Publications by authors named "Philippe Mortier"

50 Publications

The association of detachment with affective disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown: The role of living situation and social support.

J Affect Disord 2021 09 8;292:464-470. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Sociology, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: There is growing concern about the effect of lockdown and social distancing on mental health. Subjective feelings related to social relationships such as detachment have shown a strong effect on mental health, whereas objective factors might have a moderating role in that association.

Objective: To investigate whether social support and living situation have a moderating effect on the association between detachment and affective disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown.

Methods: 3,305 Spanish adults were interviewed by phone at the end of the COVID-19 lockdown (May-June 2020). Detachment during confinement was assessed with a single-item frequency question. Anxiety symptoms were measured through GAD-7, depressive symptoms through PHQ-9, and social support through the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSSS). Associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms were tested through Tobit regression models. Interactions of detachment with living situation and social support were tested as independent variables.

Results: People living alone showed significantly lower levels of anxiety whereas people living with another (but not as a couple) showed higher levels of depression. Detachment was strongly associated with both affective disorders. Social support had a statistically significant moderating effect on that association. Those with a low level of social support and a high level of detachment reported means of depression and anxiety above major depression (10.5 CI 95% 9.6, 11.4 at OSSS=10) and generalized anxiety disorders (10.1 CI 95% 9.2, 11.0 at OSSS=9) cut offs CONCLUSION: Interventions centered on improving social support could alleviate feelings of detachment and prevent affective disorders during lockdowns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.05.125DOI Listing
September 2021

The association of detachment with affective disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown: The role of living situation and social support.

J Affect Disord 2021 09 8;292:464-470. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Sociology, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IP), Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: There is growing concern about the effect of lockdown and social distancing on mental health. Subjective feelings related to social relationships such as detachment have shown a strong effect on mental health, whereas objective factors might have a moderating role in that association.

Objective: To investigate whether social support and living situation have a moderating effect on the association between detachment and affective disorder symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown.

Methods: 3,305 Spanish adults were interviewed by phone at the end of the COVID-19 lockdown (May-June 2020). Detachment during confinement was assessed with a single-item frequency question. Anxiety symptoms were measured through GAD-7, depressive symptoms through PHQ-9, and social support through the Oslo Social Support Scale (OSSS). Associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms were tested through Tobit regression models. Interactions of detachment with living situation and social support were tested as independent variables.

Results: People living alone showed significantly lower levels of anxiety whereas people living with another (but not as a couple) showed higher levels of depression. Detachment was strongly associated with both affective disorders. Social support had a statistically significant moderating effect on that association. Those with a low level of social support and a high level of detachment reported means of depression and anxiety above major depression (10.5 CI 95% 9.6, 11.4 at OSSS=10) and generalized anxiety disorders (10.1 CI 95% 9.2, 11.0 at OSSS=9) cut offs CONCLUSION: Interventions centered on improving social support could alleviate feelings of detachment and prevent affective disorders during lockdowns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.05.125DOI Listing
September 2021

Mental health impact of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic on Spanish healthcare workers: A large cross-sectional survey.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):90-105

Center for Public Health Psychiatry, Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Introduction: Healthcare workers are vulnerable to adverse mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed prevalence of mental disorders and associated factors during the first wave of the pandemic among healthcare professionals in Spain.

Methods: All workers in 18 healthcare institutions (6 AACC) in Spain were invited to web-based surveys assessing individual characteristics, COVID-19 infection status and exposure, and mental health status (May 5 - September 7, 2020). We report: probable current mental disorders (Major Depressive Disorder-MDD- [PHQ-8≥10], Generalized Anxiety Disorder-GAD- [GAD-7≥10], Panic attacks, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -PTSD- [PCL-5≥7]; and Substance Use Disorder -SUD-[CAGE-AID≥2]. Severe disability assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale was used to identify probable "disabling" current mental disorders.

Results: 9,138 healthcare workers participated. Prevalence of screen-positive disorder: 28.1% MDD; 22.5% GAD, 24.0% Panic; 22.2% PTSD; and 6.2% SUD. Overall 45.7% presented any current and 14.5% any disabling current mental disorder. Workers with pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders had almost twice the prevalence than those without. Adjusting for all other variables, odds of any disabling mental disorder were: prior lifetime disorders (TUS: OR=5.74; 95%CI 2.53-13.03; Mood: OR=3.23; 95%CI:2.27-4.60; Anxiety: OR=3.03; 95%CI:2.53-3.62); age category 18-29 years (OR=1.36; 95%CI:1.02-1.82), caring "all of the time" for COVID-19 patients (OR=5.19; 95%CI: 3.61-7.46), female gender (OR=1.58; 95%CI: 1.27-1.96) and having being in quarantine or isolated (OR= 1.60; 95CI:1.31-1.95).

Conclusions: One in seven Spanish healthcare workers screened positive for a disabling mental disorder during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers reporting pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders, those frequently exposed to COVID-19 patients, infected or quarantined/isolated, female workers, and auxiliary nurses should be considered groups in need of mental health monitoring and support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsmen.2021.05.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Positive screens for mental disorders among healthcare professionals during the first covid19 wave in Belgium.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 08 29;140:329-336. Epub 2021 May 29.

Center for Public Health Psychiatry, Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum, KULeuven, Belgium.

We examined the manifestation of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, substance use disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and panic attacks among health care professionals during the first COVID-19 wave (n = 6409) by means of mental disorder screening instruments. Logistic regressions were used to gauge individual risk factors; population attributable risk proportions (PARP) were inferred to identify the most important risk factors at the societal level. Data were weighted to represent general profiles of Belgian health care professionals. Lifetime, pre-pandemic emotional problems and work-related factors during the first wave of COVID-19 were strongly associated (mean adjusted odds ratios of 3.79 and 1.47, respectively) with positive screens for current mental disorders (occurrence of 29.3%). Most prominently, the data suggest that disruptions of work-life balance account for more than a quarter of the observed mental health problems due to the combination of widespread occurrence and strong association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.05.024DOI Listing
August 2021

Positive screens for mental disorders among healthcare professionals during the first covid19 wave in Belgium.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 08 29;140:329-336. Epub 2021 May 29.

Center for Public Health Psychiatry, Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum, KULeuven, Belgium.

We examined the manifestation of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, substance use disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and panic attacks among health care professionals during the first COVID-19 wave (n = 6409) by means of mental disorder screening instruments. Logistic regressions were used to gauge individual risk factors; population attributable risk proportions (PARP) were inferred to identify the most important risk factors at the societal level. Data were weighted to represent general profiles of Belgian health care professionals. Lifetime, pre-pandemic emotional problems and work-related factors during the first wave of COVID-19 were strongly associated (mean adjusted odds ratios of 3.79 and 1.47, respectively) with positive screens for current mental disorders (occurrence of 29.3%). Most prominently, the data suggest that disruptions of work-life balance account for more than a quarter of the observed mental health problems due to the combination of widespread occurrence and strong association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.05.024DOI Listing
August 2021

Validation of an Online Version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) for Alcohol Screening in Spanish University Students.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 14;18(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Health Services Research Group, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d'Investigacions Mèdiques), 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Online alcohol screening may be helpful in preventing alcohol use disorders. We assessed psychometric properties of an online version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) among Spanish university students. We used a longitudinal online survey (the UNIVERSAL project) of first-year students (18-24 years old) in five universities, including the AUDIT, as part of the WHO World Mental Health International College Student (WMH-ICS) initiative. A reappraisal interview was carried out with the Timeline Followback (TLFB) for alcohol consumption categories and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for alcohol use disorder. Reliability, construct validity and diagnostic accuracy were assessed. Results: 287 students (75% women) completed the MINI, of whom 242 also completed the TLFB. AUDIT's Cronbach's alpha was 0.82. The confirmatory factor analysis for the one-factor solution of the AUDIT showed a good fit to the data. Significant AUDIT score differences were observed by TLFB categories and by MINI disorders. Areas under the curve (AUC) were very large for dependence (AUC = 0.96) and adequate for consumption categories (AUC > 0.7). AUDIT cut-off points of 6/8 (women/men) for moderate-risk drinking and 13 for alcohol dependence showed sensitivity/specificity of 76.2%/78.9% and 56%/97.5%, respectively. The online version of the AUDIT is useful for detecting alcohol consumption categories and alcohol dependence in Spanish university students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156263PMC
May 2021

Mental well-being of the general population: direct and indirect effects of socioeconomic, relational and health factors.

Qual Life Res 2021 Aug 13;30(8):2171-2185. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Health Services Research Group, Epidemiology and Public Health Program, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Carrer del Doctor Aiguader, 88, PRBB Building, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between individual mental well-being and social, economic, lifestyle and health factors.

Methods: Cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 13,632 participants (> 15y/o) from the Catalan Health Interview Survey 2013-2016 editions. Mental well-being was assessed with the Warwick-Edinburg Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). Linear regressions were fitted to associate well-being and sociodemographic, relational, lifestyle and health variables according to minimally sufficient adjustment sets identified using directed acyclic graphs. Predictors entered the model in blocks of variable types and analysed individually. Direct and total effects were estimated.

Results: Health factors significantly contributed to mental well-being variance. Presence of a mental disorder and self-reported health had the largest effect size (eta = 13.4% and 16.3%). The higher individual impact from a variable came from social support (β = - 12.8, SE = 0.48, eta = 6.3%). A noticeable effect gradient (eta = 4.2%) from low to high mental well-being emerged according to economic difficulties (from β = 1.59, SE = 0.33 for moderate difficulties to β = 6.02 SE = 0.55 for no difficulties). Younger age (β = 5.21, SE = 0.26, eta = 3.4%) and being men (β = 1.32, SE = 0.15, eta = 0.6%) were associated with better mental well-being. Direct gender effects were negligible.

Conclusions: This study highlights health and social support as the most associated factors with individual mental well-being over socioeconomic factors. Interventions and policies aimed to these factors for health promotion would improve population mental well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02813-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298347PMC
August 2021

Mental well-being of the general population: direct and indirect effects of socioeconomic, relational and health factors.

Qual Life Res 2021 Aug 13;30(8):2171-2185. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Health Services Research Group, Epidemiology and Public Health Program, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Carrer del Doctor Aiguader, 88, PRBB Building, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between individual mental well-being and social, economic, lifestyle and health factors.

Methods: Cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 13,632 participants (> 15y/o) from the Catalan Health Interview Survey 2013-2016 editions. Mental well-being was assessed with the Warwick-Edinburg Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). Linear regressions were fitted to associate well-being and sociodemographic, relational, lifestyle and health variables according to minimally sufficient adjustment sets identified using directed acyclic graphs. Predictors entered the model in blocks of variable types and analysed individually. Direct and total effects were estimated.

Results: Health factors significantly contributed to mental well-being variance. Presence of a mental disorder and self-reported health had the largest effect size (eta = 13.4% and 16.3%). The higher individual impact from a variable came from social support (β = - 12.8, SE = 0.48, eta = 6.3%). A noticeable effect gradient (eta = 4.2%) from low to high mental well-being emerged according to economic difficulties (from β = 1.59, SE = 0.33 for moderate difficulties to β = 6.02 SE = 0.55 for no difficulties). Younger age (β = 5.21, SE = 0.26, eta = 3.4%) and being men (β = 1.32, SE = 0.15, eta = 0.6%) were associated with better mental well-being. Direct gender effects were negligible.

Conclusions: This study highlights health and social support as the most associated factors with individual mental well-being over socioeconomic factors. Interventions and policies aimed to these factors for health promotion would improve population mental well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02813-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298347PMC
August 2021

Mental well-being of the general population: direct and indirect effects of socioeconomic, relational and health factors.

Qual Life Res 2021 Aug 13;30(8):2171-2185. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Health Services Research Group, Epidemiology and Public Health Program, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Carrer del Doctor Aiguader, 88, PRBB Building, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between individual mental well-being and social, economic, lifestyle and health factors.

Methods: Cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 13,632 participants (> 15y/o) from the Catalan Health Interview Survey 2013-2016 editions. Mental well-being was assessed with the Warwick-Edinburg Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). Linear regressions were fitted to associate well-being and sociodemographic, relational, lifestyle and health variables according to minimally sufficient adjustment sets identified using directed acyclic graphs. Predictors entered the model in blocks of variable types and analysed individually. Direct and total effects were estimated.

Results: Health factors significantly contributed to mental well-being variance. Presence of a mental disorder and self-reported health had the largest effect size (eta = 13.4% and 16.3%). The higher individual impact from a variable came from social support (β = - 12.8, SE = 0.48, eta = 6.3%). A noticeable effect gradient (eta = 4.2%) from low to high mental well-being emerged according to economic difficulties (from β = 1.59, SE = 0.33 for moderate difficulties to β = 6.02 SE = 0.55 for no difficulties). Younger age (β = 5.21, SE = 0.26, eta = 3.4%) and being men (β = 1.32, SE = 0.15, eta = 0.6%) were associated with better mental well-being. Direct gender effects were negligible.

Conclusions: This study highlights health and social support as the most associated factors with individual mental well-being over socioeconomic factors. Interventions and policies aimed to these factors for health promotion would improve population mental well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02813-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298347PMC
August 2021

Mental well-being of the general population: direct and indirect effects of socioeconomic, relational and health factors.

Qual Life Res 2021 Aug 13;30(8):2171-2185. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Health Services Research Group, Epidemiology and Public Health Program, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Carrer del Doctor Aiguader, 88, PRBB Building, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to analyse the association between individual mental well-being and social, economic, lifestyle and health factors.

Methods: Cross-sectional study on a representative sample of 13,632 participants (> 15y/o) from the Catalan Health Interview Survey 2013-2016 editions. Mental well-being was assessed with the Warwick-Edinburg Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). Linear regressions were fitted to associate well-being and sociodemographic, relational, lifestyle and health variables according to minimally sufficient adjustment sets identified using directed acyclic graphs. Predictors entered the model in blocks of variable types and analysed individually. Direct and total effects were estimated.

Results: Health factors significantly contributed to mental well-being variance. Presence of a mental disorder and self-reported health had the largest effect size (eta = 13.4% and 16.3%). The higher individual impact from a variable came from social support (β = - 12.8, SE = 0.48, eta = 6.3%). A noticeable effect gradient (eta = 4.2%) from low to high mental well-being emerged according to economic difficulties (from β = 1.59, SE = 0.33 for moderate difficulties to β = 6.02 SE = 0.55 for no difficulties). Younger age (β = 5.21, SE = 0.26, eta = 3.4%) and being men (β = 1.32, SE = 0.15, eta = 0.6%) were associated with better mental well-being. Direct gender effects were negligible.

Conclusions: This study highlights health and social support as the most associated factors with individual mental well-being over socioeconomic factors. Interventions and policies aimed to these factors for health promotion would improve population mental well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-021-02813-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8298347PMC
August 2021

Mental health impact of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic on Spanish healthcare workers: A large cross-sectional survey.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):90-105. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Center for Public Health Psychiatry, Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Introduction: Healthcare workers are vulnerable to adverse mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed prevalence of mental disorders and associated factors during the first wave of the pandemic among healthcare professionals in Spain.

Methods: All workers in 18 healthcare institutions (6 AACC) in Spain were invited to web-based surveys assessing individual characteristics, COVID-19 infection status and exposure, and mental health status (May 5 - September 7, 2020). We report: probable current mental disorders (Major Depressive Disorder-MDD- [PHQ-8≥10], Generalized Anxiety Disorder-GAD- [GAD-7≥10], Panic attacks, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -PTSD- [PCL-5≥7]; and Substance Use Disorder -SUD-[CAGE-AID≥2]. Severe disability assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale was used to identify probable "disabling" current mental disorders.

Results: 9,138 healthcare workers participated. Prevalence of screen-positive disorder: 28.1% MDD; 22.5% GAD, 24.0% Panic; 22.2% PTSD; and 6.2% SUD. Overall 45.7% presented any current and 14.5% any disabling current mental disorder. Workers with pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders had almost twice the prevalence than those without. Adjusting for all other variables, odds of any disabling mental disorder were: prior lifetime disorders (TUS: OR=5.74; 95%CI 2.53-13.03; Mood: OR=3.23; 95%CI:2.27-4.60; Anxiety: OR=3.03; 95%CI:2.53-3.62); age category 18-29 years (OR=1.36; 95%CI:1.02-1.82), caring "all of the time" for COVID-19 patients (OR=5.19; 95%CI: 3.61-7.46), female gender (OR=1.58; 95%CI: 1.27-1.96) and having being in quarantine or isolated (OR= 1.60; 95CI:1.31-1.95).

Conclusions: One in seven Spanish healthcare workers screened positive for a disabling mental disorder during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers reporting pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders, those frequently exposed to COVID-19 patients, infected or quarantined/isolated, female workers, and auxiliary nurses should be considered groups in need of mental health monitoring and support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsm.2020.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726524PMC
June 2021

Mental health impact of the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic on Spanish healthcare workers: A large cross-sectional survey.

Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) 2021 Apr-Jun;14(2):90-105. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Center for Public Health Psychiatry, Universitair Psychiatrisch Centrum, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Introduction: Healthcare workers are vulnerable to adverse mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed prevalence of mental disorders and associated factors during the first wave of the pandemic among healthcare professionals in Spain.

Methods: All workers in 18 healthcare institutions (6 AACC) in Spain were invited to web-based surveys assessing individual characteristics, COVID-19 infection status and exposure, and mental health status (May 5 - September 7, 2020). We report: probable current mental disorders (Major Depressive Disorder-MDD- [PHQ-8≥10], Generalized Anxiety Disorder-GAD- [GAD-7≥10], Panic attacks, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -PTSD- [PCL-5≥7]; and Substance Use Disorder -SUD-[CAGE-AID≥2]. Severe disability assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale was used to identify probable "disabling" current mental disorders.

Results: 9,138 healthcare workers participated. Prevalence of screen-positive disorder: 28.1% MDD; 22.5% GAD, 24.0% Panic; 22.2% PTSD; and 6.2% SUD. Overall 45.7% presented any current and 14.5% any disabling current mental disorder. Workers with pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders had almost twice the prevalence than those without. Adjusting for all other variables, odds of any disabling mental disorder were: prior lifetime disorders (TUS: OR=5.74; 95%CI 2.53-13.03; Mood: OR=3.23; 95%CI:2.27-4.60; Anxiety: OR=3.03; 95%CI:2.53-3.62); age category 18-29 years (OR=1.36; 95%CI:1.02-1.82), caring "all of the time" for COVID-19 patients (OR=5.19; 95%CI: 3.61-7.46), female gender (OR=1.58; 95%CI: 1.27-1.96) and having being in quarantine or isolated (OR= 1.60; 95CI:1.31-1.95).

Conclusions: One in seven Spanish healthcare workers screened positive for a disabling mental disorder during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers reporting pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders, those frequently exposed to COVID-19 patients, infected or quarantined/isolated, female workers, and auxiliary nurses should be considered groups in need of mental health monitoring and support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpsm.2020.12.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726524PMC
June 2021

Prevalence of 12-month mental and substance use disorders in sexual minority college students in Mexico.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021 Feb 4;56(2):247-257. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: Mental health disparities have been documented among sexual minority college students, but there is a dearth of evidence from developing countries. The aim is to estimate the prevalence of 12-month mental and substance use disorders across a range of sexual identities among first-year college students in Mexican universities, and test whether there is an association between sexual identity and disorders and whether the association is moderated by gender.

Method: The University Project for Healthy Students, a web-based survey conducted as part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health International College Student initiative, recruited 7874 students from nine Mexican universities in 2016 and 2017. Logistic regressions estimated the association of sexual identity with 12-month major depressive episode, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence, with interaction terms for gender.

Results: Compared to heterosexual students reporting no same-sex attraction (SSA), heterosexual students with SSA (AORs range 1.77-3.67) and lesbian/gay and bisexual students (AORs range 2.22-5.32) were at a higher risk for several disorders. Asexual students were at higher risk for drug abuse/dependence (AOR = 3.64). Students unsure of their sexual identity were at a higher risk for major depressive episode, panic disorder, and drug abuse/dependence (AORs range 2.25-3.82). Gender differences varied across sexual identity and disorder.

Conclusion: These findings are the first empirical report of sexual minority psychiatric disparities among a college student population from a developing nation and underscore the importance of clinical interventions that address mental health needs among sexual minority college students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-020-01943-4DOI Listing
February 2021

Sources of Stress and Their Associations With Mental Disorders Among College Students: Results of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Initiative.

Front Psychol 2020 30;11:1759. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

The college years are stressful for many students. Identifying the sources of stress and their relative importance in leading to clinically significant emotional problems may assist in the development of targeted stress management interventions. The current report examines the distribution and associations of perceived stress across major life areas with 12-month prevalence of common mental disorders in a cross-national sample of first-year college students. The 20,842 respondents were from 24 universities in 9 countries that participated in the World Health Organization World Mental Health International College Student Initiative. Logistic regression analysis examined associations of current perceived stress in six life areas (financial situation, health, love life, relationships with family, relationships at work/school, problems experienced by loved ones) with six types of 12-month mental disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, alcohol use disorder, drug use disorder). Population attributable risk proportions (PARPs) were calculated to estimate the upper-bound potential effects of interventions focused on perceived stress in reducing prevalence of mental disorders. The majority of students (93.7%) reported at least some stress in at least one of the six areas. A significant dose-response association was found between extent of stress in each life area and increased odds of at least one of the six disorders. The multivariable models that included all stress measures were significant for all disorders ( = 20.6-70.6, < 0.001). Interpretation of PARPs as representing causal effects of stresses on disorders suggests that up to 46.9-80.0% of 12-month disorder prevalence might be eliminated if stress prevention interventions were developed to block the associations of stress with these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406671PMC
July 2020

(Internet) Gaming Disorder in -5 and -11: A Case of the Glass Half Empty or Half Full: (Internet) Le trouble du jeu dans le -5 et la CIM-11: Un cas de verre à moitié vide et à moitié plein.

Can J Psychiatry 2021 May 18;66(5):477-484. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Departamento de Psiquiatría, 16722Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, CIBER en Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Spain.

Background: (-5) included in 2013 Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a condition for further study, and in 2018, the World Health Organization included gaming disorder (GD) as a mental disorder in the (-11). We aim to compare disorders of gaming in both diagnostic systems using a sample of young adults in Mexico.

Methods: Self-administered survey to estimate the prevalence of -5 IGD and -11 GD in 5 Mexican universities; 7,022 first-year students who participated in the University Project for Healthy Students, part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health International College Student Initiative. Cross-tabulation, logistic regression, and item response theory were used to inform on 12- month prevalence of -5 IGD and -11 GD, without and with impairment.

Results: The 12-month prevalence of -5 IGD was 5.2% (95% CI, 4.7 to 5.8), almost twice as high as the prevalence using the -11 GD criteria (2.7%; 95% CI, 2.4 to 3.1), and while adding an impairment requirement diminishes both estimates, prevalence remains larger in -5. We found that -5 cases detected and undetected by -11 criteria were similar in demographics, comorbid mental disorders, service use, and impairment variables with the exception that cases detected by -11 had a larger number of symptoms and were more likely to have probable drug dependence than undetected -5 cases.

Conclusion: -5 cases detected by -11 are mostly similar to cases undetected by -11. By using -11 instead of -5, we may be leaving (similarly) affected people underserved. It is unlikely that purely epidemiological studies can solve this discrepancy and clinical validity studies maybe needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0706743720948431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107956PMC
May 2021

(Internet) Gaming Disorder in -5 and -11: A Case of the Glass Half Empty or Half Full: (Internet) Le trouble du jeu dans le -5 et la CIM-11: Un cas de verre à moitié vide et à moitié plein.

Can J Psychiatry 2021 May 18;66(5):477-484. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Departamento de Psiquiatría, 16722Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, CIBER en Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Spain.

Background: (-5) included in 2013 Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a condition for further study, and in 2018, the World Health Organization included gaming disorder (GD) as a mental disorder in the (-11). We aim to compare disorders of gaming in both diagnostic systems using a sample of young adults in Mexico.

Methods: Self-administered survey to estimate the prevalence of -5 IGD and -11 GD in 5 Mexican universities; 7,022 first-year students who participated in the University Project for Healthy Students, part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health International College Student Initiative. Cross-tabulation, logistic regression, and item response theory were used to inform on 12- month prevalence of -5 IGD and -11 GD, without and with impairment.

Results: The 12-month prevalence of -5 IGD was 5.2% (95% CI, 4.7 to 5.8), almost twice as high as the prevalence using the -11 GD criteria (2.7%; 95% CI, 2.4 to 3.1), and while adding an impairment requirement diminishes both estimates, prevalence remains larger in -5. We found that -5 cases detected and undetected by -11 criteria were similar in demographics, comorbid mental disorders, service use, and impairment variables with the exception that cases detected by -11 had a larger number of symptoms and were more likely to have probable drug dependence than undetected -5 cases.

Conclusion: -5 cases detected by -11 are mostly similar to cases undetected by -11. By using -11 instead of -5, we may be leaving (similarly) affected people underserved. It is unlikely that purely epidemiological studies can solve this discrepancy and clinical validity studies maybe needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0706743720948431DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107956PMC
May 2021

Mental disorders in Spanish university students: Prevalence, age-of-onset, severe role impairment and mental health treatment.

J Affect Disord 2020 08 11;273:604-613. Epub 2020 May 11.

Health Services Research Group, IMIM (Institut Hospital del Mar d´Investigacions Mèdiques), Barcelona, Spain; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain; Pompeu Fabra University (UPF), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: The university period carries risk for onset of common mental disorders. Epidemiological knowledge on mental disorders among Spanish university students is limited.

Aims: To estimate lifetime and 12-month prevalence, persistence and age-of-onset of mental disorders among Spanish first-year university students, as well as associated role impairment and mental health treatment use.

Methods: First-year university students (N=2,118; 55.4% female; mean age=18.8 years) from five Spanish universities completed a web-based survey, screening possible DSM-IV mental disorders (major depressive episode(MDE), mania/hypomania, generalized anxiety disorder(GAD), panic disorder(PD), alcohol abuse/dependence(AUD), drug abuse/dependence(DUD), and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD)). Role impairment and treatment associated with mental disorders were assessed.

Results: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any possible mental disorder was 41.3%(SE=1.08) and 35.7%(SE=1.05), respectively. Persistence (i.e., ratio of 12-month to lifetime prevalence) was 86.4%(SE=1.58). Median age-of-onset was 14 for adult ADHD, 15 for mood disorders and AUD, and 16 for anxiety disorders and DUD. One third (29.2%) of 12-month disorders were associated with role impairment. Twelve-month PD (OR=4.0;95%CI=1.9-8.5) had the highest odds for role impairment. Only 12.6% of students with 12-month disorder received any mental health treatment. Twelve-month treatment was the highest among those students with 12-month GAD (OR=7.4;95%CI=3.7-14.8).

Limitations: The assessment of mental disorders was based on self-reports. Cross-sectional nature of the data prevents causal associations.

Conclusion: One third of Spanish university students report a common mental disorder in the past year, and one third of those report severe role impairment. Only one out of eight students with 12-month mental disorders receives mental health treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.04.050DOI Listing
August 2020

Outcome in depression (I): why symptomatic remission is not good enough.

CNS Spectr 2021 08 19;26(4):393-399. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences, "G. d'Annunzio" University, Chieti, Italy.

Background: The Leuven Affect and Pleasure Scale (LAPS) is a depression outcome measure aiming to better reflect patient treatment expectations. We investigated the evolution of the LAPS and some comparator scales during antidepressant treatment and compared scores of remitters with scores of healthy controls.

Methods: A total of 109 outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5) major depressive disorder were assessed over 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment. At baseline and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks, the LAPS as well as the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) were administered. Healthy controls consisted of 38 Italian adults and 111 Belgian students.

Results: Correlations between baseline positive and negative affect were only moderate (R between -0.20 and -0.41). LAPS positive affect and hedonic tone showed higher correlations with LAPS cognitive functioning, overall functioning, meaningfulness of life, and happiness than HAMD scores or PANAS negative affect. HAMD remission was associated with normal levels of LAPS negative affect but with significantly lower levels of LAPS positive affect, hedonic tone, cognitive functioning, overall functioning, meaningfulness of life, and happiness. The scores on the latter subscales only reached healthy control scores when the HAMD approached a score of 0 or 1.

Conclusions: The standard definition of remission (HAMD cutoff of 7) is probably adequate for remitting negative mood, but not good enough for recovering positive mood, hedonic tone, functioning, or meaningfulness of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1092852920001418DOI Listing
August 2021

Outcome in depression (II): beyond the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

CNS Spectr 2021 08 19;26(4):378-382. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging, and Clinical Sciences, "G. d'Annunzio" University, Chieti, Italy.

Background: The Leuven Affect and Pleasure Scale (LAPS) was developed as an outcome measure in major depressive disorder (MDD) tha treflects patient treatment expectations. The present report investigates whether the LAPS negative affect, the LAPS positive affect, and the LAPS hedonic tone have added value on top of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in explaining generic as well as patient-centered outcomes.

Methods: A total of 109 outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, criteria for MDD were assessed over 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment. At baseline and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks, the LAPS, HAMD, Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and Sheehan Disability Scale were administered. The Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) and the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) were also administered at endpoint.

Results: Changes in LAPS negative affect, LAPS positive affect, and LAPS hedonic tone explain 14% of the additional variance in CGI-I, 21% in PGI-I, 37% in cognitive functioning, 32% in overall functioning, 31% in "my life is meaningful," and 45% in "I feel happy." Compared to standard scales (PANAS and SHAPS), the LAPS negative affect, LAPS positive affect, and LAPS hedonic tone differentiate better between different levels of CGI-I or PGI-I.

Conclusions: The LAPS has added value (on top of the HAMD) in explaining changes in both generic outcomes (CGI-I/PGI-I) and patient-centered dimensions. The LAPS negative and positive affects and the LAPS hedonic tone differentiate CGI-I and PGI-I scores better than corresponding scales supposed to cover the same domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S109285292000142XDOI Listing
August 2021

Outcome in depression (II): beyond the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

CNS Spectr 2021 08 19;26(4):378-382. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Neuroscience, Imaging, and Clinical Sciences, "G. d'Annunzio" University, Chieti, Italy.

Background: The Leuven Affect and Pleasure Scale (LAPS) was developed as an outcome measure in major depressive disorder (MDD) tha treflects patient treatment expectations. The present report investigates whether the LAPS negative affect, the LAPS positive affect, and the LAPS hedonic tone have added value on top of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) in explaining generic as well as patient-centered outcomes.

Methods: A total of 109 outpatients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, criteria for MDD were assessed over 8 weeks of antidepressant treatment. At baseline and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks, the LAPS, HAMD, Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS), Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), and Sheehan Disability Scale were administered. The Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I) and the Patient Global Impression of Improvement (PGI-I) were also administered at endpoint.

Results: Changes in LAPS negative affect, LAPS positive affect, and LAPS hedonic tone explain 14% of the additional variance in CGI-I, 21% in PGI-I, 37% in cognitive functioning, 32% in overall functioning, 31% in "my life is meaningful," and 45% in "I feel happy." Compared to standard scales (PANAS and SHAPS), the LAPS negative affect, LAPS positive affect, and LAPS hedonic tone differentiate better between different levels of CGI-I or PGI-I.

Conclusions: The LAPS has added value (on top of the HAMD) in explaining changes in both generic outcomes (CGI-I/PGI-I) and patient-centered dimensions. The LAPS negative and positive affects and the LAPS hedonic tone differentiate CGI-I and PGI-I scores better than corresponding scales supposed to cover the same domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S109285292000142XDOI Listing
August 2021

The importance of physical and mental health in explaining health-related academic role impairment among college students.

J Psychiatr Res 2020 04 29;123:54-61. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. Electronic address:

Research consistently documents high rates of mental health problems among college students and strong associations of these problems with academic role impairment. Less is known, though, about prevalence and effects of physical health problems in relation to mental health problems. The current report investigates this by examining associations of summary physical and mental health scores from the widely-used Short-Form 12 (SF-12) Health Survey with self-reported academic role functioning in a self-report survey of 3,855 first-year students from five universities in the northeastern United States (US; mean age 18.5; 53.0% female). The mean SF-12 physical component summary (PCS) score (55.1) was half a standard deviation above the benchmark US adult population mean. The mean SF-12 mental component summary (MCS) score (38.2) was more than a full standard deviation below the US adult population mean. Two-thirds of students (67.1%) reported at least mild and 10.5% severe health-related academic role impairment on a modified version of the Sheehan Disability Scale. Both PCS and MCS scores were significantly and inversely related to these impairment scores, but with nonlinearities and interactions and much stronger associations involving MCS than PCS. Simulation suggests that an intervention that improved the mental health of all students with scores below the MCS median to be at the median would result in a 61.3% reduction in the proportion of students who experienced severe health-related academic role impairment. Although low-cost scalable interventions exist to address student mental health problems, pragmatic trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing academic role impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.01.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047531PMC
April 2020

The importance of physical and mental health in explaining health-related academic role impairment among college students.

J Psychiatr Res 2020 04 29;123:54-61. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. Electronic address:

Research consistently documents high rates of mental health problems among college students and strong associations of these problems with academic role impairment. Less is known, though, about prevalence and effects of physical health problems in relation to mental health problems. The current report investigates this by examining associations of summary physical and mental health scores from the widely-used Short-Form 12 (SF-12) Health Survey with self-reported academic role functioning in a self-report survey of 3,855 first-year students from five universities in the northeastern United States (US; mean age 18.5; 53.0% female). The mean SF-12 physical component summary (PCS) score (55.1) was half a standard deviation above the benchmark US adult population mean. The mean SF-12 mental component summary (MCS) score (38.2) was more than a full standard deviation below the US adult population mean. Two-thirds of students (67.1%) reported at least mild and 10.5% severe health-related academic role impairment on a modified version of the Sheehan Disability Scale. Both PCS and MCS scores were significantly and inversely related to these impairment scores, but with nonlinearities and interactions and much stronger associations involving MCS than PCS. Simulation suggests that an intervention that improved the mental health of all students with scores below the MCS median to be at the median would result in a 61.3% reduction in the proportion of students who experienced severe health-related academic role impairment. Although low-cost scalable interventions exist to address student mental health problems, pragmatic trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing academic role impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.01.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047531PMC
April 2020

The importance of physical and mental health in explaining health-related academic role impairment among college students.

J Psychiatr Res 2020 04 29;123:54-61. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. Electronic address:

Research consistently documents high rates of mental health problems among college students and strong associations of these problems with academic role impairment. Less is known, though, about prevalence and effects of physical health problems in relation to mental health problems. The current report investigates this by examining associations of summary physical and mental health scores from the widely-used Short-Form 12 (SF-12) Health Survey with self-reported academic role functioning in a self-report survey of 3,855 first-year students from five universities in the northeastern United States (US; mean age 18.5; 53.0% female). The mean SF-12 physical component summary (PCS) score (55.1) was half a standard deviation above the benchmark US adult population mean. The mean SF-12 mental component summary (MCS) score (38.2) was more than a full standard deviation below the US adult population mean. Two-thirds of students (67.1%) reported at least mild and 10.5% severe health-related academic role impairment on a modified version of the Sheehan Disability Scale. Both PCS and MCS scores were significantly and inversely related to these impairment scores, but with nonlinearities and interactions and much stronger associations involving MCS than PCS. Simulation suggests that an intervention that improved the mental health of all students with scores below the MCS median to be at the median would result in a 61.3% reduction in the proportion of students who experienced severe health-related academic role impairment. Although low-cost scalable interventions exist to address student mental health problems, pragmatic trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these interventions in reducing academic role impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.01.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047531PMC
April 2020

DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder among a sample of Mexican first-year college students.

J Behav Addict 2019 Dec 13;8(4):714-724. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy,University of Lübeck, Lubeck,Germany.

Background And Aims: DSM-5 includes Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a condition for further study. While online and offline gaming may produce undesired negative effects on players, we know little about the nosology of IGD and its prevalence, especially in countries with emerging economies.

Methods: A self-administered survey has been employed to estimate prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and study the structure and performance of an instrument in Spanish to measure DSM-5 IGD among 7,022 first-year students in 5 Mexican universities that participated in the University Project for Healthy Students (PUERTAS), part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health International College Student Initiative.

Results: The scale for IGD showed unidimensionality with factor loadings between 0.694 and 0.838 and a Cronbach's α = .816. Items derived from gaming and from substance disorders symptoms mixed together. We found a 12-month prevalence of IGD of 5.2% in the total sample; prevalence was different for males (10.2%) and females (1.2%), but similar for ages 18-19 years (5.0%) and age 20+ (5.8%) years. Among gamers, the prevalence was 8.6%. Students with IGD were more likely to report lifetime psychological or medical treatment [OR = 1.8 (1.4-2.4)] and any severe role impairment [OR = 2.4 (1.7-3.3)]. Adding any severe role impairment to the diagnostic criteria decreased the 12-month prevalence of IGD to 0.7%.

Discussion And Conclusions: Prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and the performance of diagnostic criteria in this Mexican sample were within the bounds of what is reported elsewhere. Importantly, about one in every seven students with IGD showed levels of impairment that would qualify them for treatment under DSM-5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.62DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044582PMC
December 2019

DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder among a sample of Mexican first-year college students.

J Behav Addict 2019 Dec 13;8(4):714-724. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy,University of Lübeck, Lubeck,Germany.

Background And Aims: DSM-5 includes Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a condition for further study. While online and offline gaming may produce undesired negative effects on players, we know little about the nosology of IGD and its prevalence, especially in countries with emerging economies.

Methods: A self-administered survey has been employed to estimate prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and study the structure and performance of an instrument in Spanish to measure DSM-5 IGD among 7,022 first-year students in 5 Mexican universities that participated in the University Project for Healthy Students (PUERTAS), part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health International College Student Initiative.

Results: The scale for IGD showed unidimensionality with factor loadings between 0.694 and 0.838 and a Cronbach's α = .816. Items derived from gaming and from substance disorders symptoms mixed together. We found a 12-month prevalence of IGD of 5.2% in the total sample; prevalence was different for males (10.2%) and females (1.2%), but similar for ages 18-19 years (5.0%) and age 20+ (5.8%) years. Among gamers, the prevalence was 8.6%. Students with IGD were more likely to report lifetime psychological or medical treatment [OR = 1.8 (1.4-2.4)] and any severe role impairment [OR = 2.4 (1.7-3.3)]. Adding any severe role impairment to the diagnostic criteria decreased the 12-month prevalence of IGD to 0.7%.

Discussion And Conclusions: Prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and the performance of diagnostic criteria in this Mexican sample were within the bounds of what is reported elsewhere. Importantly, about one in every seven students with IGD showed levels of impairment that would qualify them for treatment under DSM-5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.62DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044582PMC
December 2019

DSM-5 Internet gaming disorder among a sample of Mexican first-year college students.

J Behav Addict 2019 Dec 13;8(4):714-724. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy,University of Lübeck, Lubeck,Germany.

Background And Aims: DSM-5 includes Internet gaming disorder (IGD) as a condition for further study. While online and offline gaming may produce undesired negative effects on players, we know little about the nosology of IGD and its prevalence, especially in countries with emerging economies.

Methods: A self-administered survey has been employed to estimate prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and study the structure and performance of an instrument in Spanish to measure DSM-5 IGD among 7,022 first-year students in 5 Mexican universities that participated in the University Project for Healthy Students (PUERTAS), part of the World Health Organization's World Mental Health International College Student Initiative.

Results: The scale for IGD showed unidimensionality with factor loadings between 0.694 and 0.838 and a Cronbach's α = .816. Items derived from gaming and from substance disorders symptoms mixed together. We found a 12-month prevalence of IGD of 5.2% in the total sample; prevalence was different for males (10.2%) and females (1.2%), but similar for ages 18-19 years (5.0%) and age 20+ (5.8%) years. Among gamers, the prevalence was 8.6%. Students with IGD were more likely to report lifetime psychological or medical treatment [OR = 1.8 (1.4-2.4)] and any severe role impairment [OR = 2.4 (1.7-3.3)]. Adding any severe role impairment to the diagnostic criteria decreased the 12-month prevalence of IGD to 0.7%.

Discussion And Conclusions: Prevalence of DSM-5 IGD and the performance of diagnostic criteria in this Mexican sample were within the bounds of what is reported elsewhere. Importantly, about one in every seven students with IGD showed levels of impairment that would qualify them for treatment under DSM-5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/2006.8.2019.62DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044582PMC
December 2019

Hepatic encephalopathy resulting in mania, a possible role of bilirubin and glutamate?

Bipolar Disord 2019 09 21;21(6):565-567. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

University Psychiatric Center, KU Leuven (Catholic University of Leuven), Kortenberg, Belgium.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bdi.12818DOI Listing
September 2019

Prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of common mental disorders among first-year university students in post-apartheid South Africa: implications for a public mental health approach to student wellness.

BMC Public Health 2019 Jul 10;19(1):922. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

MRC Unit on Risk and Resilience in Mental Disorders, Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: There is growing awareness of the need for effective prevention, early detection, and novel treatment approaches for common mental disorders (CMDs) among university students. Reliable epidemiological data on prevalence and correlates are the cornerstones of planning and implementing effective health services and adopting a public health approach to student wellness. Yet, there is a comparative lack of sound psychiatric epidemiological studies on CMDs among university students in low- and middle-income countries, like South Africa (SA). It is also unclear if historically marginalised groups of students are at increased risk for mental health problems in post-apartheid SA. The objective of the study was to investigate the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of lifetime and 12-month CMDs among university students in SA, with a particular focus on vulnerability among students in historically excluded and marginalised segments of the population.

Methods: Data were collected via self-report measures in an online survey of first-year students registered at two large universities (n = 1402). CMDs were assessed with previously-validated screening scales. Data were weighted and analysed using multivariate statistical methods.

Results: A total of 38.5% of respondents reported at least one lifetime CMD, the most common being major depressive disorder (24.7%). Twelve-month prevalence of any CMD was 31.5%, with generalised anxiety disorder being the most common (20.8%). The median age of onset for any disorder was 15 years. The median proportional annual persistence of any disorder was 80.0%. Female students, students who reported an atypical sexual orientation, and students with disabilities were at significantly higher risk of any lifetime or 12-month disorder. Female gender, atypical sexual orientation, and disability were associated with elevated risk of internalising disorders, whereas male gender, identifying as White, and reporting an atypical sexual orientation were associated with elevated risk of externalising disorders. Older age, atypical sexual orientation, and disability were associated with elevated risk of bipolar spectrum disorder.

Conclusions: Despite advances to promote greater social inclusion in post-apartheid SA, students who identify as female, students with atypical sexual orientations, and students with disabilities are nonetheless at increased risk of CMDs, although students who identify as Black and first-generation students are not.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7218-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6617861PMC
July 2019
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