Publications by authors named "Philippe Girard"

134 Publications

Rivaroxaban versus Dalteparin in Cancer-Associated Thromboembolism: A Randomized Trial.

Chest 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

F-CRIN INNOVTE network, Saint Etienne, France; Service de Médecine Vasculaire et Thérapeutique, CHU de St-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, France.

Background: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are an alternative to low-molecular-weight heparin for treating cancer-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE).

Research Question: Is rivaroxaban as efficient and safe as dalteparin to treat patients with cancer-associated VTE?

Study Design And Methods: In a randomized open-label non-inferiority trial, patients with active cancer who had proximal deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and/or pulmonary embolism (PE) were randomly assigned to therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban or dalteparin for 3 months. The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE, a composite of symptomatic or incidental DVT or PE, and worsening of pulmonary vascular or venous obstruction at 3 months.

Results: Of 158 randomized patients, 74 and 84 patients were assigned to receive rivaroxaban and dalteparin, respectively. Mean age was 69.4 years, 115 patients (76.2%) had metastatic disease. The primary outcome occurred in 4 and 6 patients in the rivaroxaban and dalteparin groups, respectively (cumulative incidence 6.4% vs 10.1%, subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.66, in both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations). Major bleeding occurred in 1 and 3 patients in the rivaroxaban and dalteparin groups, respectively (cumulative incidence 1.4% vs 3.7%, SHR 0.36, 95%CI 0.04-3.43). Major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding occurred in 9 and 8 patients in the rivaroxaban and dalteparin groups, respectively (cumulative incidence 12.2% vs 9.8%, SHR 1.27, 95%CI 0.49-3.26). Overall, 19 (25.7%) and 20 (23.8%) patients died in the rivaroxaban and dalteparin groups, respectively (HR 1.05, 95% CI, 0.56-1.97).

Interpretation: In this trial comparing rivaroxaban and dalteparin in the treatment of cancer-associated VTE, the number of patients was insufficient to reach the predefined criteria for non-inferiority, but efficacy and safety results were consistent with those previously reported with DOACs. An updated meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing DOACs with low-molecular-weight heparin in patients with cancer-associated VTE is provided.

Trial Registration: NCT02746185.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.09.037DOI Listing
October 2021

Incidence, risk factors, and management of bleeding in patients receiving anticoagulants for the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Oct 6. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Global Thrombosis Strategy, Medical Affairs, Leo Pharma, Voisins-le-Bretonneux, France.

Updated clinical practice guidelines recommend the long-term use of low-molecular-weight heparins or direct oral anticoagulants as the preferred option for the treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT), using a personalized approach matching the right drug to the right patient. In most cases, the benefit of anticoagulant therapy outweighs the risk. However, the long-term use of anticoagulants is associated with a non-negligible risk of bleeding, which constitutes a rare but serious adverse effect. Bleeding complications have been reported to be overall 2 to 3 times more frequent in cancer patients with CAT receiving anticoagulation than in non-cancer patients, with a reported incidence of major bleeding ranging from 2.4 to 16.0% in randomized controlled trials (RCT). In the absence of validated risk assessment model to predict the risk of bleeding in these patients, a careful evaluation of each individual profile, with adequate selection of the most appropriate anticoagulant for each individual patient, is warranted for overcoming management challenges, taking in account the numerous factors which may potentiate the overall bleeding risk in these complex patients, such as advanced or metastatic disease, older age, anemia, thrombocytopenia, renal impairment, liver dysfunction, and concomitant anticancer therapies. The purpose of this review is to call for awareness on bleeding complications as a major safety issue of CAT treatment and to summarize data from recent RCT and real-world studies on the incidence and risk factors for bleeding in this unique and challenging population to further help clinicians in decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06598-8DOI Listing
October 2021

Reduced-dose intravenous thrombolysis for acute intermediate high-risk pulmonary embolism: Rationale and design of the PEITHO-3 trial.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Paris, France.

Intermediate high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is characterised by right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and elevated circulating cardiac troponin levels despite apparent haemodynamic stability at presentation. In these patients, full-dose systemic thrombolysis reduced the risk of haemodynamic decompensation or death but increased the risk of life-threatening bleeding. Reduced-dose thrombolysis may be capable of improving safety while maintaining reperfusion efficacy. The Pulmonary Embolism International Trial (PEITHO)-3 study (EudraCT 2018-000816-96) is a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre, multinational trial with long-term follow-up. We will compare the efficacy and safety of a reduced-dose alteplase regimen with standard heparin anticoagulation. Patients with intermediate high-risk PE will also fulfil at least one clinical criterion of severity: systolic blood pressure ≤ 110 mmHg, respiratory rate >20 breaths/min, or history of heart failure. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of all-cause death, haemodynamic decompensation or PE recurrence within 30 days of randomisation. Key secondary outcomes, to be included in hierarchical analysis, are fatal or GUSTO severe or life-threatening bleeding; net clinical benefit (primary efficacy outcome plus severe or life-threatening bleeding); and all-cause death, all within 30 days. All outcomes will be adjudicated by an independent committee. Further outcomes include PE-related death, haemodynamic decompensation, or stroke within 30 days; dyspnoea, functional limitation or RV dysfunction at 6 months and 2 years; and utilisation of healthcare resources within 30 days and 2 years. The study is planned to enrol 650 patients. The results are expected to have a major impact on risk-adjusted treatment of acute PE and inform guideline recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1653-4699DOI Listing
September 2021

Extended Anticoagulant Treatment with Full- or Reduced-Dose Apixaban in Patients with Cancer-Associated Venous Thromboembolism: the API-CAT Study.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Unité de Recherche Clinique Innovation et Pharmacologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, France.

Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) is associated with a high risk of recurrent venous thromboembolic events (VTE) that require extended anticoagulation in patients with active cancer, putting them at risk of bleeding.The aim of the API-CAT study (NCT03692065) is to assess whether a reduced-dose regimen of apixaban (2.5 mg twice daily [bid]) is non-inferior to a full-dose regimen of apixaban (5 mg bid) for the prevention of recurrent VTE in patients with active cancer who have completed ≥6 months of anticoagulant therapy for a documented index event of proximal deep-vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism.APICAT is an international, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, non-inferiority trial with blinded adjudication of outcome events. Consecutive patients are randomized to receive apixaban 2.5 mg or 5 mg bid for 12 months. The primary efficacy outcome is a composite of recurrent symptomatic or incidental VTE during the treatment period. The principal safety endpoint is clinically relevant bleeding, defined as a composite of major bleeding or non-major clinically relevant bleeding. Assuming a 12-month incidence of the primary outcome of 4% with apixaban and an upper limit of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval of the hazard ratio <2.0, 1722 patients will be randomized,assuming an up to 10% loss in total patient-years (β = 80%; α 1-sided = 0.025). This trialhas the potential to demonstrate that a regimen of extended treatment for patients with CAT beyond an initial 6 months, with a reduced apixaban dose,has an acceptable risk of recurrent VTE recurrence and decreases the risk of bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1647-9896DOI Listing
September 2021

ISTH definition of pulmonary embolism-related death and classification of the cause of death in venous thromboembolism studies: Validation in an autopsy cohort.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Oct 1;19(10):2514-2521. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Background: The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH)'s Scientific and Standardization Committee (SSC) recently proposed a definition of pulmonary embolism (PE)-related death.

Objectives: To evaluate the accuracy and interrater reliability of the ISTH definition of PE-related death in an autopsy cohort.

Methods: We reviewed reports of 1064 consecutive adult autopsies that were performed at the NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital from January 2010 until July 2019. We included all patients with autopsy-confirmed PE-related death (cases) during that time frame, combined with patients who died in 2018 from a cause other than PE (controls). Based on clinical summaries, two adjudicators independently adjudicated the cause of death in each patient using the ISTH classification for the cause of death, blinded to the case/control status and ratio. The primary outcome was autopsy-confirmed PE-related death. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of the ISTH definition to identify autopsy-confirmed PE-related death, and its interrater reliability using the percentage agreement and Cohen's kappa.

Results: A total of 126 patients who underwent autopsy were included in the analysis (median age, 68 years [range, 21-94], 60 [48%] women), of which 29 (23%) had died from PE as confirmed by autopsy. The ISTH definition's sensitivity and specificity for autopsy-confirmed PE-related death were 45% (95% CI, 26-64) and 99% (95% CI, 94-100), respectively. Interrater reliability for PE-related death was substantial (percentage agreement, 94% [95% CI, 89-97]; kappa, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.55-0.97]).

Conclusion: Adjudication of the cause of death using the ISTH definition resulted in very high specificity, moderate sensitivity, and good interrater reliability for PE-related death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15458DOI Listing
October 2021

Oligometastases for Clinicians: Size Matters.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug 16;39(24):2643-2646. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institut du Thorax Curie-Montsouris, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00445DOI Listing
August 2021

Failure of the Ottawa Score to Predict the Risk of Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Cancer Patients: The Prospective PREDICARE Cohort Study.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

F-CRIN INNOVTE network, Saint-Etienne, France.

Introduction:  Recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) despite curative anticoagulation is frequent in patients with cancer. Identifying patients with a high risk of recurrence could have therapeutic implications. A prospective study was designed to validate the Ottawa risk score of recurrent VTE in cancer patients.

Methods:  In a prospective multicenter observational cohort, adult cancer patients with a recent diagnosis of symptomatic or incidental lower limb deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (PE) were treated with tinzaparin for 6 months. The primary endpoint was the recurrence of symptomatic or asymptomatic VTE within the first 6 months of treatment. All clinical events were centrally reviewed and adjudicated. Time-to-event outcomes were estimated by the Kalbfleisch and Prentice method to take into account the competing risk of death. A C-statistic value of > 0.70 was needed to validate the Ottawa score.

Results:  A total of 409 patients were included and analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Median age was 68 years, 60.4% of patients had PE, and VTE was symptomatic in 271 patients (66.3%). The main primary sites were lung (31.3%), lower digestive tract (14.4%), and breast (13.9%) cancers. The Ottawa score was high (≥ 1) in 58% of patients. The 6-month cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE was 7.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9-11.1) overall, and 5.0% (95% CI: 2.3-10.8) versus 9.1% (95%CI: 6.1-13.6) in the Ottawa low versus high risk groups, respectively. The C-statistic value was 0.60 (95% CI: 0.55-0.65).

Conclusion:  In this prospective cohort of patients with cancer receiving tinzaparin for VTE, the Ottawa score failed to accurately predict recurrent VTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1486-7497DOI Listing
April 2021

In memory of Professor Guy Meyer, 1957-2020.

Thromb Res 2021 04 14;200:A1-A2. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Unité de Recherche Clinique, Innovation, Pharmacologie, F-CRIN INNOVTE Network, Service de Médecine Vasculaire et Thérapeutique, CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord, F-40255 Saint-Etienne, France; SAINBIOSE U1059, Université Jean Monnet, Univ. Lyon, INSERM, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2021.02.001DOI Listing
April 2021

An epidemic of redundant meta-analyses.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 05 27;19(5):1299-1306. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Unité de Recherche Clinique, Innovation, Pharmacologie, CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord, Saint-Etienne, France.

Background: Meta-analyses are widely used to strengthen available evidence and obtain more precise estimates of treatment effect than any individual trial. Paradoxically, multiplication of meta-analyses on the same topic can lead to confusion as practitioners no longer benefit from a rapid and synthetic response. This phenomenon may appear disproportionate when the number of published meta-analyses exceeds the number of original studies.

Objectives: To describe an example of redundant meta-analyses published in the same area with the same randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

Methods: A systematic review was performed to identify all published meta-analyses of original RCTs that compared direct oral anticoagulants with low molecular weight heparins in cancer patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE). Forest plots were used to represent the meta-analyses results for efficacy (VTE recurrence) and safety (major bleeding) endpoints. An authors' network was constructed to explore the links between the authors of the published meta-analyses.

Results: In the past 3 years, four original RCTs were the subject of 20 published meta-analyses by 142 authors: five, four, and 11 meta-analyses pooled the data of two, three, and four RCTs, respectively. The results of meta-analyses were similar regarding the risks of VTE recurrence and major bleeding. The 11 meta-analyses of four RCTs were published within 6 months of the publication of the last RCT.

Conclusions: The epidemic proportions of such redundant literature and authorship could be moderated by developing "living" meta-analyses and encouraging authors of new RCTs to update the corresponding meta-analysis in the same paper as their original research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15280DOI Listing
May 2021

Prevalence of Pulmonary Embolism Among Patients With COPD Hospitalized With Acutely Worsening Respiratory Symptoms.

JAMA 2021 Jan;325(1):59-68

Département de Médecine Interne et Pneumologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Brest, Brest, France.

Importance: The prevalence of pulmonary embolism in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acutely worsening respiratory symptoms remains uncertain.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary embolism in patients with COPD admitted to the hospital for acutely worsening respiratory symptoms.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Multicenter cross-sectional study with prospective follow-up conducted in 7 French hospitals. A predefined pulmonary embolism diagnostic algorithm based on Geneva score, D-dimer levels, and spiral computed tomographic pulmonary angiography plus leg compression ultrasound was applied within 48 hours of admission; all patients had 3-month follow-up. Patients were recruited from January 2014 to May 2017 and the final date of follow-up was August 22, 2017.

Exposures: Acutely worsening respiratory symptoms in patients with COPD.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was pulmonary embolism diagnosed within 48 hours of admission. Key secondary outcome was pulmonary embolism during a 3-month follow-up among patients deemed not to have venous thromboembolism at admission and who did not receive anticoagulant treatment. Other outcomes were venous thromboembolism (pulmonary embolism and/or deep vein thrombosis) at admission and during follow-up, and 3-month mortality, whether venous thromboembolism was clinically suspected or not.

Results: Among 740 included patients (mean age, 68.2 years [SD, 10.9 years]; 274 women [37.0%]), pulmonary embolism was confirmed within 48 hours of admission in 44 patients (5.9%; 95% CI, 4.5%-7.9%). Among the 670 patients deemed not to have venous thromboembolism at admission and who did not receive anticoagulation, pulmonary embolism occurred in 5 patients (0.7%; 95% CI, 0.3%-1.7%) during follow-up, including 3 deaths related to pulmonary embolism. The overall 3-month mortality rate was 6.8% (50 of 740; 95% CI, 5.2%-8.8%). The proportion of patients who died during follow-up was higher among those with venous thromboembolism at admission than the proportion of those without it at admission (14 [25.9%] of 54 patients vs 36 [5.2%] of 686; risk difference, 20.7%, 95% CI, 10.7%-33.8%; P < .001). The prevalence of venous thromboembolism was 11.7% (95% CI, 8.6%-15.9%) among patients in whom pulmonary embolism was suspected (n = 299) and was 4.3% (95% CI, 2.8%-6.6%) among those in whom pulmonary embolism was not suspected (n = 441).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to the hospital with an acute worsening of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary embolism was detected in 5.9% of patients using a predefined diagnostic algorithm. Further research is needed to understand the possible role of systematic screening for pulmonary embolism in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.23567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786241PMC
January 2021

Microvascular maturation by mesenchymal stem cells in vitro improves blood perfusion in implanted tissue constructs.

Biomaterials 2021 01 19;268:120594. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology (CIRB), College de France, CNRS UMR7241, INSERM U1050, PSL Research University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Blood perfusion of grafted tissue constructs is a hindrance to the success of stem cell-based therapies by limiting cell survival and tissue regeneration. Implantation of a pre-vascularized network engineered in vitro has thus emerged as a promising strategy for promoting blood supply deep into the construct, relying on inosculation with the host vasculature. We aimed to fabricate in vitro tissue constructs with mature microvascular networks, displaying perivascular recruitment and basement membrane, taking advantage of the angiogenic properties of dental pulp stem cells and self-assembly of endothelial cells into capillaries. Using digital scanned light-sheet microscopy, we characterized the generation of dense microvascular networks in collagen hydrogels and established parameters for quantification of perivascular recruitment. We also performed original time-lapse analysis of stem cell recruitment. These experiments demonstrated that perivascular recruitment of dental pulp stem cells is driven by PDGF-BB. Recruited stem cells participated in deposition of vascular basement membrane and vessel maturation. Mature microvascular networks thus generated were then compared to those lacking perivascular coverage generated using stem cell conditioned medium. Implantation in athymic nude mice demonstrated that in vitro maturation of microvascular networks improved blood perfusion and cell survival within the construct. Taken together, these data demonstrate the strong potential of in vitro production of mature microvasculature for improving cell-based therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120594DOI Listing
January 2021

Second pulmonary resection for a second primary lung cancer: analysis of morbidity and survival.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 06;59(6):1287-1294

Thoracic Surgery Department, Institut du Thorax Curie-Montsouris, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, Paris, France.

Objectives: Evaluating morbidity and survival of patients operated on for a second primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Retrospective collection of data from patients operated on for a second NSCLC between 2009 and 2018.

Results: Fifty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. At the time of second pulmonary resection, the median time between the 2 surgeries was 25 months (5-44.5 months). Patients' median age was 65 years (61-68 years). Median tumour size was 16 mm (10-22 mm). Thoracoscopy was used in 75% of cases. The resection was a pneumonectomy (n = 1), bilobectomy (n = 1), lobectomy (n = 15), segmentectomy (n = 32) or wedge resection (n = 3). The length of stay was 7 days (5-9 days). Mortality was null and morbidity was 36.5%, mainly from grade I-II complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. The median follow-up was 28 months (13-50 months). The median overall survival was 67 months (95% confidence interval 60.8-73.1 months). Survival at 5 years and specific survival were 71.1% and 67.7%, respectively.

Conclusions: A second surgical resection of either synchronous or metachronous NSCLC has a morbidity that is not superior to the morbidity of the first operation. The new tumour is usually diagnosed at an early stage. An anatomical sublobar resection is most likely the best compromise. It might also be considered for the first operation when there is a suspicious synchronous lesion that may require surgery at a later stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezaa438DOI Listing
June 2021

Preventing venous thrombo-embolism after nonmajor orthopedic surgery.

Trends Cardiovasc Med 2020 Nov 2. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Institut du Thorax Curie-Montsouris, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris, 75014 Paris, France; F-CRIN INNOVTE Network, Paris, France.

The venous thromboembolism risk is low to moderate in nonmajor orthopedic surgery. The literature is unconclusive. New emerging data are now available. The global patient risk has to be taken into account to determine the need for any prophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2020.10.013DOI Listing
November 2020

Molecular Tension Microscopy of E-Cadherin During Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2179:289-299

Institut Jacques Monod, Université de Paris, CNRS, Paris, France.

Molecular Tension Microscopy has been increasingly used in the last years to investigate mechanical forces acting in cells at the molecular scale. Here, we describe a protocol to image the tension of the junctional protein E-cadherin in cultured epithelial cells undergoing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). We report how to prepare cells and induce EMT, and how to acquire, analyze, and quantitatively interpret FRET data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-0779-4_22DOI Listing
March 2021

Definition of pulmonary embolism-related death and classification of the cause of death in venous thromboembolism studies: Communication from the SSC of the ISTH.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 06;18(6):1495-1500

Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Pulmonary embolism (PE)-related death is often a component of the primary outcome in venous thromboembolism (VTE) clinical studies. Definitions for PE-related death vary widely, which may lead to biased risk estimates of clinical outcomes, thereby affecting both internal and external validity of study results. We here provide a standardized definition of PE-related death and propose guidance for classification and reporting of the cause of death for clinical studies in VTE. The proposal was developed in a four-step process, including a systematic review of definitions used for PE-related death in previous studies, two subsequent surveys with VTE experts, and meetings held within the Scientific and Standardization Committee (SSC) working group until consensus on the proposal was reached. The proposed classification comprises three categories: Category A: PE-related death, category B: undetermined cause of death, and category C: cause of death other than PE. Category A includes A1: autopsy-confirmed PE in the absence of another more likely cause of death; A2: objectively confirmed PE before death in the absence of another more likely cause of death; and A3: PE is not objectively confirmed, but is most likely the main cause of death. Category B includes B1: cause of death is undetermined, despite available information; and B2: insufficient clinical information available to determine the cause of death. The use of the proposed definition will hopefully improve the accuracy of study outcomes, between-study comparisons, meta-analyses, and validity of future clinical VTE studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14769DOI Listing
June 2020

Evaluation of Venous Thromboembolism Recurrence Scores in an Unprovoked Pulmonary Embolism Population: A Post-hoc Analysis of the PADIS-PE trial.

Am J Med 2020 08 22;133(8):e406-e421. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Département de Médecine Interne et Pneumologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Brest, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, and EA 3878, CIC INSERM 1412, Brest, France.

Background: We aimed to validate the Men Continue and HERDOO2 (HERDOO2), D-dimer, age, sex, hormonal therapy (DASH), and updated Vienna recurrent venous thromboembolism prediction models in a population composed entirely of first unprovoked pulmonary embolism, and to analyze the impact of the addition of the pulmonary vascular obstruction index (PVOI) on score accuracy.

Methods: Analyses were based on the double-blind, randomized PADIS-PE trial, which included 371 unprovoked pulmonary embolism patients initially treated for 6 months, successively randomized to receive an additional 18 months of warfarin or placebo, and subsequently followed-up for 2 years.

Results: The HERDOO2, DASH, and updated Vienna scores displayed C-statistics of 0.61 (95% CI 0.54-0.68), 0.60 (95% CI 0.53-0.66), and 0.58 (95% CI 0.51-0.66), respectively. Only the HERDOO2 score identified low recurrence risk patients (<3%/year) after anticoagulation was stopped. When added to either of the prediction models, PVOI measured at pulmonary embolism diagnosis, after 6 months of anticoagulation, or both, improved scores' C-statistics between +0.06 and +0.11 points and consistently led to identifying at least 50% of patients who experienced recurrence but in whom the scores would have indicated against extended anticoagulation.

Conclusions: In patients with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism, the HERDOO2 score is able to identify patients with a low recurrence risk after treatment discontinuation. Addition of PVOI improves accuracy of all scores.

Clinical Trials Registration: URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: NCT00740883.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.03.040DOI Listing
August 2020

Early detection of the existence or absence of the treatment effect: A cumulative meta-analysis.

J Clin Epidemiol 2020 08 13;124:24-33. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Unité de Recherche Clinique, Innovation, Pharmacologie, CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord, F-42055 Saint-Etienne, France; SAINBIOSE U1059, Université Jean Monnet, University Lyon, INSERM, F-CRIN INNOVTE Network, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, France; Service de Médecine Vasculaire et Thérapeutique, CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord, F-40255, Saint-Etienne, France.

Objectives: An unexpected promising effect of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) on survival in patients with cancer was observed in early trials in post hoc subgroup analyses but not found in more recent trials. To highlight a possible regression over time toward the lack of the antitumoral effect of LMWHs, we performed a cumulative meta-analysis of survival data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

Study Design And Setting: Medical databases were searched to identify RCTs comparing, in patients with cancer, LMWHs with placebo or no treatment in patients free of venous thromboembolism (VTE), or to vitamin K antagonists in patients who experienced an acute VTE in overall survival. The cumulative hazard ratio (HR) was estimated after each study inclusion in chronological order.

Results: Twenty-three studies (12,970 patients) were included. The cumulative meta-analysis of the earlier trials showed a significant improvement in overall survival with LMWHs. This apparent benefit then gradually regressed over time toward an absence of the effect of LMWHs on survival (HR: 0.98 [95% confidence interval, 0.93; 1.03]).

Conclusion: Despite supportive experimental data and early clinical findings, the promising antitumoral effect of LMWHs in patients with cancer gradually vanished over time toward a lack of impact on overall survival. This result suggests 'p-hacking' and selective reporting of the positive results from post hoc subgroup analyses in the early studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2020.04.006DOI Listing
August 2020

Rivaroxaban or Enoxaparin in Nonmajor Orthopedic Surgery.

N Engl J Med 2020 05 29;382(20):1916-1925. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

From the Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Groupe Hospitalo-Universitaire Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris Centre-Université de Paris, Hôpital Cochin (C.M.S., N.R.), Unité de Recherche Clinique, Innovation, Pharmacologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne, Sainboise INSERM Unité 1059, Université Jean Monnet, and INSERM CIE1408 (S.L., B.D., E.P., P. Mismetti), French Clinical Research Infrastructure Network (F-CRIN), Investigation Network on Venous Thromboembolism (INNOVTE) (S.L., P.G., P. Mismetti), and Institut du Thorax Curie-Montsouris, Institut Mutualiste Montsouris (P.G.), Paris, INSERM Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 5558, Université Claude Bernard, Université de Lyon, Lyon (M.C.), and the Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Polyclinique du Parc, Saint Saulve (D.D.) - all in France; the Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia (J.L.), and the Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Hospital Universitario Fundación de Alcorcón, Madrid (J.M.-M.) - both in Spain; Sektionsleiter Endoprothetik, Sana Klinikum Offenbach, Offenbach am Main, Germany (P. Mouret); and McGill University, Montreal (W.F.).

Background: Nonmajor orthopedic surgery of the lower limbs that results in transient reduced mobility places patients at risk for venous thromboembolism. Rivaroxaban may be noninferior to enoxaparin with regard to the prevention of major venous thromboembolism in these patients.

Methods: In this international, parallel-group, randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned adult patients undergoing lower-limb nonmajor orthopedic surgery who were considered to be at risk for venous thromboembolism on the basis of the investigator's judgment to receive either rivaroxaban or enoxaparin. The primary efficacy outcome of major venous thromboembolism was a composite of symptomatic distal or proximal deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or venous thromboembolism-related death during the treatment period or asymptomatic proximal deep-vein thrombosis at the end of treatment. A test for superiority was planned if rivaroxaban proved to be noninferior to enoxaparin. For all outcomes, multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. Prespecified safety outcomes included major bleeding (fatal, critical, or clinically overt bleeding or bleeding at the surgical site leading to intervention) and nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding.

Results: A total of 3604 patients underwent randomization; 1809 patients were assigned to receive rivaroxaban, and 1795 to receive enoxaparin. Major venous thromboembolism occurred in 4 of 1661 patients (0.2%) in the rivaroxaban group and in 18 of 1640 patients (1.1%) in the enoxaparin group (risk ratio with multiple imputation, 0.25; 95% confidence interval, 0.09 to 0.75; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P = 0.01 for superiority). The incidence of bleeding did not differ significantly between the rivaroxaban group and the enoxaparin group (1.1% and 1.0%, respectively, for major bleeding or nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding; 0.6% and 0.7%, respectively, for major bleeding).

Conclusions: Rivaroxaban was more effective than enoxaparin in the prevention of venous thromboembolic events during a period of immobilization after nonmajor orthopedic surgery of the lower limbs. (Funded by Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Saint-Etienne and Bayer; PRONOMOS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02401594.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1913808DOI Listing
May 2020

Absence of peripapillary retinal nerve-fiber-layer thinning in combined antiretroviral therapy-treated, well-sustained aviremic persons living with HIV.

PLoS One 2020 10;15(3):e0229977. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Service de Neurologie, Fondation Adolphe de Rothschild, Paris, France.

Purpose: To compare peripapillary retinal nerve-fiber-layer (pRNFL) thickness, total retina macular volume, and ganglion-cell-layer (GCL) macular volume and thickness between persons living with HIV (PLHIVs) with well-controlled infections and good immune recovery, and sex- and age-matched HIV-uninfected controls (HUCs).

Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02003989) included 56 PLHIVs, infected for ≥10 [median 20.2] years and with sustained plasma HIV-load suppression on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) for ≥5 years, and 56 matched HUCs. Participants underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with thorough ophthalmological examinations and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Their overall and quadrant pRNFL thicknesses, total macular volumes, and GCL macular volumes and thicknesses were compared. Cerebral small-vessel diseases (CSVD) complied with STRIVE criteria.

Results: Median [interquartile range, IQR] ages of PLHIVs and HUCs, respectively, were 52 [46-60] and 52 [44-60] years. Median [IQR] PLHIVs' nadir CD4+ T-cell count and current CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio were 249/μL [158-350] and 0.95 [0.67-1.10], respectively; HIV-seropositivity duration was 20.2 [15.9-24.5] years; cART duration was 16.8 [12.6-18.6] years; and aviremia duration was 11.4 [7.8-13.6] years. No significant between-group pRNFL thickness, total macular volume, macular GCL-volume and -thickness differences were found. MRI-detected CSVD in 21 (38%) PLHIVs and 14 (25%) HUCs was associated with overall thinner pRNFLs, and smaller total retina and GCL macular volumes, independently of HIV status.

Conclusions: SD-OCT could not detect pRNFL thinning or macular GCL-volume reduction in well-sustained, aviremic, cART-treated PLHIVs who achieved good immune recovery. However, CSVD was associated with thinner pRNFLs and GCLs, independently of HIV status.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229977PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064175PMC
June 2020

Development of a standardized definition of pulmonary embolism-related death: A cross-sectional survey of international thrombosis experts.

J Thromb Haemost 2020 06 30;18(6):1415-1420. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Pulmonary embolism (PE)-related death is often part of the primary outcome in venous thromboembolism (VTE) studies. The Scientific and Standardization Committee (SSC) of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis developed a definition for PE-related death and classification of the cause of death. The present survey evaluated a preliminary version of this definition and classification.

Methods: Sixty-nine VTE experts from nine countries were invited for a cross-sectional online survey on January 15, 2019, including multiple-choice and open-ended questions on a seven-subcategory classification of the cause of death. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the results; qualitative comments were summarized.

Results: Forty of 69 (58%) invitees completed the survey. All respondents agreed that guidance on classification of the cause of death in VTE studies is required. There was high agreement on the proposal (median overall score, 6; interquartile range, 6-7; scale from 1 [poor] to 7 [excellent]). All respondents approved the wording and content of the seven subcategories, except for one disagreeing vote for two subcategories (A3: "PE is not objectively confirmed, but is most likely the main cause of death" and C1: "Another cause of death is more likely than PE but has not been objectively confirmed"). Suggestions for improvement mainly concerned the extensiveness of the criteria and clinical situations described to define the cause of death.

Conclusion: Acceptance of the proposal was excellent. Suggestions for improvement were incorporated in the SSC communication on the definition of PE-related death and classification of the cause of death in VTE studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14775DOI Listing
June 2020

International Delphi survey of the ESTS/AATS/ISTH task force on venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in thoracic surgery: the role of extended post-discharge prophylaxis.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2020 05;57(5):854-859

Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Objectives: Venous thromboembolic events can be successfully prevented with chemical and/or mechanical prophylaxis measures, but evidence-based guidelines in thoracic surgery are limited, particularly regarding extended post-discharge prophylaxis. This study attempts to gather an international consensus on best practices to inform the development of such guidelines.

Methods: A series of 3 surveys was distributed to the ESTS/AATS/ISTH (European Society of Thoracic Surgeons, American Association of Thoracic Surgeons, International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis) venous thromboembolic events prophylaxis working group starting January 2017. This iterative Delphi consensus process sought to gather a consensus on (i) risk factors; (ii) preferred agents; (iii) duration; and (iv) perceived barriers to an extended thromboprophylaxis approach. Participant responses were expressed on a 10-point scale, and the results were summarized and circulated to all respondents in subsequent rounds. A coefficient of variance of ≤0.3 was identified pre hoc to identify agreement.

Results: A total of 21 Working Group members completed the surveys, composed of 19% non-surgeon thrombosis experts, and 48% from North America. Respondents largely saw agreement regarding risk factors that indicate a need for extended thromboprophylaxis. The group agreed that low-molecular-weight heparin is a suitable agent for use post-discharge, but there was a wide variety in response regarding agents, duration and barriers to extended prophylaxis, where no consensus was observed across the three rounds.

Conclusions: There is strong agreement around indications for extended venous thromboembolic events thromboprophylaxis after thoracic surgery, but there is little consensus regarding the agents and duration to be employed. Further research is required to better inform guideline development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezz319DOI Listing
May 2020

Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich domains of Lysyl Oxidase-Like2 regulate endothelial ECM and angiogenesis through non-catalytic scaffolding mechanisms.

Matrix Biol 2020 06 20;88:33-52. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Biology (CIRB), Collège de France, CNRS, INSERM, PSL Research University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Lysyl oxidases are major actors of microenvironment and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. These cross-linking enzymes are thus involved in many aspects of physiopathology, including tumor progression, fibrosis and cardiovascular diseases. We have already shown that Lysyl Oxidase-Like 2 (LOXL2) regulates collagen IV deposition by endothelial cells and angiogenesis. We here provide evidence that LOXL2 also affects deposition of other ECM components, including fibronectin, thus altering structural and mechanical properties of the matrix generated by endothelial cells. LOXL2 interacts intracellularly and directly with collagen IV and fibronectin before incorporation into ECM fibrillar structures upon exocytosis, as demonstrated by TIRF time-lapse microscopy. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance experiments using recombinant scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains truncated for the catalytic domain demonstrated their direct binding to collagen IV. We thus used directed mutagenesis to investigate the role of LOXL2 catalytic domain. Neither enzyme activity nor catalytic domain were necessary for collagen IV deposition and angiogenesis, whereas the SRCR domains were effective for these processes. Finally, surface coating with recombinant SRCR domains restored deposition of collagen IV by LOXL2-depleted cells. We thus propose that LOXL2 SRCR domains orchestrate scaffolding of the vascular basement membrane and angiogenesis through interactions with collagen IV and fibronectin, independently of the enzymatic cross-linking activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2019.11.003DOI Listing
June 2020

Erratum: Treatment of Cancer-Associated Thrombosis: Beyond HOKUSAI.

TH Open 2019 Oct 5;3(4):e348-e349. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

F-CRIN INNOVTE, Saint Etienne, France.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1696659.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3400276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6831503PMC
October 2019

Treatment of Cancer-Associated Thrombosis: Beyond HOKUSAI.

TH Open 2019 Jul 16;3(3):e309-e315. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

F-CRIN INNOVTE, Saint Etienne, France.

Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) represent an attractive alternative to low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) for the long-term treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis (CT) since they avoid the burden of daily injections. Analyses in subgroups of cancer patients from large randomized trials suggested that DOACs were at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists, while indirect comparisons suggested that DOACs' efficacy and safety profile were comparable to those of LMWHs. In the randomized controlled HOKUSAI-VTE Cancer study, currently the only completed phase III trial on DOACs in CT patients, edoxaban was shown noninferior to dalteparin on the composite primary endpoint of time to first recurrent venous thromboembolism or major bleeding during the 12 months after randomization. Study results suggest that both agents had comparable benefit/risk ratio in patients with CT. Even though this conclusion was valid from a strict statistical viewpoint, it was potentially misleading when interpreting benefit/risk ratios. Besides the obvious heterogeneity of the study population (e.g., 23% of patients no longer had cancer) and significantly different treatment durations between arms, secondary outcomes for efficacy were in favor of edoxaban for recurrent deep-vein thrombosis but not for recurrent pulmonary embolism, and major bleeding episodes were significantly more frequent in the edoxaban group, with an excess of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding episodes observed mainly but not only in patients with GI cancers. More research is needed regarding specific patients' profiles, cancer types, and treatment period to better clarify the respective roles of DOACs and LMWHs in CT patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1696659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746618PMC
July 2019

Reply to Acetaminophen Use and Stroke Risk.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2019 11 13;67(11):2424-2426. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Gérontopôle, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16173DOI Listing
November 2019

Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in thoracic surgery patients: an international survey.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2020 02;57(2):331-337

Department of Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Objectives: Venous thromboembolic events (VTE) after thoracic surgery (TS) can be prevented with mechanical and chemical prophylaxis. Unlike other surgical specialties, TS lacks evidence-based guidelines. In the process of developing these guidelines, an understanding of the current prophylaxis methods practiced internationally is necessary and is described in this article.

Methods: A 26-item survey was distributed to members of the European Society of Thoracic Surgeons (ESTS), American Association of Thoracic Surgery (AATS), Japanese Association for Chest Surgery (JACS) and Chinese Society for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (CSTCS) electronically or in person. Participants were asked to report their current prophylaxis selection, timing of initiation and duration of prophylaxis, perceived risk factors and the presence and adherence to institutional VTE guidelines for patients undergoing TS for malignancies.

Results: In total, 1613 surgeons anonymously completed the survey with an overall 36% response rate. Respondents were senior surgeons working in large academic hospitals (≥70%, respectively). More than 83.5% of ESTS, AATS and JACS respondents report formal TS thromboprophylaxis protocols in their institutions, but 53% of CSTCS members report not having such a protocol. The regions varied in the approaches utilized for VTE prophylaxis, the timing of initiation perioperatively and the use and type of extended prophylaxis. Respondents reported that multiple risk factors and sources of information impact their VTE prophylaxis decision-making processes, and these factors vastly diverge regionally.

Conclusions: There is little agreement internationally on the optimal approach to thromboprophylaxis in the TS population, and guidelines will be helpful and vastly welcomed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezz191DOI Listing
February 2020

Definitions, adjudication, and reporting of pulmonary embolism-related death in clinical studies: A systematic review.

J Thromb Haemost 2019 10 31;17(10):1590-1607. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Background: Pulmonary embolism (PE)-related death is a component of the primary outcome in many venous thromboembolism (VTE) studies. The absence of a standardized definition for PE-related death hampers study outcome evaluation and between-study comparisons.

Objectives: To summarize definitions for PE-related death used in recent VTE studies and to assess the PE-related death rate.

Patients/methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on 26 April 2018 from 1 January 2014 up to the search date in MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL. Cohort studies and randomized trials in which PE-related death was included in the primary outcome were eligible. Screening of titles, abstracts, and full-text articles, and data extraction were independently performed in duplicate by two authors. Study outcomes included the definition for PE-related death, VTE case-fatality rate, and death due to PE rate. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data.

Results: Of the 6807 identified citations, 83 studies were included of which 27% were randomized trials, 31% were prospective, and 42% retrospective cohort studies. Thirty-five studies (42%) had a central adjudication committee. Thirty-eight (46%) reported a definition for PE-related death of which the most frequently used components were "autopsy-confirmed PE" (50%), "objectively confirmed PE before death" (55%), and "unexplained death" (58%). Median VTE case-fatality rate was 1.8% (interquartile range, 0.0-13).

Conclusions: Only half of the included studies reported definitions for PE-related death, which were very heterogeneous. Case-fatality rate of VTE events varied widely across studies. Standardization of the definition and guidance on adjudication and reporting of PE-related death is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.14570DOI Listing
October 2019

Evaluation of the predictive value of the bleeding prediction score VTE-BLEED for recurrent venous thromboembolism.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2019 Jul 25;3(3):364-371. Epub 2019 May 25.

Département de Médecine Interne et Pneumologie Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Brest Université de Bretagne Occidentale EA 3878, CIC INSERM 1412, F-CRIN INNOVTE Brest France.

Introduction: VTE-BLEED is a validated score for identification of patients at increased risk of major bleeding during extended anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is unknown whether VTE-BLEED high-risk patients also have an increased risk for recurrent VTE, which would limit the potential usefulness of the score.

Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled PADIS-PE trial that randomized patients with a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism (PE) initially treated during 6 months to receive an additional 18-month of warfarin vs. placebo. The primary outcome of this analysis was recurrent VTE during 2-year follow-up after anticoagulant discontinuation, that is, after the initial 6-month treatment in the placebo arm and after 24 months of anticoagulation in the active treatment arm. This rate, adjusted for study treatment allocation, was compared between patients in the high- vs. low-risk VTE-BLEED group.

Results: In complete case analysis (n = 308; 82.4% of total population), 89 (28.9%) patients were classified as high risk; 44 VTE events occurred after anticoagulant discontinuation during 668 patient-years. The cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE was 16.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0%-26.1%; 14 events) and 14.6% (95% CI, 10.4%-20.3%; 30 events) in the high-risk and low-risk VTE-BLEED groups, respectively, for an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.16 (95% CI, 0.62-2.19).

Conclusion: In this study, patients with unprovoked PE classified at high risk of major bleeding by VTE-BLEED did not have a higher incidence of recurrent VTE after cessation of anticoagulant therapy, supporting the potential yield of the score for making management decisions on the optimal duration of anticoagulant therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6611364PMC
July 2019

Predictors for Residual Pulmonary Vascular Obstruction after Unprovoked Pulmonary Embolism: Implications for Clinical Practice-The PADIS-PE Trial.

Thromb Haemost 2019 Sep 23;119(9):1489-1497. Epub 2019 Jun 23.

Département de Médecine Interne et Pneumologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Brest, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, and EA 3878, CIC INSERM 1412, Brest, France.

Background:  We aimed to identify risk factors for residual pulmonary vascular obstruction after a first unprovoked pulmonary embolism (PE).

Methods:  Analyses were based on data from the double-blind randomized "PADIS-PE" trial that included 371 patients with a first unprovoked PE initially treated during 6 uninterrupted months; all patients underwent baseline ventilation-perfusion lung scanning at inclusion (i.e., after 6 months of anticoagulation). Each patient's pulmonary vascular obstruction indexes (PVOIs) at PE diagnosis and at inclusion were centrally assessed.

Results:  Among the 371 included patients, residual PVOI was available in 356 patients, and 150 (42.1%) patients had PVOI ≥ 5%. At multivariable analysis, age > 65 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.81, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58-5.00), PVOI ≥ 25% at PE diagnosis (OR, 3.53, 95% CI, 1.94-6.41), elevated factor VIII (OR, 3.89, 95% CI, 1.41-10.8), and chronic respiratory disease (OR, 2.18, 95% CI, 1.11-4.26) were independent predictors for residual PVOI ≥ 5%. Patients with ≥ 1 of these factors represented 94.5% (123 patients) of all patients with residual PVOI ≥ 5%.

Conclusion:  Six months after a first unprovoked PE, age > 65 years, PVOI ≥ 25% at PE diagnosis, elevated factor VIII, or chronic respiratory disease were found to be independent predictors for residual pulmonary vascular obstruction.

Clinical Trials Registration:  URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com. Unique identifier: NCT00740883.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1692424DOI Listing
September 2019
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