Dec 4.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Montpellier, Institute of Research in Biotherapy, Montpellier, France.

High-dose melphalan (HDM) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a standard treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. However, lymphocyte reconstitution is impaired after HDM. Recent work has suggested that the lymphopenia period occurring after various immunosuppressive or chemotherapy treatments may provide an interesting opportunity for adoptive antitumor immunotherapy. The objective of this study was to determine an immunotherapy window after HDM and ASCT, evaluating T cell lymphopenia, and measuring circulating immune cytokine concentrations in patients with multiple myeloma. The counts of T cell subpopulations reached a nadir at day 8 post-ASCT (day 10 post-HDM) and recovered by day 30. IL-6, IL-7, and IL-15 plasma levels increased on a median day 8 post-ASCT, respectively, 35-fold, 8-fold, and 10-fold compared with pre-HDM levels (p < or = 0.05). The increases in IL-7 and IL-15 levels were inversely correlated to the absolute lymphocyte count, unlike monocyte or myeloid counts. Furthermore, we have shown that CD3 T cells present in the ASC graft are activated, die rapidly when they are cultured without cytokine in vitro, and that addition of IL-7 or IL-15 could induce their survival and proliferation. In conclusion, the early lymphodepletion period, occurring 4-11 d post-HDM and ASCT, is associated with an increase of circulating immune cytokines and could be an optimal window to enhance the survival and proliferation of polyclonal T cells present in the ASC autograft and also of specific antimyeloma T cells previously expanded in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0804159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2926347PMC
January 2010

Expression of genes encoding for proteins involved in heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate chain synthesis and modification in normal and malignant plasma cells.

Br J Haematol 2009 May 2;145(3):350-68. Epub 2009 Mar 2.

INSERM U847, Equipe Labellisée LIGUE 2006, Université Montpellier, UFR Méldecine, Montpellier, France.

Syndecan-1 is a proteoglycan that concentrates heparin-binding factors on the surface of multiple myeloma cells, and probably plays a major role in multiple myeloma biology. As heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate are the bioactive components of syndecan-1, we analysed the signature of genes encoding 100 proteins involved in synthesis of these chains, i.e. from precursor uptake to post-translational modifications, using Affymetrix microarrays. The expression of enzymes required for heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate biosynthesis was shown to increase in parallel with syndecan-1 expression, throughout the differentiation of memory B cells into plasmablasts and normal bone marrow plasma cells. Sixteen genes were significantly different between normal and malignant plasma cells, nine of these genes -EXT2, CHSY3, CSGALNACT1, HS3ST2, HS2ST1, CHST11, CSGALNACT2, HPSE, SULF2 - encode proteins involved in glycosaminoglycan chain synthesis or modifications. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed in two independent series of patients: B4GALT7, CSGALNACT1, HS2ST1 were associated with a good prognosis whereas EXT1 was linked to a bad prognosis. This study provides an overall picture of the major genes encoding for proteins involved in heparan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate synthesis and modifications that can be implicated in normal and malignant plasma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07633.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2730414PMC
May 2009

Early versus late intensification for patients with high-risk Hodgkin lymphoma-3 cycles of intensive chemotherapy plus low-dose lymph node radiation therapy versus 4 cycles of combined doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine plus myeloablative chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation: five-year results of a randomized trial on behalf of the GOELAMS Group.

Cancer 2008 Dec;113(12):3323-30

University of Paris-Descartes, Paris, France.

Background: The 5-year freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) rate, with treatment failure defined as the lack of post-treatment complete remission (CR), recurrence, or death, ranges from 60% to 70% after 6 to 8 cycles of combined doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD), which is the reference treatment for patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). In this randomized, phase 2 study, the authors tested 2 intensive chemotherapy regimens in 158 patients with clinical stage (CS) IIB through IV HL accompanied by high-risk factors who were recruited between May 1997 and December 2004.

Methods: High-risk CS IIB, III, and IV were defined by the presence of > or =5 involved lymphoid areas, and/or a mediastinal mass ratio > or =0.45, and/or > or =2 extra lymph node sites affected by the disease (for CS IV). In Arm V, 82 patients received 3 courses of combined vindesine (5 mg/m(2)), doxorubicin (99 mg/m(2)), carmustine (140 mg/m(2)), etoposide (600 mg/m(2)), and methylprednisolone (600 mg/m(2)) (VABEM) followed by low-dose lymph node irradiation. In Arm A, 76 patients received 4 cycles of ABVD followed by myeloablative combined carmustine (300 mg/m(2)), etoposide (800 mg/m(2)), cytarabine (1600 mg/m(2)), and melphalan (140 mg/m(2)) and underwent autologous stem cell transplantation.

Results: After 3 cycles of VABEM, the CR rate was 89% versus 60% after 4 cycles of ABVD. However, after the completion of treatment, the CR rates for Arms V and A were similar (89% and 88%, respectively). The 5-year FFTF rates for Arms V and A also were similar (79% and 75%, respectively) along with the 5-year overall survival rates (87% and 86%, respectively).

Conclusions: Early intensification (Arm V) and late intensification (Arm A) were equally effective for treating patients with high-risk/advanced HL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.23979DOI Listing
December 2008

High-dose therapy followed by autologous purged stem cell transplantation and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced follicular lymphoma: a randomized multicenter study by the GOELAMS with final results after a median follow-up of 9 years.

Blood 2009 Jan 27;113(5):995-1001. Epub 2008 Oct 27.

Department of Hematology, Bretonneau University Hospital, Tours, France.

Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) as first-line therapy for follicular lymphoma (FL) remains controversial. The multicenter study randomized 172 patients with untreated FL for either immunochemotherapy or high-dose therapy (HDT) followed by purged ASCT. Conditioning was performed with total body irradiation (TBI) and cyclophosphamide. The 9-year overall survival (OS) was similar in the HDT and conventional chemotherapy groups (76% and 80%, respectively). The 9-year progression-free survival (PFS) was higher in the ASCT than the chemotherapy group (64% vs 39%; P = .004). A PFS plateau was observed in the HDT group after 7 years. On multivariate analysis, OS and PFS were independently affected by the per-formance status score, the number of nodal areas involved, and the treatment group. Secondary malignancies were more frequent in the HDT than in the chemotherapy group (6 secondary myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia and 6 second solid tumor cancers vs 1 acute myeloid leukemia, P = .01). The occurrence of a PFS plateau suggests that a subgroup of patients might have their FL cured by ASCT. However, the increased rate of secondary malignancies may discourage the use of purged ASCT in combination with TBI as first-line treatment for FL. This trial has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT00696735.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2008-05-160200DOI Listing
January 2009

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor potentiates rituximab in patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma: results of a phase II study.

J Clin Oncol 2008 Jun 21;26(16):2725-31. Epub 2008 Apr 21.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU), Service d'Hématologie et d'Oncologie Médicale, Montpellier, France.

Purpose: We hypothesized that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) could potentiate the clinical activity of rituximab given its individual and cooperative effects on Fc gamma RIIa- and Fc gamma RIIIa-expressing cells. A phase II clinical study combining GM-CSF and rituximab was initiated in patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma (FL) to determine the clinical and biologic responses, as well as safety of the combination.

Patients And Methods: Thirty three patients with relapsed FL were treated with GM-CSF 5 microg/kg/d on days 1 to 8 and rituximab 375 mg/m(2) on day 5 of each 21-day cycle for four cycles. Clinical response and tolerability were examined according to international criteria. Biologic monitoring included evaluation of immune cells involved in rituximab activity.

Results: Of 33 evaluated patients, a 70% overall response rate (complete response plus complete response unconfirmed, 45%) and a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 16.5 months were achieved. Outcome was influenced by the quality of response and the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index (FLIPI), where low- and intermediate-risk FLIPI groups were associated with significantly better PFS. After treatment there was a significant increase in granulocyte and monocyte counts. Examination of dendritic cell response showed an overall increase in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, especially in non-complete response patients, after treatment. Addition of GM-CSF did not impair tolerance to rituximab, and adverse events were rare and mild.

Discussion: GM-CSF plus rituximab results in high response rates, along with a tolerable safety profile in patients with relapsed or progressive FL. The improved efficacy over rituximab monotherapy may be due to increases seen in monocyte, granulocyte, and dendritic cell populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.13.7729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2443403PMC
June 2008

In vitro expansion of gamma delta T cells with anti-myeloma cell activity by Phosphostim and IL-2 in patients with multiple myeloma.

Br J Haematol 2007 Oct;139(2):206-16

INSERM, U847, Montpellier, France.

T-cell-mediated immunotherapy is a promising therapeutic option for multiple myeloma (MM). Gamma-delta T cells (gammadelta T cells) recognize phosphoantigens and display strong anti-tumour cytotoxicity. The synthetic agonist Phosphostim (bromohydrin pyrophosphate, BrHPP) has been shown to selectively activate Vgamma9Vdelta2 T cells. This study aimed to evaluate the expansion capacity and anti-myeloma cell cytotoxicity of circulating gammadelta T cells from MM patients at different time points throughout the disease, using Phosphostim and interleukin 2 (IL-2). Circulating gammadelta T cell counts in patients with newly diagnosed MM or in relapse did not differ from those in healthy donors. A 14-d culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with Phosphostim and IL-2 triggered a 100-fold expansion of gammadelta T cells in 78% of newly diagnosed patients. Gammadelta T cells harvested at the time of haematopoietic progenitor collection or in relapsing patients expanded less efficiently. Expanded gammadelta T cells killed 13/14 myeloma cell lines as well as primary myeloma cells, but not normal CD34 cells. Their killing efficiency was not affected by 2-d IL-2 starvation. This study demonstrated the ability of Phosphostim and IL-2 to expand gammadelta T cells from MM patients, and the efficient and stable killing of human myeloma cells by gd T cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2007.06754.xDOI Listing
October 2007