Publications by authors named "Philippe Amouyel"

395 Publications

Desmin aggrephagy in rat and human ischemic heart failure through PKCζ and GSK3β as upstream signaling pathways.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Jun 26;7(1):153. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

INSERM, Univ. Lille, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1167 - RID-AGE - Facteurs de risque et déterminants moléculaires des maladies liées au vieillissement, F-59000, Lille, France.

Post-translational modifications of cardiac proteins could participate to left contractile dysfunction resulting in heart failure. Using a rat model of ischemic heart failure, we showed an accumulation of phosphorylated desmin leading to toxic aggregates in cardiomyocytes, but the cellular mechanisms are unknown. The same rat model was used to decipher the kinases involved in desmin phosphorylation and the proteolytic systems present in rat and human failing hearts. We used primary cultures of neonate rat cardiomyocytes for testing specific inhibitors of kinases and for characterizing the autophagic processes able to clear desmin aggregates. We found a significant increase of active PKCζ, no modulation of ubitiquitin-proteasome system, a defect in macroautophagy, and an activation of chaperone-mediated autophagy in heart failure rats. We validated in vitro that PKCζ inhibition induced a significant decrease of GSK3β and of soluble desmin. In vitro activation of ubiquitination of proteins and of chaperone-mediated autophagy is able to decrease soluble and insoluble forms of desmin in cardiomyocytes. These data demonstrate a novel signaling pathway implicating activation of PKCζ in desmin phosphorylation associated with a defect of proteolytic systems in ischemic heart failure, leading to desmin aggrephagy. Our in vitro data demonstrated that ubiquitination of proteins and chaperone-mediated autophagy are required for eliminating desmin aggregates with the contribution of its chaperone protein, α-crystallin Β-chain. Modulation of the kinases involved under pathological conditions may help preserving desmin intermediate filaments structure and thus protect the structural integrity of contractile apparatus of cardiomyocytes by limiting desmin aggregates formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-021-00549-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257599PMC
June 2021

Common variants in Alzheimer's disease and risk stratification by polygenic risk scores.

Nat Commun 2021 06 7;12(1):3417. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Servei de Neurologia, Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain.

Genetic discoveries of Alzheimer's disease are the drivers of our understanding, and together with polygenetic risk stratification can contribute towards planning of feasible and efficient preventive and curative clinical trials. We first perform a large genetic association study by merging all available case-control datasets and by-proxy study results (discovery n = 409,435 and validation size n = 58,190). Here, we add six variants associated with Alzheimer's disease risk (near APP, CHRNE, PRKD3/NDUFAF7, PLCG2 and two exonic variants in the SHARPIN gene). Assessment of the polygenic risk score and stratifying by APOE reveal a 4 to 5.5 years difference in median age at onset of Alzheimer's disease patients in APOE ɛ4 carriers. Because of this study, the underlying mechanisms of APP can be studied to refine the amyloid cascade and the polygenic risk score provides a tool to select individuals at high risk of Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22491-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184987PMC
June 2021

Plasma amyloid β levels are driven by genetic variants near APOE, BACE1, APP, PSEN2: A genome-wide association study in over 12,000 non-demented participants.

Alzheimers Dement 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Human Genetics Center, Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Introduction: There is increasing interest in plasma amyloid beta (Aβ) as an endophenotype of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Identifying the genetic determinants of plasma Aβ levels may elucidate important biological processes that determine plasma Aβ measures.

Methods: We included 12,369 non-demented participants from eight population-based studies. Imputed genetic data and measured plasma Aβ1-40, Aβ1-42 levels and Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratio were used to perform genome-wide association studies, and gene-based and pathway analyses. Significant variants and genes were followed up for their association with brain positron emission tomography Aβ deposition and AD risk.

Results: Single-variant analysis identified associations with apolipoprotein E (APOE) for Aβ1-42 and Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratio, and BACE1 for Aβ1-40. Gene-based analysis of Aβ1-40 additionally identified associations for APP, PSEN2, CCK, and ZNF397. There was suggestive evidence for interaction between a BACE1 variant and APOE ε4 on brain Aβ deposition.

Discussion: Identification of variants near/in known major Aβ-processing genes strengthens the relevance of plasma-Aβ levels as an endophenotype of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12333DOI Listing
May 2021

Large disparities in 28-day case fatality by stroke subtype: data from a French stroke registry between 2008 and 2017.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jul 3;28(7):2208-2217. Epub 2021 May 3.

Facteurs de Risque et Déterminants Moléculaires des Maladies Liées au Vieillissement, INSERM, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Univ. Lille, Lille, France.

Background And Purpose: The objectives of the present analysis were to assess 28-day stroke case fatality according to the stroke aetiology and to identify associated factors.

Methods: All stroke events in adults aged ≥35 years between 2008 and 2017 were collected in a population-based stroke registry in northern France.

Results: Out of a total of 2933 strokes, there were 479 (16%) haemorrhagic strokes and 2454 (84%) ischaemic strokes; the 28-day case fatality rates were 48% and 15%, respectively. Three-quarters of the 28-day case fatalities occurred within 6 days of the event for haemorrhagic strokes and within 16.5 days for ischaemic strokes. After an ischaemic stroke, the case fatality rate was higher for women (18%) than for men (12%, p < 0.0001); however, this difference disappeared after adjustment for age. Cardioembolic strokes (34%) and strokes of undetermined cause (33%) were the most common ischaemic subtypes, with case fatality rates of 16% and 18%, respectively. Large artery atherosclerosis (11%) and lacunar strokes (10%) were less common, and both types had a case fatality rate of 3%. Age at the time of the event and stroke severity were both significantly associated with case fatality. For some types of stroke, a history of cardiovascular events and residence in a nursing home were associated with a poor prognosis. Medical care in a neurology ward was inversely associated with case fatality, for all stroke subtypes.

Conclusions: In northern France, post-stroke case fatality remains high, especially for haemorrhagic stroke. Being treated in a neurology ward improved survival by around 80%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252764PMC
July 2021

Multiomics integrative analysis identifies allele-specific blood biomarkers associated to Alzheimer's disease etiopathogenesis.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Apr 12;13(7):9277-9329. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, School of Public Health, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, currently affecting 35 million people worldwide. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is the major risk factor for sporadic, late-onset AD (LOAD), which comprises over 95% of AD cases, increasing the risk of AD 4-12 fold. Despite this, the role of APOE in AD pathogenesis is still a mystery. Aiming for a better understanding of APOE-specific effects, the ADAPTED consortium analysed and integrated publicly available data of multiple OMICS technologies from both plasma and brain stratified by haplotype ( and ). Combining genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with differential mRNA and protein expression analyses and single-nuclei transcriptomics, we identified genes and pathways contributing to AD in both APOE dependent and independent fashion. Interestingly, we characterised a set of biomarkers showing plasma and brain consistent protein profiles and opposite trends in and AD cases that could constitute screening tools for a disease that lacks specific blood biomarkers. Beside the identification of APOE-specific signatures, our findings advocate that this novel approach, based on the concordance across OMIC layers and tissues, is an effective strategy for overcoming the limitations of often underpowered single-OMICS studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064208PMC
April 2021

The relationship between neighbourhood walkability and cardiovascular risk factors in northern France.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 27;772:144877. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Univ. Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1167 - RID-AGE - Facteurs de risque et déterminants moléculaires des maladies liées au vieillissement, F-59000 Lille, France. Electronic address:

Background: Although walkability is known to be associated with obesity and hypertension through increased physical activity; data on cardiovascular risk factors (especially in the Europe) are scarce. We assessed the relationship between neighbourhood walkability and cardiometabolic factors (including obesity, hypertension, the blood lipid profile, and serum glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels) among adults living in northern France.

Methods: Data were extracted from the ELISABET study database (2011-2013). The participants (aged between 40 and 65) resided in or around the cities of Lille and Dunkirk. For each residential address, we determined a neighbourhood walkability index (using a geographic information system) and the Walk Score®. Multilevel linear and logistic models were used to assess the relationships between neighbourhood walkability on one hand and body mass index (BMI), obesity, blood pressure, hypertension, serum HDLC, LDL-C, triglyceride and HbA1c levels, and physical activity level on the other.

Results: 3218 participants were included. After adjusting for individual and neighbourhood variables, we found that a higher neighbourhood walkability index was associated with a lower BMI (-0.23 kg.m; 95% confidence interval (CI) [-0.44;-0.01] for a one interquartile range (IQR) increment), a lower systolic blood pressure (-1.66 mmHg; 95% CI [-2.46;-0.85] per IQR), a lower prevalence of hypertension (% of increase: -7.12, 95% CI [-13.56;-0.52] per IQR), and a higher prevalence of moderate or high physical activity (% of increase = 6.9; 95% CI [1.2;12.72] per IQR). The walkability index was not significantly associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. Similar results were observed for the Walk Score®.

Conclusion: Our results showed that residence in a more walkable neighbourhood was associated with a lower prevalence of vascular risk factors. Promoting neighbourhood walkability might help to improve the population's cardiovascular health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144877DOI Listing
June 2021

Pyk2 overexpression in postsynaptic neurons blocks amyloid β-induced synaptotoxicity in microfluidic co-cultures.

Brain Commun 2020 28;2(2):fcaa139. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Université de Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, CHU Lille, INSERM U1167, LabEx DISTALZ, Lille 59019, France.

Recent meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies identified a number of genetic risk factors of Alzheimer's disease; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which they contribute to the pathological process. As synapse loss is observed at the earliest stage of Alzheimer's disease, deciphering the impact of Alzheimer's risk genes on synapse formation and maintenance is of great interest. In this article, we report a microfluidic co-culture device that physically isolates synapses from pre- and postsynaptic neurons and chronically exposes them to toxic amyloid β peptides secreted by model cell lines overexpressing wild-type or mutated (V717I) amyloid precursor protein. Co-culture with cells overexpressing mutated amyloid precursor protein exposed the synapses of primary hippocampal neurons to amyloid β molecules at nanomolar concentrations and induced a significant decrease in synaptic connectivity, as evidenced by distance-based assignment of postsynaptic puncta to presynaptic puncta. Treating the cells with antibodies that target different forms of amyloid β suggested that low molecular weight oligomers are the likely culprit. As proof of concept, we demonstrate that overexpression of protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta-an Alzheimer's disease genetic risk factor involved in synaptic plasticity and shown to decrease in Alzheimer's disease brains at gene expression and protein levels-selectively in postsynaptic neurons is protective against amyloid β-induced synaptotoxicity. In summary, our lab-on-a-chip device provides a physiologically relevant model of Alzheimer's disease-related synaptotoxicity, optimal for assessing the impact of risk genes in pre- and postsynaptic compartments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcaa139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941669PMC
August 2020

Association between ABO haplotypes and the risk of venous thrombosis: impact on disease risk estimation.

Blood 2021 Apr;137(17):2394-2402

Aix Marseille University, INSERM, Institut National de Recherche pour l'Agriculture, l'Alimentation et l'Environnement (INRAE), Centre de Recherche en CardioVasculaire et Nutrition, Marseille, France.

Genetic risk score (GRS) analysis is a popular approach to derive individual risk prediction models for complex diseases. In venous thrombosis (VT), such type of analysis shall integrate information at the ABO blood group locus, which is one of the major susceptibility loci. However, there is no consensus about which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) must be investigated when properly assessing association between ABO locus and VT risk. Using comprehensive haplotype analyses of ABO blood group tagging SNPs in 5425 cases and 8445 controls from 6 studies, we demonstrate that using only rs8176719 (tagging O1) to correctly assess the impact of ABO locus on VT risk is suboptimal, because 5% of rs8176719-delG carriers do not have an increased risk of developing VT. Instead, we recommend the use of 4 SNPs, rs2519093 (tagging A1), rs1053878 (A2), rs8176743 (B), and rs41302905 (O2), when assessing the impact of ABO locus on VT risk to avoid any risk misestimation. Compared with the O1 haplotype, the A2 haplotype is associated with a modest increase in VT risk (odds ratio, ∼1.2), the A1 and B haplotypes are associated with an ∼1.8-fold increased risk, whereas the O2 haplotype tends to be slightly protective (odds ratio, ∼0.80). In addition, although the A1 and B blood groups are associated with increased von Willebrand factor and factor VIII plasma levels, only the A1 blood group is associated with ICAM levels, but in an opposite direction, leaving additional avenues to be explored to fully understand the spectrum of biological effects mediated by ABO locus on cardiovascular traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085481PMC
April 2021

Association of low plasma antioxidant levels with all-cause mortality and coronary events in healthy middle-aged men from France and Northern Ireland in the PRIME study.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Aug 23;60(5):2631-2641. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Centre for Public Health, Royal Victoria Hospital, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, BT12 6BA, UK.

Background: The main underlying risk factors associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) are modifiable and oxidative injury and systemic inflammatory damage represent key aetiological factors associated with the development and progression of CHD and premature mortality.

Objective: To examine associations of plasma antioxidant status with all-cause mortality and fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events.

Design: The PRIME study prospectively evaluated 9709 men aged 50-59 years between 1991 and 1993 in Northern Ireland and France who were free of CHD at recruitment and followed annually for deaths and cardiovascular events for 10 years. Serum concentrations of vitamin C, retinol, two forms of vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) and six carotenoids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Baseline conventional risk factors were considered, as well as socioeconomic differences and lifestyle behaviours including diet, smoking habit, physical activity, and alcohol consumption through Cox regression analyses.

Results: At 10 years, there were 538 deaths from any cause and 440 fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events. After adjustment for country, age, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, height, total physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking habit, higher levels of all antioxidants were associated with significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality, with the exception of γ-tocopherol. Only retinol was significantly associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular events in a fully adjusted model.

Conclusions: Low antioxidant levels contribute to the gradient of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular incidence independent of lifestyle behaviours and traditional cardiovascular and socioeconomic risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02455-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8275518PMC
August 2021

Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Incident Cardiovascular Diseases.

JAMA 2020 12;324(23):2396-2405

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Importance: It is uncertain whether depressive symptoms are independently associated with subsequent risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).

Objective: To characterize the association between depressive symptoms and CVD incidence across the spectrum of lower mood.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A pooled analysis of individual-participant data from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (ERFC; 162 036 participants; 21 cohorts; baseline surveys, 1960-2008; latest follow-up, March 2020) and the UK Biobank (401 219 participants; baseline surveys, 2006-2010; latest follow-up, March 2020). Eligible participants had information about self-reported depressive symptoms and no CVD history at baseline.

Exposures: Depressive symptoms were recorded using validated instruments. ERFC scores were harmonized across studies to a scale representative of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale (range, 0-60; ≥16 indicates possible depressive disorder). The UK Biobank recorded the 2-item Patient Health Questionnaire 2 (PHQ-2; range, 0-6; ≥3 indicates possible depressive disorder).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Primary outcomes were incident fatal or nonfatal coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and CVD (composite of the 2). Hazard ratios (HRs) per 1-SD higher log CES-D or PHQ-2 adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and diabetes were reported.

Results: Among 162 036 participants from the ERFC (73%, women; mean age at baseline, 63 years [SD, 9 years]), 5078 CHD and 3932 stroke events were recorded (median follow-up, 9.5 years). Associations with CHD, stroke, and CVD were log linear. The HR per 1-SD higher depression score for CHD was 1.07 (95% CI, 1.03-1.11); stroke, 1.05 (95% CI, 1.01-1.10); and CVD, 1.06 (95% CI, 1.04-1.08). The corresponding incidence rates per 10 000 person-years of follow-up in the highest vs the lowest quintile of CES-D score (geometric mean CES-D score, 19 vs 1) were 36.3 vs 29.0 for CHD events, 28.0 vs 24.7 for stroke events, and 62.8 vs 53.5 for CVD events. Among 401 219 participants from the UK Biobank (55% were women, mean age at baseline, 56 years [SD, 8 years]), 4607 CHD and 3253 stroke events were recorded (median follow-up, 8.1 years). The HR per 1-SD higher depression score for CHD was 1.11 (95% CI, 1.08-1.14); stroke, 1.10 (95% CI, 1.06-1.14); and CVD, 1.10 (95% CI, 1.08-1.13). The corresponding incidence rates per 10 000 person-years of follow-up among individuals with PHQ-2 scores of 4 or higher vs 0 were 20.9 vs 14.2 for CHD events, 15.3 vs 10.2 for stroke events, and 36.2 vs 24.5 for CVD events. The magnitude and statistical significance of the HRs were not materially changed after adjustment for additional risk factors.

Conclusions And Relevance: In a pooled analysis of 563 255 participants in 22 cohorts, baseline depressive symptoms were associated with CVD incidence, including at symptom levels lower than the threshold indicative of a depressive disorder. However, the magnitude of associations was modest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.23068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739139PMC
December 2020

Cerebral small vessel disease genomics and its implications across the lifespan.

Nat Commun 2020 12 8;11(1):6285. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, 35233, USA.

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are the most common brain-imaging feature of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), hypertension being the main known risk factor. Here, we identify 27 genome-wide loci for WMH-volume in a cohort of 50,970 older individuals, accounting for modification/confounding by hypertension. Aggregated WMH risk variants were associated with altered white matter integrity (p = 2.5×10-7) in brain images from 1,738 young healthy adults, providing insight into the lifetime impact of SVD genetic risk. Mendelian randomization suggested causal association of increasing WMH-volume with stroke, Alzheimer-type dementia, and of increasing blood pressure (BP) with larger WMH-volume, notably also in persons without clinical hypertension. Transcriptome-wide colocalization analyses showed association of WMH-volume with expression of 39 genes, of which four encode known drug targets. Finally, we provide insight into BP-independent biological pathways underlying SVD and suggest potential for genetic stratification of high-risk individuals and for genetically-informed prioritization of drug targets for prevention trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19111-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722866PMC
December 2020

Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.

Nat Genet 2020 12 23;52(12):1314-1332. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00713-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610439PMC
December 2020

Genome-wide association study of intracranial aneurysms identifies 17 risk loci and genetic overlap with clinical risk factors.

Nat Genet 2020 12 16;52(12):1303-1313. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Research, Innovation and Education, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a severe type of stroke. To discover new risk loci and the genetic architecture of intracranial aneurysms, we performed a cross-ancestry, genome-wide association study in 10,754 cases and 306,882 controls of European and East Asian ancestry. We discovered 17 risk loci, 11 of which are new. We reveal a polygenic architecture and explain over half of the disease heritability. We show a high genetic correlation between ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We also find a suggestive role for endothelial cells by using gene mapping and heritability enrichment. Drug-target enrichment shows pleiotropy between intracranial aneurysms and antiepileptic and sex hormone drugs, providing insights into intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology. Finally, genetic risks for smoking and high blood pressure, the two main clinical risk factors, play important roles in intracranial aneurysm risk, and drive most of the genetic correlation between intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00725-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116530PMC
December 2020

Alzheimer's genetic risk factor FERMT2 (Kindlin-2) controls axonal growth and synaptic plasticity in an APP-dependent manner.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Université de Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1167-RID-AGE-Facteurs de Risque et Déterminants Moléculaires des Maladies Liées au Vieillissement, Lille, 59019, France.

Although APP metabolism is being intensively investigated, a large fraction of its modulators is yet to be characterized. In this context, we combined two genome-wide high-content screenings to assess the functional impact of miRNAs and genes on APP metabolism and the signaling pathways involved. This approach highlighted the involvement of FERMT2 (or Kindlin-2), a genetic risk factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as a potential key modulator of axon guidance, a neuronal process that depends on the regulation of APP metabolism. We found that FERMT2 directly interacts with APP to modulate its metabolism, and that FERMT2 underexpression impacts axonal growth, synaptic connectivity, and long-term potentiation in an APP-dependent manner. Last, the rs7143400-T allele, which is associated with an increased AD risk and localized within the 3'UTR of FERMT2, induced a downregulation of FERMT2 expression through binding of miR-4504 among others. This miRNA is mainly expressed in neurons and significantly overexpressed in AD brains compared to controls. Altogether, our data provide strong evidence for a detrimental effect of FERMT2 underexpression in neurons and insight into how this may influence AD pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-00926-wDOI Listing
November 2020

Genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of cortical structure in general population samples of 22,824 adults.

Nat Commun 2020 09 22;11(1):4796. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Cortical thickness, surface area and volumes vary with age and cognitive function, and in neurological and psychiatric diseases. Here we report heritability, genetic correlations and genome-wide associations of these cortical measures across the whole cortex, and in 34 anatomically predefined regions. Our discovery sample comprises 22,824 individuals from 20 cohorts within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortium and the UK Biobank. We identify genetic heterogeneity between cortical measures and brain regions, and 160 genome-wide significant associations pointing to wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β and sonic hedgehog pathways. There is enrichment for genes involved in anthropometric traits, hindbrain development, vascular and neurodegenerative disease and psychiatric conditions. These data are a rich resource for studies of the biological mechanisms behind cortical development and aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18367-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7508833PMC
September 2020

Apolipoprotein Proteomic Profiling for the Prediction of Cardiovascular Death in Patients with Heart Failure.

Proteomics Clin Appl 2020 11 28;14(6):e2000035. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

CHU Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1167 - RID-AGE - Facteurs de risque et déterminants moléculaires des maladies liées au vieillissement, Univ. Lille, Inserm, Lille, F-59000, France.

Purpose: Risk stratification in chronic systolic heart failure (HF) is critical to identify the patients who may benefit from advanced therapies. It is aimed at identifying new biomarkers to improve prognosis evaluation and help to better understand HF physiopathology.

Experimental Design: Prognostic evaluation is performed in 198 patients with chronic systolic HF: 99 patients who died from cardiovascular cause within three years are individually matched for age, sex, and HF etiology (ischemic vs not) with 99 patients who are alive after three years of HF evaluation. A proteomic profiling of 15 apolipoproteins (Apo) is performed: Apo-A1, -A2, -A4, -B100, -C1, -C2, -C3, -C4, -D, -E, -F, -H, -J, -L1, and -M using LC-MRM-MS.

Results: In univariate analysis, the levels of Apo-B100 and -L1 are significantly lower and the levels of Apo-C1, -J, and -M are significantly higher in patients who died from cardiovascular cause as compared with patients alive. In the final statistical model, Apo-C1, Apo-J, and Apo-M improve individually the prediction of cardiovascular death. Ingenuity pathway analysis indicates these three Apo in a network associated with lipid metabolism, atherosclerosis signaling, and retinoid X receptor activation.

Conclusions: Proteomic profiling of apolipoproteins using LC-MRM-MS might be useful in clinical practice for risk stratification of HF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prca.202000035DOI Listing
November 2020

Genome-wide association study of rate of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease patients identifies novel genes and pathways.

Alzheimers Dement 2020 08 23;16(8):1134-1145. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Genetics, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: Variability exists in the disease trajectories of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We performed a genome-wide association study to examine rate of cognitive decline (ROD) in patients with AD.

Methods: We tested for interactions between genetic variants and time since diagnosis to predict the ROD of a composite cognitive score in 3946 AD cases and performed pathway analysis on the top genes.

Results: Suggestive associations (P < 1.0 × 10 ) were observed on chromosome 15 in DNA polymerase-γ (rs3176205, P = 1.11 × 10 ), chromosome 7 (rs60465337,P = 4.06 × 10 ) in contactin-associated protein-2, in RP11-384F7.1 on chromosome 3 (rs28853947, P = 5.93 × 10 ), family with sequence similarity 214 member-A on chromosome 15 (rs2899492, P = 5.94 × 10 ), and intergenic regions on chromosomes 16 (rs4949142, P = 4.02 × 10 ) and 4 (rs1304013, P = 7.73 × 10 ). Significant pathways involving neuronal development and function, apoptosis, memory, and inflammation were identified.

Discussion: Pathways related to AD, intelligence, and neurological function determine AD progression, while previously identified AD risk variants, including the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 and ε2 variants, do not have a major impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924136PMC
August 2020

Common Genetic Variation Indicates Separate Causes for Periventricular and Deep White Matter Hyperintensities.

Stroke 2020 07 10;51(7):2111-2121. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry (C.F.-N.), University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

Background And Purpose: Periventricular white matter hyperintensities (WMH; PVWMH) and deep WMH (DWMH) are regional classifications of WMH and reflect proposed differences in cause. In the first study, to date, we undertook genome-wide association analyses of DWMH and PVWMH to show that these phenotypes have different genetic underpinnings.

Methods: Participants were aged 45 years and older, free of stroke and dementia. We conducted genome-wide association analyses of PVWMH and DWMH in 26,654 participants from CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology), ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro-Imaging Genetics Through Meta-Analysis), and the UKB (UK Biobank). Regional correlations were investigated using the genome-wide association analyses -pairwise method. Cross-trait genetic correlations between PVWMH, DWMH, stroke, and dementia were estimated using LDSC.

Results: In the discovery and replication analysis, for PVWMH only, we found associations on chromosomes 2 (), 10q23.1 (), and 10q24.33 ( In the much larger combined meta-analysis of all cohorts, we identified ten significant regions for PVWMH: chromosomes 2 (3 regions), 6, 7, 10 (2 regions), 13, 16, and 17q23.1. New loci of interest include 7q36.1 () and 16q24.2. In both the discovery/replication and combined analysis, we found genome-wide significant associations for the 17q25.1 locus for both DWMH and PVWMH. Using gene-based association analysis, 19 genes across all regions were identified for PVWMH only, including the new genes: (2q32.1), (3q27.1), (5q27.1), and (22q13.1). Thirteen genes in the 17q25.1 locus were significant for both phenotypes. More extensive genetic correlations were observed for PVWMH with small vessel ischemic stroke. There were no associations with dementia for either phenotype.

Conclusions: Our study confirms these phenotypes have distinct and also shared genetic architectures. Genetic analyses indicated PVWMH was more associated with ischemic stroke whilst DWMH loci were implicated in vascular, astrocyte, and neuronal function. Our study confirms these phenotypes are distinct neuroimaging classifications and identifies new candidate genes associated with PVWMH only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365038PMC
July 2020

Mendelian randomization analysis does not support causal associations of birth weight with hypertension risk and blood pressure in adulthood.

Eur J Epidemiol 2020 Jul 7;35(7):685-697. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, 21741, Malmö, Sweden.

Epidemiology studies suggested that low birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in later life. However, little is known about the causality of such associations. In our study, we evaluated the causal association of low birthweight with adulthood hypertension following a standard analytic protocol using the study-level data of 183,433 participants from 60 studies (CHARGE-BIG consortium), as well as that with blood pressure using publicly available summary-level genome-wide association data from EGG consortium of 153,781 participants, ICBP consortium and UK Biobank cohort together of 757,601 participants. We used seven SNPs as the instrumental variable in the study-level analysis and 47 SNPs in the summary-level analysis. In the study-level analyses, decreased birthweight was associated with a higher risk of hypertension in adults (the odds ratio per 1 standard deviation (SD) lower birthweight, 1.22; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.28), while no association was found between genetically instrumented birthweight and hypertension risk (instrumental odds ratio for causal effect per 1 SD lower birthweight, 0.97; 95% CI 0.68 to 1.41). Such results were consistent with that from the summary-level analyses, where the genetically determined low birthweight was not associated with blood pressure measurements either. One SD lower genetically determined birthweight was not associated with systolic blood pressure (β = - 0.76, 95% CI - 2.45 to 1.08 mmHg), 0.06 mmHg lower diastolic blood pressure (β = - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.93 to 0.87 mmHg), or pulse pressure (β = - 0.65, 95% CI - 1.38 to 0.69 mmHg, all p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that the inverse association of birthweight with hypertension risk from observational studies was not supported by large Mendelian randomization analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-020-00638-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867117PMC
July 2020

Association between overall fruit and vegetable intake, and fruit and vegetable sub-types and blood pressure: the PRIME study (Prospective Epidemiological Study of Myocardial Infarction).

Br J Nutr 2021 03 4;125(5):557-567. Epub 2020 May 4.

Queen's University Belfast, BelfastBT12 6BJ, UK.

Increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake is associated with reduced blood pressure (BP). However, it is not clear whether the effect of FV on BP depends on the type of FV consumed. Furthermore, there is limited research regarding the comparative effect of juices or whole FV on BP. Baseline data from a prospective cohort study of 10 660 men aged 50-59 years examined not only the cross-sectional association between total FV intake but also specific types of FV and BP in France and Northern Ireland. BP was measured, and dietary intake assessed using FFQ. After adjusting for confounders, both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were significantly inversely associated with total fruit, vegetable and fruit juice intake; however, when examined according to fruit or vegetable sub-type (citrus fruit, other fruit, fruit juices, cooked vegetables and raw vegetables), only the other fruit and raw vegetable categories were consistently associated with reduced SBP and DBP. In relation to the risk of hypertension based on SBP >140 mmHg, the OR for total fruit, vegetable and fruit juice intake (per fourth) was 0·95 (95 % CI 0·91, 1·00), with the same estimates being 0·98 (95 % CI 0·94, 1·02) for citrus fruit (per fourth), 1·02 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·06) for fruit juice (per fourth), 0·93 (95 % CI 0·89, 0·98) for other fruit (per fourth), 1·05 (95 % CI 0·99, 1·10) for cooked vegetable (per fourth) and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·80, 0·91) for raw vegetable intakes (per fourth). Similar results were obtained for DBP. In conclusion, a high overall intake of fruit, vegetables and fruit juice was inversely associated with SBP, DBP and risk of hypertension, but this differed by FV sub-type, suggesting that the strength of the association between FV sub-types and BP might be related to the type consumed, or to processing or cooking-related factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114520001518DOI Listing
March 2021

PLCG2 protective variant p.P522R modulates tau pathology and disease progression in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

Acta Neuropathol 2020 06 12;139(6):1025-1044. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC-Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

A rare coding variant (rs72824905, p.P522R) conferring protection against Alzheimer's disease (AD) was identified in the gene encoding the enzyme phospholipase-C-γ2 (PLCG2) that is highly expressed in microglia. To explore the protective nature of this variant, we employed latent process linear mixed models to examine the association of p.P522R with longitudinal cognitive decline in 3595 MCI patients, and in 10,097 individuals from population-based studies. Furthermore, association with CSF levels of pTau, total tau, and Aβ was assessed in 1261 MCI patients. We found that MCI patients who carried the p.P522R variant showed a slower rate of cognitive decline compared to non-carriers and that this effect was mediated by lower pTau levels in CSF. The effect size of the association of p.P522R with the cognitive decline and pTau was similar to that of APOE-ε4, the strongest genetic risk factor for AD. Interestingly, the protective effect of p.P522R was more pronounced in MCI patients with low Aβ levels suggesting a role of PLCG2 in the response to amyloid pathology. In line with this hypothesis, we observed no protective effect of the PLCG2 variant on the cognitive decline in population-based studies probably due to the lower prevalence of amyloid positivity in these samples compared to MCI patients. Concerning the potential biological underpinnings, we identified a network of co-expressed proteins connecting PLCG2 to APOE and TREM2 using unsupervised co-regulatory network analysis. The network was highly enriched for the complement cascade and genes differentially expressed in disease-associated microglia. Our data show that p.P522R in PLCG2 reduces AD disease progression by mitigating tau pathology in the presence of amyloid pathology and, as a consequence, maintains cognitive function. Targeting the enzyme PLCG2 might provide a new therapeutic approach for treating AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02138-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244617PMC
June 2020

Correction: The genetic history of France.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 Jul;28(7):988

Université de Nantes, CHU Nantes, CNRS, INSERM, l'institut du thorax, F-44000, Nantes, France.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0604-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316808PMC
July 2020

Coronary heart disease incidence still decreased between 2006 and 2014 in France, except in young age groups: Results from the French MONICA registries.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 07 26;27(11):1178-1186. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

INSERM, UMR1167, RID-AGE, Risk Factors and Molecular Determinants of Aging-Related Diseases, Université de Lille, Centre Hosp. Univ Lille, Institut Pasteur de Lille, France.

Background: Over the past few decades decreases in coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality rates have been observed throughout the western world. We sought to determine whether the acute coronary event rates had decreased between 2006 and 2014 among French adults, and whether there were sex and age-specific differences.

Methods: We examined the French MONICA population-based registries monitoring the Lille urban area in northern France, the Bas-Rhin county in north-eastern France and the Haute Garonne county in south-western France. All acute coronary events among men and women aged 35-74 were collected.

Results: Over the study period, the age-standardised attack rates decreased in both men (annual percentage change -1.5%,  = 0.0006) and women (annual percentage change -2.1%,  = 0.002). Also, the age-standardised incidence rates decreased in both men (annual percentage change -0.9%,  = 0.03) and women (annual percentage change -1.8%,  = 0.002) due to decreases in the 65-74 year age group. In men, age-standardised mortality rates decreased by 3.5% per year ( = 0.0004), especially in the 55-64 and 65-74 year age groups. In women, these rates decreased by 4.3% per year ( = 0.0009), particularly in the 35-44 and 65-74 year age groups. We also observed significant decreases in case fatality among both men (annual percentage change -1.7%,  < 0.0001) and women (annual percentage change -1.9%,  = 0.009).

Conclusions: Downward trends in acute coronary event attack, incidence and mortality rates were observed between 2006 and 2014 in men and women. This effect was age dependent and was primarily due to decreases in the 65-74 year age group. There were no substantial declines in the younger age groups except for mortality in young women. Prevention measures still need to be strengthened, particularly in young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487319899193DOI Listing
July 2020

The genetic history of France.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 07 10;28(7):853-865. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Université de Nantes, CHU Nantes, CNRS, INSERM, l'institut du thorax, F-44000, Nantes, France.

The study of the genetic structure of different countries within Europe has provided significant insights into their demographic history and population structure. Although France occupies a particular location at the western part of Europe and at the crossroads of migration routes, few population genetic studies have been conducted so far with genome-wide data. In this study, we analyzed SNP-chip genetic data from 2184 individuals born in France who were enrolled in two independent population cohorts. Using FineSTRUCTURE, six different genetic clusters of individuals were found that were very consistent between the two cohorts. These clusters correspond closely to geographic, historical, and linguistic divisions of France, and contain different proportions of ancestry from Stone and Bronze Age populations. By modeling the relationship between genetics and geography using EEMS, we were able to detect gene flow barriers that are similar across the two cohorts and correspond to major rivers and mountain ranges. Estimations of effective population sizes also revealed very similar patterns in both cohorts with a rapid increase of effective population sizes over the last 150 generations similar to other European countries. A marked bottleneck is also consistently seen in the two datasets starting in the 14 century when the Black Death raged in Europe. In conclusion, by performing the first exhaustive study of the genetic structure of France, we fill a gap in genetic studies of Europe that will be useful to medical geneticists, historians, and archeologists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0584-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316781PMC
July 2020

Exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of coronary heart disease: A fine-scale geographic analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Apr 29;714:136608. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Univ. Lille, EA 2694 - Santé Publique épidémiologie et qualité des soins, F-59000 Lille, France.

Geographical variations in cardiovascular disease rates have been linked to individual air pollutants. Investigating the relation between cardiovascular disease and exposure to a complex mixture of air pollutants requires holistic approaches. We assessed the relationship between exposure to multiple air pollutants and the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in a general population sample. We collected data in the Lille MONICA registry (2008-2011) on 3268 incident cases (age range: 35-74). Based on 20 indicators, we derived a composite environmental score (SEnv) for cumulative exposure to air pollution. Poisson regression models were used to analyse associations between CHD rates on one hand and SEnv and each single indicator on the other (considered in tertiles, where T3 is the most contaminated). We adjusted models for age, sex, area-level social deprivation, and neighbourhood spatial structure. The incidence of CHD was a spatially heterogeneous (p=0.006). There was a significant positive association between SEnv and CHD incidence (trend p=0.0151). The relative risks [95%CI] of CHD were 1.08 [0.98-1.18] and 1.16 [1.04-1.29] for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of SEnv exposure. In the single pollutant analysis, PM, NO, cadmium, copper, nickel, and palladium were significantly associated with CHD rates. Multiple air pollution was associated with an increased risk of CHD. Single pollutants reflecting road traffic pollution were the most strongly associated with CHD. Our present results are consistent with the literature data on the impact of road traffic on the CHD risk in urban areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7112033PMC
April 2020

Residential exposure to outdoor air pollution and adult lung function, with focus on small airway obstruction.

Environ Res 2020 04 21;183:109161. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Univ. Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille University Hospital, Institut Pasteur de Lille, UMR1167, RID-AGE, Risk Factors and Molecular Determinants of Aging-related, F-59000, Lille, France. Electronic address:

Although a growing body of evidence suggests that chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution is linked to a decline in lung function, data on flow at low lung volumes that may be more specific of small airway obstruction are still scarce. We aimed to study the associations between residential exposure to air pollution and lung function, with specific focus on small airways obstruction. We assessed 2995 French participants (aged between 40 and 65) in the ELISABET cross-sectional survey. Residential exposures to nitrogen dioxide (NO), particulate matter with a diameter <10 μm (PM) and sulphur dioxide (SO) were assessed. The spirometric parameters were forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75) and at 75% of FVC (FEF75). Coefficients in linear regression models were expressed as the z-score [95% confidence interval] for an increment of 5 μg/m in NO and 2 μg/m in PM and SO. NO was associated with significantly lower values of FEV1 (-0.10 [-0.15;-0.05]), FVC (-0.06 [-0.11;-0.02]), FEV1/FVC (-0.07 [-0.11;-0.03]), FEF25-75 (-0.09 [-0.14;-0.05]) and FEF75 (-0.08 [-0.12;-0.04]). PM was associated with significantly lower values of FEV1 (-0.10 [-0.15;-0.04]), FVC (-0.06 [-0.11;-0.01]), FEV1/FVC (-0.06 [‒0.11;-0.01]), FEF25-75 (-0.08 [-0.13;-0.03]) and FEF75 (-0.08 [-0.12;-0.04]). SO was associated with significantly lower values of FEV1 (-0.09 [-0.16;-0.02]), FEV1/FVC (-0.07 [-0.13;-0.01]), FEF25-75 (-0.09 [-0.15;-0.02]) and FEF75 (-0.08 [-0.14;-0.03]) but not FVC (-0.05 [-0.11; 0.009]). Even though spatial variations in pollutant levels were low, residential exposure to outdoor air pollution was associated with lower lung function, including lower FEF25-75 and FEF75 suggesting small airway obstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109161DOI Listing
April 2020

Circulating proteomic signature of early death in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.

Sci Rep 2019 12 16;9(1):19202. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Univ. Lille, CHU Lille, Inserm, Institut Pasteur de Lille, U1167 - RID-AGE - Facteurs de risque et déterminants moléculaires des maladies liées au vieillissement, F-59000, Lille, France.

Heart failure (HF) remains a main cause of mortality worldwide. Risk stratification of patients with systolic chronic HF is critical to identify those who may benefit from advanced HF therapies. The aim of this study is to identify plasmatic proteins that could predict the early death (within 3 years) of HF patients with reduced ejection fraction hospitalized in CHRU de Lille. The subproteome targeted by an aptamer-based technology, the Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer (SOMA) scan assay of 1310 proteins, was profiled in blood samples from 168 HF patients, and 203 proteins were significantly modulated between patients who died of cardiovascular death and patients who were alive after 3 years of HF evaluation (Wilcoxon test, FDR 5%). A molecular network was built using these 203 proteins, and the resulting network contained 2281 molecules assigned to 34 clusters annotated to biological pathways by Gene Ontology. This network model highlighted extracellular matrix organization as the main mechanism involved in early death in HF patients. In parallel, an adaptive Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) was performed on these 203 proteins, and six proteins were selected as candidates to predict early death in HF patients: complement C3, cathepsin S and F107B were decreased and MAPK5, MMP1 and MMP7 increased in patients who died of cardiovascular causes compared with patients living 3 years after HF evaluation. This proteomic signature of 6 circulating plasma proteins allows the identification of systolic HF patients with a risk of early death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-55727-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6914779PMC
December 2019
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