Publications by authors named "Philippe A Cassier"

69 Publications

Safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of budigalimab with rovalpituzumab tesirine in patients with small cell lung cancer.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 25;28:100405. Epub 2021 May 25.

Cancer Care Center, Blacktown Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Agents targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have been approved as monotherapy for patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In preclinical models, the combined targeting of PD-1 and delta-like protein 3 resulted in enhanced antitumor activity. Herein, we report results from the expansion arm of study NCT03000257 evaluating the combination of the anti-PD-1 antibody budigalimab and the targeted antibody-drug conjugate rovalpituzumab tesirine (Rova-T) in patients with previously treated SCLC.

Materials And Methods: This expansion arm of a multicenter, open-label, multi-arm, first-in-human phase 1 clinical trial enrolled adult patients with progressive SCLC. The primary objective was to assess safety and tolerability. Patients received budigalimab 375 mg via intravenous infusion every 3 weeks, and Rova-T was administered as a dose of 0.3 mg/kg intravenously, on day 1 of the first and third 3-week cycle.

Results: As of October 2019, 31 patients with SCLC were enrolled and treated with budigalimab plus Rova-T. The combination was tolerated, with the most common treatment-emergent adverse events (in >30%) being pleural effusion, fatigue, and cough. The overall response rate was 24.1%, with one confirmed complete response and six confirmed partial responses. The overall response rate in patients with high delta-like protein 3 expression was similar (21.1%). The median progression-free survival was 3.48 months.

Conclusion: Combination therapy with budigalimab and Rova-T had promising efficacy and appeared to be tolerated in patients with SCLC. Although Rova-T development has been discontinued, development of budigalimab combined with other anticancer agents is ongoing.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT03000257 Statement on originality of the work The manuscript represents original work and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere nor previously published. Statement of prior presentation Data from this study were previously presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctarc.2021.100405DOI Listing
May 2021

First-in-human phase 1 study of budigalimab, an anti-PD-1 inhibitor, in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 Jul 3. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

START Madrid-FJD, Hospital Universitario Fundacion Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Budigalimab is a humanized, recombinant immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1). We present the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetic (PK), and pharmacodynamic data from patients enrolled in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) expansion cohorts of the phase 1 first-in-human study of budigalimab monotherapy (NCT03000257; registered 15 December 2016).

Patients And Methods: Patients with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC or locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC naive to PD-1/PD-1-ligand inhibitors were enrolled; patients were not selected on the basis of oncogene driver mutations or PD-L1 status. Budigalimab was administered at 250 mg intravenously Q2W or 500 mg intravenously Q4W until disease progression/unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoints were safety and PK; the secondary endpoint was efficacy. Exploratory endpoints included biomarker assessments.

Results: In total, 81 patients were enrolled (HNSCC: N = 41 [PD-L1 positive: n = 19]; NSCLC: N = 40 [PD-L1 positive: n = 16]); median treatment duration was 72 days (range, 1-617) and 71 days (range, 1-490) for the HNSCC and NSCLC cohorts, respectively. The most frequent grade ≥ 3 treatment-emergent adverse event was anemia (HNSCC: n = 9, 22%; NSCLC: n = 5, 13%). Both dosing regimens had comparable drug exposure and increased interferon gamma-induced chemokines, monokine induced by gamma interferon, and interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10. Objective response rates were 13% (90% CI, 5.1-24.5) in the HNSCC cohort and 19% (90% CI, 9.2-32.6) in the NSCLC cohort. Median progression-free survival was 3.6 months (95% CI, 1.7-4.7) and 1.9 months (95% CI, 1.7-3.7) in the HNSCC and NSCLC cohorts.

Conclusions: The safety, efficacy and biomarker profiles of budigalimab are similar to other PD-1 inhibitors. Development of budigalimab in combination with novel anticancer agents is ongoing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00262-021-02973-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic guided optimisation of dose and schedule of CGM097, an HDM2 inhibitor, in preclinical and clinical studies.

Br J Cancer 2021 Aug 17;125(5):687-698. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Background: CGM097 inhibits the p53-HDM2 interaction leading to downstream p53 activation. Preclinical in vivo studies support clinical exploration while providing preliminary evidence for dosing regimens. This first-in-human phase I study aimed at assessing the safety, MTD, PK/PD and preliminary antitumor activity of CGM097 in advanced solid tumour patients (NCT01760525).

Methods: Fifty-one patients received oral treatment with CGM097 10-400 mg 3qw (n = 31) or 300-700 mg 3qw 2 weeks on/1 week off (n = 20). Choice of dose regimen was guided by PD biomarkers, and quantitative models describing the effect of CGM097 on circulating platelet and PD kinetics.

Results: No dose-limiting toxicities were reported in any regimens. The most common treatment-related grade 3/4 AEs were haematologic events. PK/PD models well described the time course of platelet and serum GDF-15 changes, providing a tool to predict response to CGM097 for dose-limiting thrombocytopenia and GDF-15 biomarker. The disease control rate was 39%, including one partial response and 19 patients in stable disease. Twenty patients had a cumulative treatment duration of >16 weeks, with eight patients on treatment for >32 weeks. The MTD was not determined.

Conclusions: Despite delayed-onset thrombocytopenia frequently observed, the tolerability of CGM097 appears manageable. This study provided insights on dosing optimisation for next-generation HDM2 inhibitors.

Translational Relevance: Haematologic toxicity with delayed thrombocytopenia is a well-known on-target effect of HDM2 inhibitors. Here we have developed a PK/PD guided approach to optimise the dose and schedule of CGM097, a novel HDM2 inhibitor, using exposure, platelets and GDF-15, a known p53 downstream target to predict patients at higher risk to develop thrombocytopenia. While CGM097 had shown limited activity, with disease control rate of 39% and only one patient in partial response, the preliminary data from the first-in-human escalation study together with the PK/PD modeling provide important insights on how to optimize dosing of next generation HDM2 inhibitors to mitigate hematologic toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01444-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405607PMC
August 2021

Macrophage depletion induces edema through release of matrix-degrading proteases and proteoglycan deposition.

Sci Transl Med 2021 06;13(598)

Roche Pharma Research and Early Development, Discovery Oncology, Roche Innovation Center Munich, 82377 Penzberg, Germany.

Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) blockade abates tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltrates and provides marked clinical benefits in diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumors. However, facial edema is a common adverse event associated with TAM elimination in patients. In this study, we examined molecular and cellular events associated with edema formation in mice and human patients with cancer treated with a CSF1R blocking antibody. Extended antibody treatment of mice caused marked body weight gain, an indicator of enhanced body fluid retention. This was associated with an increase of extracellular matrix-remodeling metalloproteinases (MMPs), namely MMP2 and MMP3, and enhanced deposition of hyaluronan (HA) and proteoglycans, leading to skin thickening. Discontinuation of anti-CSF1R treatment or blockade of MMP activity restored unaltered body weight and normal skin morphology in the mice. In patients, edema developed at doses well below the established optimal biological dose for emactuzumab, a CSF1R dimerization inhibitor. Patients who developed edema in response to emactuzumab had elevated HA in peripheral blood. Our findings indicate that an early increase of peripheral HA can serve as a pharmacodynamic marker for edema development and suggest potential interventions based on MMP inhibition for relieving periorbital edema in patients treated with CSF1R inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abd4550DOI Listing
June 2021

Pralsetinib for RET fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (ARROW): a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 07 9;22(7):959-969. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Oncogenic alterations in RET have been identified in multiple tumour types, including 1-2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of pralsetinib, a highly potent, oral, selective RET inhibitor, in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Methods: ARROW is a multi-cohort, open-label, phase 1/2 study done at 71 sites (community and academic cancer centres) in 13 countries (Belgium, China, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older with locally advanced or metastatic solid tumours, including RET fusion-positive NSCLC, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 (later limited to 0-1 in a protocol amendment) were enrolled. In phase 2, patients received 400 mg once-daily oral pralsetinib, and could continue treatment until disease progression, intolerance, withdrawal of consent, or investigator decision. Phase 2 primary endpoints were overall response rate (according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours version 1·1 and assessed by blinded independent central review) and safety. Tumour response was assessed in patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC and centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease who had received platinum-based chemotherapy or were treatment-naive because they were ineligible for standard therapy. This ongoing study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03037385, and enrolment of patients with treatment-naive RET fusion-positive NSCLC was ongoing at the time of this interim analysis.

Findings: Of 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC enrolled between March 17, 2017, and May 22, 2020 (data cutoff), 92 with previous platinum-based chemotherapy and 29 who were treatment-naive received pralsetinib before July 11, 2019 (efficacy enrolment cutoff); 87 previously treated patients and 27 treatment-naive patients had centrally adjudicated baseline measurable disease. Overall responses were recorded in 53 (61%; 95% CI 50-71) of 87 patients with previous platinum-based chemotherapy, including five (6%) patients with a complete response; and 19 (70%; 50-86) of 27 treatment-naive patients, including three (11%) with a complete response. In 233 patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC, common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (43 patients [18%]), hypertension (26 [11%]), and anaemia (24 [10%]); there were no treatment-related deaths in this population.

Interpretation: Pralsetinib is a new, well-tolerated, promising, once-daily oral treatment option for patients with RET fusion-positive NSCLC.

Funding: Blueprint Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00247-3DOI Listing
July 2021

A phase 1b study of the Notch inhibitor crenigacestat (LY3039478) in combination with other anticancer target agents (taladegib, LY3023414, or abemaciclib) in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors.

Invest New Drugs 2021 08 8;39(4):1089-1098. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, University of Texas Medical Center/MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Notch signaling plays an important role in development and tissue homeostasis. Deregulation of Notch signaling has been implicated in multiple malignancies. Crenigacestat (LY3039478), a potent Notch inhibitor, decreases Notch signaling and its downstream biologic effects. I6F-MC-JJCD was a multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label, Phase 1b study with 5 separate, parallel dose-escalations in patients with advanced or metastatic cancer from a variety of solid tumors, followed by a dose-confirmation phase in prespecified tumor types. This manuscript reports on 3 of 5 groups. The primary objective was to determine the recommended Phase 2 dose of crenigacestat in combination with other anticancer agents (taladegib, LY3023414 [dual inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase; mechanistic target of rapamycin], or abemaciclib). Secondary objectives included evaluation of safety, tolerability, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics. Patients (N = 63) received treatment between November 2016 and July 2019. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 12 patients, mostly gastrointestinal (diarrhea, nausea, vomiting). The maximum-tolerated dose of crenigacestat was 25 mg in Part B (LY3023414), 50 mg in Part C (abemaciclib), and not established in Part A (taladegib) due to toxicities. Patients had at least 1 adverse event (AE) and 75.0-82.6% were ≥ Grade 3 all-causality AEs. No patient had complete or partial response. Disease control rates were 18.8% (Part B) and 26.1% (Part C). The study was terminated before dose confirmation cohorts were triggered. This study demonstrated that crenigacestat combined with different anticancer agents (taladegib, LY3023414, or abemaciclib) was poorly tolerated, leading to lowered dosing and disappointing clinical activity in patients with advanced or metastatic solid tumors. NCT02784795 and date of registration: May 27, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-021-01094-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Phase I study of ABBV-428, a mesothelin-CD40 bispecific, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 02;9(2)

Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: CD40 agonist immunotherapy can potentially license antigen-presenting cells to promote antitumor T-cell activation and re-educate macrophages to destroy tumor stroma. Systemic administration of CD40 agonists has historically been associated with considerable toxicity, providing the rationale for development of tumor-targeted immunomodulators to improve clinical safety and efficacy. This phase I study assessed the safety, tolerability, preliminary antitumor activity, and preliminary biomarkers of ABBV-428, a first-in-class, mesothelin-targeted, bispecific antibody designed for tumor microenvironment-dependent CD40 activation with limited systemic toxicity.

Methods: ABBV-428 was administered intravenously every 2 weeks to patients with advanced solid tumors. An accelerated titration (starting at a 0.01 mg/kg dose) and a 3+3 dose escalation scheme were used, followed by recommended phase II dose cohort expansions in ovarian cancer and mesothelioma, tumor types associated with high mesothelin expression.

Results: Fifty-nine patients were treated at doses between 0.01 and 3.6 mg/kg. The maximum tolerated dose was not reached, and 3.6 mg/kg was selected as the recommended phase II dose. Seven patients (12%) reported infusion-related reactions. Treatment-related grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events were pericardial effusion, colitis, infusion-related reaction, and pleural effusion (n=1 each, 2%), with no cytokine release syndrome reported. The pharmacokinetic profile demonstrated roughly dose-proportional increases in exposure from 0.4 to 3.6 mg/kg. Best response was stable disease in 9/25 patients (36%) treated at the recommended phase II dose. CD40 receptor occupancy >90% was observed on peripheral B-cells starting from 0.8 mg/kg; however, no consistent changes from baseline in intratumoral CD8+ T-cells, programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1+) cells, or immune-related gene expression were detected post-ABBV-428 treatment (cycle 2, day 1). Mesothelin membrane staining showed greater correlation with progression-free survival in ovarian cancer and mesothelioma than in the broader dose escalation population.

Conclusions: ABBV-428 monotherapy exhibited dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and an acceptable safety profile, particularly for toxicities characteristic of CD40 agonism, illustrating that utilization of a tumor-targeted, bispecific antibody can improve the safety of CD40 agonism as a therapeutic approach. ABBV-428 monotherapy had minimal clinical activity in dose escalation and in a small expansion cohort of patients with advanced mesothelioma or ovarian cancer.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02955251.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-002015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7898862PMC
February 2021

Avapritinib in unresectable or metastatic PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours: Long-term efficacy and safety data from the NAVIGATOR phase I trial.

Eur J Cancer 2021 03 16;145:132-142. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital Essen, Sarcoma Center, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: PDGFRA D842V mutations occur in 5-10% of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs), and previously approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are inactive against this mutation. Consequently, patients have a poor prognosis. We present an updated analysis of avapritinib efficacy and long-term safety in this patient population.

Methods: NAVIGATOR (NCT02508532), a two-part, open-label, dose-escalation/dose-expansion phase I study, enrolled adult patients with unresectable GISTs. Patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant GIST were a prespecified subgroup within the overall safety population, which included patients who received ≥1 avapritinib dose. Primary end-points were overall response rate (ORR) and avapritinib safety profile. Secondary end-points were clinical benefit rate (CBR), duration of response (DOR) and progression-free survival (PFS). Overall survival (OS) was an exploratory end-point.

Results: Between 7 October 2015 and 9 March 2020, 250 patients enrolled in the safety population; 56 patients were included in the PDGFRA D842V population, 11 were TKI-naïve. At data cut-off, median follow-up was 27.5 months. Safety profile was comparable between the overall safety and PDGFRA D842V populations. In the PDGFRA D842V population, the most frequent adverse events were nausea (38 [68%] patients) and diarrhoea (37 [66%]), and cognitive effects occurred in 32 (57%) patients. The ORR was 91% (51/56 patients). The CBR was 98% (55/56 patients). The median DOR was 27.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 17.6-not reached [NR]); median PFS was 34.0 months (95% CI: 22.9-NR). Median OS was not reached.

Conclusion: Targeting PDGFRA D842V-mutant GIST with avapritinib resulted in an unprecedented, durable clinical benefit, with a manageable safety profile. Avapritinib should be considered as first-line therapy for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.12.008DOI Listing
March 2021

Long-term clinical activity, safety and patient-reported quality of life for emactuzumab-treated patients with diffuse-type tenosynovial giant-cell tumour.

Eur J Cancer 2020 12 5;141:162-170. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Institut Claudius Regaud, Département D'Oncologie Médicale, Toulouse, France.

Objectives: This study investigated the safety, clinical activity and patient-reported outcomes of patients with diffuse-type tenosynovial giant-cell tumour (dTGCT) of the soft tissue who were treated with emactuzumab, a humanised anti-colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) monoclonal antibody and were followed up for up to 2 years after the start of treatment.

Methods: In this open-label phase 1 study (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01494688), patients received intravenous (IV) emactuzumab from 900 to 2000 mg every two weeks in the dose-escalation phase and at the optimal biological dose of 1000 mg with different schedules in the dose-expansion phase. Adverse event (AE) rates and biomarker assessments from tumour biopsies were analysed. Quality of life was assessed using a standard questionnaire (EuroQol-5D-3L) and the WOMAC® 3.1 Osteoarthritis Index. Tumour responses were determined with magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: Altogether, 63 patients were enrolled into the study. The most frequently reported AEs were pruritus, asthenia and oedema. In 36 patients for whom biopsy tissue was available a substantial decrease of CSF1R-positive and CD68/CD163-positive macrophages was detected. The independently reviewed best overall objective response rate (ORR) (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1) was 71%. Responses were durable, and an ORR of 70% and 64% was determined after one or two years after enrolment into the study. Clinical activity was accompanied by an improvement in EuroQol-5D-3L and particularly the joint disorder-specific WOMAC score.

Conclusions: Systemic therapy of dTGCT patients with emactuzumab resulted in pronounced and durable responses associated with symptomatic improvement and a manageable safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.09.038DOI Listing
December 2020

Autophagy as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.

Br J Cancer 2021 01 15;124(2):333-344. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterised by early metastasis and resistance to anti-cancer therapy, leading to an overall poor prognosis. Despite continued research efforts, no targeted therapy has yet shown meaningful efficacy in PDAC; mutations in the oncogene KRAS and the tumour suppressor TP53, which are the most common genomic alterations in PDAC, have so far shown poor clinical actionability. Autophagy, a conserved process allowing cells to recycle altered or unused organelles and cellular components, has been shown to be upregulated in PDAC and is implicated in resistance to both cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Autophagy is thus regarded as a potential therapeutic target in PDAC and other cancers. Although the molecular mechanisms of autophagy activation in PDAC are only beginning to emerge, several groups have reported interesting results when combining inhibitors of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and inhibitors of autophagy in models of PDAC and other KRAS-driven cancers. In this article, we review the existing preclinical data regarding the role of autophagy in PDAC, as well as results of relevant clinical trials with agents that modulate autophagy in this cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01039-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7852577PMC
January 2021

Efficacy of Selpercatinib in Fusion-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2020 08;383(9):813-824

From Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Weill Cornell Medical College (A.D., E.R.) and New York University Langone Medical Center (V.V.), New York, and Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo (G.K.D.) - all in New York; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (G.R.O.) and Massachusetts General Hospital (J.G.), Boston; National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore (D.S.W.T.); the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (H.H.F.L.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville (M.J.); University of California, San Francisco-Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, San Francisco (C.E.M.), University of California, San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla (L.B.), and City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte (K.L.R.) - all in California; University of Bern, Bern, and Cantonal Hospital of Lucerne, Lucerne - both in Switzerland (O.G.); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (B.B.), Hospital La Timone, Marseille (F.B.), and Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (P.A.C.) - all in France; Severance Hospital, Yonsei University Health System (B.C.C.), and Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (K.P.), Seoul, and Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Y.J.K.) - all in South Korea; Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva, Israel (N.P.); University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill (J. Weiss); National Cancer Center Hospital (Y.O.) and Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research (M. Nishio), Tokyo, National Hospital Organization Kyushu Cancer Center, Fukuoka (T. Seto), Tottori University Hospital, Tottori (T. Sakamoto), Hyogo Cancer Center, Akashi (M.S.), Okayama University Hospital, Okayama (K.O.), and National Cancer Center Hospital East, Chiba (K.G.) - all in Japan; University of Chicago, Chicago (J.P.); the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus (M.H.S.), and Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (N.A.P.); Istituto Nazionale Tumori-National Cancer Institute, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan (F.D.B.); Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Hospital Universitario Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona (E.G.); Center for Integrated Oncology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany (J. Wolf); Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (B.S.); Sarah Cannon Research Institute at HealthONE, Denver (G.F.); Loxo Oncology, Stamford, CT (K.E., M. Nguyen, B.N., E.Y.Z., L.Y., X.H., E.O., S.M.R.); and the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (V.S.).

Background: fusions are oncogenic drivers in 1 to 2% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). In patients with fusion-positive NSCLC, the efficacy and safety of selective RET inhibition are unknown.

Methods: We enrolled patients with advanced fusion-positive NSCLC who had previously received platinum-based chemotherapy and those who were previously untreated separately in a phase 1-2 trial of selpercatinib. The primary end point was an objective response (a complete or partial response) as determined by an independent review committee. Secondary end points included the duration of response, progression-free survival, and safety.

Results: In the first 105 consecutively enrolled patients with fusion-positive NSCLC who had previously received at least platinum-based chemotherapy, the percentage with an objective response was 64% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54 to 73). The median duration of response was 17.5 months (95% CI, 12.0 to could not be evaluated), and 63% of the responses were ongoing at a median follow-up of 12.1 months. Among 39 previously untreated patients, the percentage with an objective response was 85% (95% CI, 70 to 94), and 90% of the responses were ongoing at 6 months. Among 11 patients with measurable central nervous system metastasis at enrollment, the percentage with an objective intracranial response was 91% (95% CI, 59 to 100). The most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher were hypertension (in 14% of the patients), an increased alanine aminotransferase level (in 12%), an increased aspartate aminotransferase level (in 10%), hyponatremia (in 6%), and lymphopenia (in 6%). A total of 12 of 531 patients (2%) discontinued selpercatinib because of a drug-related adverse event.

Conclusions: Selpercatinib had durable efficacy, including intracranial activity, with mainly low-grade toxic effects in patients with fusion-positive NSCLC who had previously received platinum-based chemotherapy and those who were previously untreated. (Funded by Loxo Oncology and others; LIBRETTO-001 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03157128.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2005653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506467PMC
August 2020

Model Informed Dosing Regimen and Phase I Results of the Anti-PD-1 Antibody Budigalimab (ABBV-181).

Clin Transl Sci 2021 01 26;14(1):277-287. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Next Oncology, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

Budigalimab is a humanized, recombinant, Fc mutated IgG1 monoclonal antibody targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) receptor, currently in phase I clinical trials. The safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics (PKs), pharmacodynamics (PDs), and budigalimab dose selection from monotherapy dose escalation and multihistology expansion cohorts were evaluated in patients with previously treated advanced solid tumors who received budigalimab at 1, 3, or 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks (Q2W) in dose escalation, including Japanese patients that received 3 and 10 mg/kg Q2W. PK modeling and PK/PD assessments informed the dosing regimen in expansion phase using data from body-weight-based dosing in the escalation phase, based on which patients in the multihistology expansion cohort received flat doses of 250 mg Q2W or 500 mg every four weeks (Q4W). Immune-related adverse events (AEs) were reported in 11 of 59 patients (18.6%), of which 1 of 59 (1.7%) was considered grade ≥ 3 and the safety profile of budigalimab was consistent with other PD-1 targeting agents. No treatment-related grade 5 AEs were reported. Four responses per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1 were reported in the dose escalation cohort and none in the multihistology expansion cohort. PK of budigalimab was approximately dose proportional and sustained > 99% peripheral PD-1 receptor saturation was observed by 2 hours postdosing, across doses. PK/PD and safety profiles were comparable between Japanese and Western patients, and exposure-safety analyses did not indicate any trends. Observed PK and PD-1 receptor saturation were consistent with model predictions for flat doses and less frequent regimens, validating the early application of PK modeling and PK/PD assessments to inform the recommended dose and regimen, following dose escalation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.12855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877859PMC
January 2021

Avapritinib in advanced PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour (NAVIGATOR): a multicentre, open-label, phase 1 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2020 07;21(7):935-946

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Targeting of KIT and PDGFRA with imatinib revolutionised treatment in gastrointestinal stromal tumour; however, PDGFRA Asp842Val (D842V)-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumour is highly resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antitumour activity of avapritinib, a novel KIT and PDGFRA inhibitor that potently inhibits PDGFRA D842V, in patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumours, including patients with KIT and PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours (NAVIGATOR).

Methods: NAVIGATOR is a two-part, open-label, dose-escalation and dose-expansion, phase 1 study done at 17 sites across nine countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Poland, Netherlands, South Korea, Spain, the UK, and the USA). Patients aged 18 years or older, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less, and with adequate end-organ function were eligible to participate. The dose-escalation part of the study included patients with unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumours. The dose-expansion part of the study included patients with an unresectable PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour regardless of previous therapy or gastrointestinal stromal tumour with other mutations that either progressed on imatinib and one or more tyrosine kinase inhibitor, or only received imatinib previously. On the basis of enrolment trends, ongoing review of study data, and evolving knowledge regarding the gastrointestinal stromal tumour treatment paradigm, it was decided by the sponsor's medical director together with the investigators that patients with PDGFRA D842V mutations would be analysed separately; the results from this group of patients is reported in this Article. Oral avapritinib was administered once daily in the dose-escalation part (starting dose of 30 mg, with increasing dose levels once daily in continuous 28-day cycles until the maximum tolerated dose or recommended phase 2 dose was determined; in the dose-expansion part, the starting dose was the maximum tolerated dose from the dose-escalation part). Primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose, recommended phase 2 dose, and safety in the dose-escalation part, and overall response and safety in the dose-expansion part. Safety was assessed in all patients from the dose-escalation part and all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour in the dose-expansion part, and activity was assessed in all patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour who received avapritinib and who had at least one target lesion and at least one post-baseline disease assessment by central radiology. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02508532.

Findings: Between Oct 26, 2015, and Nov 16, 2018 (data cutoff), 46 patients were enrolled in the dose-escalation part, including 20 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour, and 36 patients with a PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour were enrolled in the dose-expansion part. At data cutoff (Nov 16, 2018), 38 (46%) of 82 patients in the safety population (median follow-up of 19·1 months [IQR 9·2-25·5]) and 37 (66%) of the 56 patients in the PDGFRA D842V population (median follow-up of 15·9 months [IQR 9·2-24·9]) remained on treatment. The maximum tolerated dose was 400 mg, and the recommended phase 2 dose was 300 mg. In the safety population (patients with PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumour from the dose-escalation and dose-expansion parts, all doses), treatment-related grade 3-4 events occurred in 47 (57%) of 82 patients, the most common being anaemia (14 [17%]); there were no treatment-related deaths. In the PDGFRA D842V-mutant population, 49 (88%; 95% CI 76-95) of 56 patients had an overall response, with five (9%) complete responses and 44 (79%) partial responses. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed at doses of 30-400 mg per day. At 600 mg, two patients had dose-limiting toxicities (grade 2 hypertension, dermatitis acneiform, and memory impairment in patient 1, and grade 2 hyperbilirubinaemia in patient 2).

Interpretation: Avapritinib has a manageable safety profile and has preliminary antitumour activity in patients with advanced PDGFRA D842V-mutant gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

Funding: Blueprint Medicines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30269-2DOI Listing
July 2020

Tocilizumab for the treatment of paraneoplastic inflammatory syndrome associated with angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma.

ESMO Open 2020 06;5(3):e000756

Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Leon Berard, Lyon, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/esmoopen-2020-000756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299035PMC
June 2020

Phase I Study of Ramucirumab Plus Merestinib in Previously Treated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Safety, Preliminary Efficacy, and Pharmacokinetic Findings.

Oncologist 2020 11 17;25(11):e1628-e1639. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Lessons Learned: The combination of the antivascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 monoclonal antibody, ramucirumab, and the type II MET kinase inhibitor, merestinib, is tolerable. Preliminary efficacy data suggest that the combination may provide clinical benefit to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Further development of this combination would likely necessitate the identification of subsets of patients with mCRC where the clinical benefit is of clinical relevance.

Background: This study evaluated safety, preliminary efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of ramucirumab plus merestinib in patients with MCR previously treated with oxaliplatin and/or irinotecan.

Methods: Open-label phase Ia/b study comprising 3+3 dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) observation and expansion parts. Treatment was ramucirumab 8 mg/kg on days 1 and 15 and merestinib 80 mg once daily (QD; 28-day cycle). Primary objective was safety and tolerability. Secondary objectives were pharmacokinetics and preliminary antitumor activity. Exploratory objective was biomarker associations.

Results: Safety findings: DLT (proteinuria) of 7 phase Ia patients (the expansion part started at the initial recommended dose level); 16 patients (70%) with grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs); 10 patients (43%) with grade ≥3 treatment-related TEAEs. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related TEAEs were fatigue (4 patients [17%]) and increased blood alkaline phosphatase, diarrhea, and hypertension (2 patients each [9%]). One patient discontinued treatment because of cholestatic hepatitis. Geometric mean trough concentrations at cycle 1, day 15, were ramucirumab, 24.8 μg/mL; merestinib, 130 ng/mL. No complete or partial response was seen; 12 patients (52%) achieved stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 3.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-4.4). Median overall survival was 8.9 months (95% CI: 3.5-12.7). There were no associations between genetic alterations and efficacy.

Conclusion: Ramucirumab plus merestinib is tolerable and may have clinical benefit in biomarker-unselected, heavily pretreated patients with mCRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648328PMC
November 2020

Correction: Schwann cells support oncogenic potential of pancreatic cancer cells through TGFβ signaling.

Cell Death Dis 2020 Jan 23;11(1):57. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, INSERM 1052, CNRS 5286, Centre Léon Bérard, Centre de recherche en cancérologie de Lyon (CRCL), Lyon, 69373, France.

The original version of this article contained an error in the name of one of the co-authors (Kayvan Mohkam). This has been corrected in the PDF and HTML versions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2262-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6978359PMC
January 2020

Schwann cells support oncogenic potential of pancreatic cancer cells through TGFβ signaling.

Cell Death Dis 2019 11 25;10(12):886. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, INSERM 1052, CNRS 5286, Centre Léon Bérard, Centre de recherche en cancérologie de Lyon (CRCL), Lyon, 69373, France.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the solid tumors with the poorest prognosis. The stroma of this tumor is abundant and composed of extracellular matrix and stromal cells (including cancer-associated fibroblasts and immune cells). Nerve fibers invading this stroma represent a hallmark of PDAC, involved in neural remodeling, which participates in neuropathic pain, cancer cell dissemination and tumor relapse after surgery. Pancreatic cancer-associated neural remodeling is regulated through functional interplays mediated by physical and molecular interactions between cancer cells, nerve cells and surrounding Schwann cells, and other stromal cells. In the present study, we show that Schwann cells (glial cells supporting peripheral neurons) can enhance aggressiveness (migration, invasion, tumorigenicity) of pancreatic cancer cells in a transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-dependent manner. Indeed, we reveal that conditioned medium from Schwann cells contains high amounts of TGFβ able to activate the TGFβ-SMAD signaling pathway in cancer cells. We also observed in human PDAC samples that high levels of TGFβ signaling activation were positively correlated with perineural invasion. Secretome analyses by mass spectrometry of Schwann cells and pancreatic cancer cells cultured alone or in combination highlighted the central role of TGFβ in neuro-epithelial interactions, as illustrated by proteomic signatures related to cell adhesion and motility. Altogether, these results demonstrate that Schwann cells are a meaningful source of TGFβ in PDAC, which plays a crucial role in the acquisition of aggressive properties by pancreatic cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-019-2116-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6877617PMC
November 2019

Phase 1 study of the MDM2 inhibitor AMG 232 in patients with advanced P53 wild-type solid tumors or multiple myeloma.

Invest New Drugs 2020 06 29;38(3):831-843. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Oncology Early Development, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.

Background This open-label, first-in-human, phase 1 study evaluated AMG 232, an oral selective MDM2 inhibitor in patients with TP53 wild-type (P53WT), advanced solid tumors or multiple myeloma (MM). Methods In the dose escalation (n = 39), patients with P53WT refractory solid tumors enrolled to receive once-daily AMG 232 (15, 30, 60, 120, 240, 480, and 960 mg) for seven days every 3 weeks (Q3W). In the dose expansion (n = 68), patients with MDM2-amplified (well-differentiated and de-differentiated liposarcomas [WDLPS and DDLPS], glioblastoma multiforme [GBM], or other solid tumors [OST]), MDM2-overexpressing ER+ breast cancer (BC), or MM received AMG 232 at the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). Safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy were assessed. Results AMG 232 had acceptable safety up to up to 240 mg. Three patients had dose-limiting toxicities of thrombocytopenia (n = 2) and neutropenia (n = 1). Due to these and other delayed cytopenias, AMG 232 240 mg Q3W was determined as the highest tolerable dose assessed in the dose expansion. Adverse events were typically mild/moderate and included diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, decreased appetite, and anemia. AMG 232 plasma concentrations increased dose proportionally. Increases in serum macrophage inhibitor cytokine-1 from baseline were generally dose dependent, indicating p53 pathway activation. Per local review, there were no responses. Stable disease (durability in months) was observed in patients with WDLPS (3.9), OST (3.3), DDLPS (2.0), GBM (1.8), and BC (1.4-2.0). Conclusions In patients with P53WT advanced solid tumors or MM, AMG 232 showed acceptable safety and dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, and stable disease was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00840-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211202PMC
June 2020

Actionable molecular alterations in advanced gynaecologic malignancies: updated results from the ProfiLER programme.

Eur J Cancer 2019 09 24;118:156-165. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Medical Practices Evaluation Team - HESPER EA7425, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France; Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France; Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France. Electronic address:

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to identify actionable genomic alterations in the gynaecological subpopulation of the ProfiLER programme and to report clinical efficacy of recommended targeted treatment (RTT).

Methods: The ProfiLER programme (NCT01774409) is a multicentric prospective trial aiming to implement molecular profiling in patients with advanced refractory cancers. In this programme, tumour DNA is analysed by targeted next-generation sequencing (69 genes) and by whole genome array comparative genomic hybridisation. Clinical cases and genomic profiles are presented in a dedicated molecular tumour board to guide treatment strategies. We report here an analysis of patients with gynaecological cancers included in this trial.

Results: From February 2013 to February 2017, 309 patients with gynaecologic cancer were included; 279 (90%) had sufficient quality, and 131 patients (42.4%) had at least one actionable genomic alteration in cancer cells. Four alterations were shared by at least 3% of the patients: 27 (9.7%) PIK3CA mutations, 15 (5.4%) KRAS mutations, 11 (3.9%) ERBB2 amplifications and 9 (3.2%) CDKN2A deletions. Forty-one treatments were initiated among 39 patients (12.6% of the screened population): 8 (20%) had a partial response, and other 10 (24%) had a stable disease. The median progression-free survival was 2.7 months. The median overall survival was 15.6 months for patients who received a RTT.

Conclusion: Molecular profiling identified actionable alterations in 42.4% of patients with advanced refractory gynaecologic cancer, but only 12.6% were treated with a RTT. Among them, 46% derived clinical benefit (5.8% of the screened population).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.06.017DOI Listing
September 2019

Ramucirumab plus pembrolizumab in patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, gastro-oesophageal cancer, or urothelial carcinomas (JVDF): a multicohort, non-randomised, open-label, phase 1a/b trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 08 10;20(8):1109-1123. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, Surrey, UK.

Background: Pre-clinical and clinical evidence suggests that simultaneous blockade of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and PD-1 or PD-L1 enhances antigen-specific T-cell migration, antitumour activity, and has favourable toxicity. In this study, we aimed to assess the safety and preliminary antitumour activity of ramucirumab (an IgG1 VEGFR-2 antagonist) combined with pembrolizumab (an IgG4 PD-1 antagonist) in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, or urothelial carcinoma.

Methods: We did a multicohort, non-randomised, open-label, phase 1a/b trial at 16 academic medical centres, hospitals, and clinics in the USA, France, Germany, Spain, and the UK. We enrolled adult patients aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (cohorts A and B), non-small-cell lung cancer (cohort C), or urothelial carcinoma (cohort D), whose disease had progressed on one or two lines of previous therapy (for those with gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma) or one to three lines of previous therapy (for those with non-small-cell lung cancer and urothelial carcinoma) that included platinum (for all tumour types) or fluoropyrimidine or both (for gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma). Eligibility criteria included presence of measurable disease and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1. Patients with previously untreated gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma and non-small-cell lung cancer were also enrolled (in two additional separate cohorts); the results for these cohorts will be reported separately. The first 21-day treatment cycle was a dose-limiting toxicity observation period (phase 1a; safety run-in), followed by a phase 1b cohort expansion stage. Pembrolizumab 200 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, and intravenous ramucirumab was administered at 8 mg/kg on days 1 and 8 for cohort A or at 10 mg/kg on day 1 for cohorts B, C, and D, every 3 weeks, until disease progression or other discontinuation criteria were met. The primary endpoint was the safety and tolerability of ramucirumab in combination with pembrolizumab assessed by the incidence of adverse events in both phase 1a and 1b and as dose-limiting toxicities during phase 1a. The safety and activity analysis set included all patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02443324, and is no longer enrolling patients.

Findings: Between July 30, 2015 and June 24, 2016, we enrolled and treated 92 patients (41 with gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, 27 with non-small-cell lung cancer, and 24 with urothelial carcinoma). Median follow-up was 32·8 months (IQR 28·1-33·6). During the first cycle of treatment (phase 1a safety run-in; n=11), one patient with gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma who received the 8 mg/kg dose of ramucirumab had grade 3 abdominal pain, colitis, hepatitis, interstitial lung disease, and jaundice, and grade 4 cholestasis, and died on treatment on day 40; the death was deemed related to progressive disease. No additional dose-limiting toxicities occurred and the decision was made to maintain the full planned doses of ramucirumab and pembrolizumab in phase 1b (n=81). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 75 (82%) of 92 patients, the most common of which was fatigue (in 33 patients [36%]), predominantly of grade 1 or 2 severity. 22 patients (24%) had one or more treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse, most commonly hypertension (six patients; 7%) and colitis (five patients; 5%). Serious adverse events occurred in 53 (58%) of 92 patients, and were deemed related to treatment in 22 (24%) patients. The most common treatment-related serious adverse events were abdominal pain in patients with gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (in three [7%] of 41 patients); asthenia and myocardial infarction in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (two [7%] of 27 patients), and colitis in patients with urothelial carcinoma (two [8%] of 24 patients). Six (7%) of 92 patients discontinued treatment because of treatment-related adverse events, and one death (from pulmonary sepsis in a patient with gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma) was deemed related to treatment. The number of patients achieving an objective response was three (7%; 95% CI 1·5-19·9) of 41 in the gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma cohort, eight (30%; 13·8-50·2) of 27 in the non-small-cell lung cancer cohort, and three (13%, 2·7-32·4) in the urothelial carcinoma cohort.

Interpretation: Ramucirumab in combination with pembrolizumab showed a manageable safety profile with favourable antitumour activity in patients with previously treated advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, non-small-cell lung cancer, and urothelial carcinoma. Our results contribute to the growing evidence that supports dual inhibition of the VEGF-VEGFR2 and PD-1-PD-L1 pathways. This combination could be further explored with or without chemotherapy, especially for patients with tumours for which single-agent checkpoint inhibitors have shown no additional benefit over chemotherapy.

Funding: Eli Lilly and Company, and Merck and Co.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30458-9DOI Listing
August 2019

Therapeutic targeting of macrophages enhances chemotherapy efficacy by unleashing type I interferon response.

Nat Cell Biol 2019 04 18;21(4):511-521. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Division of Tumor Biology & Immunology, Oncode Institute, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Recent studies have revealed a role for macrophages and neutrophils in limiting chemotherapy efficacy; however, the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic benefit of myeloid-targeting agents in combination with chemotherapy are incompletely understood. Here, we show that targeting tumour-associated macrophages by colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) blockade in the K14cre;Cdh1;Trp53 transgenic mouse model for breast cancer stimulates intratumoural type I interferon (IFN) signalling, which enhances the anticancer efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapeutics. Notably, anti-CSF-1R treatment also increased intratumoural expression of type I IFN-stimulated genes in patients with cancer, confirming that CSF-1R blockade is a powerful strategy to trigger an intratumoural type I IFN response. By inducing an inflamed, type I IFN-enriched tumour microenvironment and by further targeting immunosuppressive neutrophils during cisplatin therapy, antitumour immunity was activated in this poorly immunogenic breast cancer mouse model. These data illustrate the importance of breaching multiple layers of immunosuppression during cytotoxic therapy to successfully engage antitumour immunity in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41556-019-0298-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451630PMC
April 2019

Long-term Clinical Outcomes and Biomarker Analyses of Atezolizumab Therapy for Patients With Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Phase 1 Study.

JAMA Oncol 2019 01;5(1):74-82

Centre for Experimental Cancer Medicine, Barts Cancer Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London, England.

Importance: Atezolizumab (anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 [PD-L1]) is well tolerated and clinically active in multiple cancer types. Its safety and clinical activity in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC) has not been reported.

Objective: To evaluate the safety, clinical activity, and biomarkers associated with the use of single-agent atezolizumab in patients with mTNBC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Women with mTNBC (defined by investigator assessment) were enrolled between January 2013 and February 2016 in a multicohort open-label, phase 1 study at US and European academic medical centers. Median follow-up was 25.3 months (range, 0.4-45.6 months). Eligible patients regardless of line of therapy had measurable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to 1; and a representative tumor sample for assessment of immune cell (IC) PD-L1 expression.

Interventions: Atezolizumab was given intravenously every 3 weeks until unacceptable toxic effects or loss of clinical benefit.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Primary outcome was safety and tolerability. Activity and exploratory outcomes included objective response rate (ORR), duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Outcomes were assessed in all patients and in key patient subgroups.

Results: Among 116 evaluable patients (median age, 53 years [range, 29-82 years]), treatment-related adverse events occurred in 73 (63%); 58 (79%) were grade 1 to 2. Most adverse events occurred within the first treatment year. The ORRs were numerically higher in first-line (5 of 21 [24%]) than in second-line or greater patients (6 of 94 [6%]). Median duration of response was 21 months (range, 3 to ≥38 months). Median PFS was 1.4 (95% CI, 1.3-1.6) months by RECIST and 1.9 (95% CI, 1.4-2.5) months by irRC. In first-line patients, median OS was 17.6 months (95% CI, 10.2 months to not estimable). Patients with PD-L1 expression of at least 1% tumor-infiltrating ICs had higher ORRs and longer OS (12% [11 of 91]; 10.1 [95% CI, 7.0-13.8] months, respectively) than those with less than 1% ICs (0 of 21; 6.0 [95% CI, 2.6-12.6] months, respectively). High levels of ICs (>10%) were independently associated with higher ORRs and longer OS.

Conclusions And Relevance: Single-agent atezolizumab was well tolerated and provided durable clinical benefit in patients with mTNBC with stable or responding disease and in earlier lines of treatment.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01375842.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2018.4224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439773PMC
January 2019

Safety and clinical activity of atezolizumab monotherapy in metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer: final results from a phase I study.

Eur J Cancer 2018 09 1;101:201-209. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Gustave Roussy and University Paris-Sud, Villejuif, France.

Introduction: Atezolizumab, an anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody, inhibits PD-L1:PD-1 and PD-L1:B7.1 interactions, restoring anticancer immunity. Here, we report final analyses from the non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cohort of the first atezolizumab phase I study.

Methods: Patients with NSCLC received atezolizumab 1-20 mg/kg or 1200 mg intravenously every 3 weeks. Baseline PD-L1 expression on tumour cells (TCs) and tumour-infiltrating immune cells (ICs) was assessed (VENTANA SP142 immunohistochemistry assay). Exploratory subgroup analyses investigated responses by baseline PD-L1 expression and oncogenic mutational status.

Results: Eighty-nine patients, 98% of whom had received previous systemic therapy, were evaluable for safety and antitumour activity. Atezolizumab was well tolerated, with grade III/IV treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) observed in 10 patients (11%). All-grade TRAEs occurring in >10% of patients were fatigue, nausea and decreased appetite; grade III/IV TRAEs occurring in >2% of patients were fatigue, dyspnoea, hyponatremia and hypoxia. One patient died from treatment-unrelated pneumonia. Objective response rate (ORR) was 50% (95% confidence interval [CI], 28%-72%), 33% (20%-48%), 29% (18%-41%) and 11% (1%-35%) for the TC3 or IC3, TC2/3 or IC2/3, TC1/2/3 or IC1/2/3 and TC0 and IC0 subgroups, respectively. All-patient ORR was 23% (95% CI, 14%-33%). Median duration of response was 16.4 months (range, 7.2-53.4+). One-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 63% (95% CI, 53%-73%), 37% (26%-47%) and 28% (18%-38%), respectively.

Conclusions: Single-agent atezolizumab was well tolerated with long-term clinical benefits, including durable responses and survival, in pretreated NSCLC. Improved responses and survival rates were seen with increasing baseline PD-L1 expression. CLINICALTRIALS.

Gov Identifier: NCT01375842.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.06.031DOI Listing
September 2018

The Effect of Food or Omeprazole on the Pharmacokinetics of Osimertinib in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and in Healthy Volunteers.

J Clin Pharmacol 2018 04 26;58(4):474-484. Epub 2017 Nov 26.

Northern Centre for Cancer Care, Freeman Hospital, Freeman Road, High Heaton, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Two phase 1, open-label studies assessed the impact of food or gastric pH modification (omeprazole) on the exposure and safety/tolerability of osimertinib and its metabolites. The food effect study was an open-label, 2-period crossover study in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, randomized into 2 treatment sequences: single-dose osimertinib 80 mg in a fed then fasted state or fasted then fed. The gastric pH study was an open-label, 2-period fixed sequence study assessing the effect of omeprazole on osimertinib exposure in healthy male volunteers. In period 1, volunteers received omeprazole 40 mg (days 1-4), then omeprazole 40 mg plus osimertinib 80 mg (day 5). In period 2, volunteers received osimertinib 80 mg alone (single dose). Blood samples were collected at prespecified time points for pharmacokinetic analyses. Safety/tolerability was also assessed. In the food effect study 38 patients were randomized to fed/fasted (n = 18) or fasted/fed (n = 20) sequences with all patients completing treatment. Coadministration with food did not affect osimertinib exposure (geometric least-squares mean ratios [90% confidence intervals]: 106.05% [94.82%, 118.60%] [area under the plasma concentration time curve from zero to 72 hours] and 92.75% [81.40%, 105.68%] [maximum plasma concentration]). In the gastric pH study (n = 68 received treatment, n = 47 completed the study), coadministration with omeprazole did not affect osimertinib exposure (geometric least-squares mean ratios 106.66% [100.26%, 113.46%] [area under the concentration-time curve], 101.65% [94.65%, 109.16%] [peak concentration]). Osimertinib was well tolerated in both studies. Osimertinib may be administered without regard to food. Dose restriction is not required in patients whose gastric pH may be altered by concomitant agents or medical conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02224053, NCT02163733.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1035DOI Listing
April 2018

[DNA repair as a therapeutic target].

Bull Cancer 2017 Nov 11;104(11):988-998. Epub 2017 Nov 11.

Centre Léon-Bérard, département de médecine, 28, rue Laennec, 69008 Lyon, France.

The transmission of an intact and stable genetic code at each cell division relies on different DNA repair systems. Germline mutations of some of these genes cause cancer predisposition, whereas somatic mutations are frequently found in various cancer types, generating genomic instability. As a consequence, cancer cell becomes more susceptible to additional DNA damage. Pharmacological inhibition of DNA repair pathways exploits this frailty: it triggers more damages than cancer cell can tolerate, finally leading to apoptosis. The success of PARP (poly-ADP-ribose polymerase) inhibitors in BRCA1/2-mutated ovarian cancer shows the clinical relevance of this strategy. Herein, we explain the functioning of different DNA-repair pathways, describe the implicated proteins, and their close relation with cell-cycle checkpoints. We focus on novel therapeutic agents targeting DNA repair, their clinical results, and discuss challenges of combination therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2017.09.005DOI Listing
November 2017

Targeting apoptosis in acute myeloid leukaemia.

Br J Cancer 2017 Oct 24;117(8):1089-1098. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, 13009 Marseille, France.

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a molecularly and clinically heterogeneous disease, and its incidence is increasing as the populations in Western countries age. Despite major advances in understanding the genetic landscape of AML and its impact on the biology of the disease, standard therapy has not changed significantly in the last three decades. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the best chance for cure, but can only be offered to a minority of younger fit patients. Molecularly targeted drugs aiming at restoring apoptosis in leukaemic cells have shown encouraging activity in early clinical trials and some of these drugs are currently being evaluated in randomised controlled trials. In this review, we discuss the current development of drugs designed to trigger cell death in AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/bjc.2017.281DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5674101PMC
October 2017

External Beam Radiation Therapy for Resectable Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Mar 11;25(3):754-767. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Department of General, Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, Ludwig Maximilian University Hospital, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of preoperative and postoperative external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in the treatment of resectable soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) of different tumor locations.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies investigating the effects of EBRT (versus no EBRT) on local recurrence (LR) and overall survival (OS) or comparing different EBRT sequences. Random effects meta-analyses were calculated and presented as cumulative odds ratios (ORs).

Results: Sixteen studies (n = 3958 patients) comparing EBRT versus no EBRT, including one randomized controlled trial (RCT) in extremity sarcoma, were analyzed. EBRT appeared to reduce LR in both retroperitoneal tumors (OR 0.47, p < 0.0001) and other locations (OR 0.49, p = 0.001). OS was improved by EBRT in retroperitoneal STSs (OR 0.37, p < 0.0001) but not in other tumor locations. Eleven studies (n = 2140), including one RCT, compared preoperative and postoperative radiotherapy. LR was less frequent following preoperative EBRT in retroperitoneal STSs (OR 0.03, p = 0.02), as well as in other tumor locations (OR 0.67, p = 0.01), while wound complications in extremity sarcoma were more frequent following preoperative EBRT (OR 2.92, p < 0.0001). Several studies included in this meta-analysis bear a high risk of bias and no RCT has been published for retroperitoneal STS.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis supports the use of EBRT for local tumor control in patients with resectable STSs. Based on a small number of non-randomized studies, a positive effect on OS may exist in the subgroup of retroperitoneal STSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-017-6081-2DOI Listing
March 2018

Safety, tolerability and antitumour activity of LY2780301 (p70S6K/AKT inhibitor) in combination with gemcitabine in molecularly selected patients with advanced or metastatic cancer: a phase IB dose escalation study.

Eur J Cancer 2017 09 24;83:194-202. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Drug Development Department (DITEP), Villejuif, F-94805, France. Electronic address:

Background: LY2780301, a dual inhibitor of protein kinase B (AKT) and the downstream effector p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), may inhibit progression in tumours relying on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway activation. This phase IB trial investigated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and antitumour activity of LY2780301 plus gemcitabine in patients with advanced/metastatic solid tumours.

Methods: This was a non-randomised, open-label, dose escalation and dose expansion trial. Patients harbouring molecular alterations of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway received once daily (QD) oral LY2780301 (400 or 500 mg) in combination with intravenous gemcitabine (750 or 1000 mg/m) on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-d cycle. Dose escalation followed a 3 + 3 design. Assessments included adverse events (AEs), PK and preliminary antitumour activity.

Results: Fifty patients (median age, 53 years; 74% female) predominantly with mutations/amplifications of PI3K (60%) and phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) gene/protein inactivation (42%) were treated for up to 14 cycles. The MTD was LY2780301 500 mg QD with gemcitabine 750 mg/m. DLTs during cycle 1 were grade IV thrombocytopenia, grade III skin rash and grade III increase in alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase, occurring in one patient each. Most common AEs were anaemia (84%), fatigue (84%), transaminase increase (74%), thrombocytopenia (74%), nausea/vomiting (70%), neutropenia (68%) and lymphopenia (56%). Among the efficacy-evaluable population, two patients (5%) had a partial response; the disease control rate was 74% at cycle 2.

Conclusions: Addition of LY2780301 to gemcitabine showed manageable toxicity and encouraging antitumour activity in patients with molecular alterations of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02018874.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2017.06.036DOI Listing
September 2017

Antiangiogenic effects in patients with progressive desmoplastic small round cell tumor: data from the French national registry dedicated to the use of off-labeled targeted therapy in sarcoma (OUTC's).

Clin Sarcoma Res 2017 10;7:10. Epub 2017 May 10.

Departments of Oncology and Clinical Research, Institut Claudius Regaud, Institut Universitaire du Cancer, Toulouse Oncopole, 1 avenue Irène Joliot-Curie, 31059 Toulouse Cedex, France.

Background: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a very rare mesenchymal tumor that mainly affects teenagers and young adults with a mean age at diagnosis around 20-25 years. Although initial management still needs standardization, many centers will use multimodal treatment including intensive chemotherapy, extensive surgical resection followed by radiotherapy. Despite this, prognosis remains very poor and the median overall survival is 25 months. Recurrent disease is mainly treated by chemotherapy. Recently, due to the unmet medical need for recurrent disease, targeted therapies were explored for DSRCT.

Methods: In this study, we assessed the response rate and progression free survival in nine cases of progressive DSRCT included in the OUTC's registry and treated with antiangiogenics targeted agents (sunitinib, sorafenib and bevacizumab). OUTC's, a French national registry, collects data about the use of off-label targeted therapy in sarcoma.

Results: Eight males and one woman were included, with median age at diagnosis of 27.3 years (range from 9 to 48 years). They received a mean 3 lines (2-5) of treatment before antiangiogenic agent initiation. Six patients received sunitinib, two received sorafenib and one bevacizumab. Median progression free survival was 3.1 months (range 2-5.5 months) and best response observed was 5.5 months stable disease. Most patients had manageable low-grade toxicities, mainly fatigue, abdominal pain and skin toxicity.

Conclusions: Despite very limited activity of antiangiogenics in our study, prospective collection of cases of these rare tumors together with molecular data should guide therapeutic decision and enhance outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13569-017-0076-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5424317PMC
May 2017

Evaluation of BGJ398, a Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1-3 Kinase Inhibitor, in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors Harboring Genetic Alterations in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors: Results of a Global Phase I, Dose-Escalation and Dose-Expansion Study.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Jan 21;35(2):157-165. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

Lucia Nogova, Reinhard Buettner, and Jürgen Wolf, University Hospital Cologne, Cologne; Martin Schuler, University Hospital Essen, and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Essen, Germany; Lecia V. Sequist, Massachusetts General Hospital; Geoffrey I. Shapiro, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA; Jose Manuel Perez Garcia, Vall d'Hebron Institut d'Oncologia, Barcelona; Manuel Hidalgo, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, Madrid, Spain; Fabrice Andre, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif; Jean-Pierre Delord, Institute Universitaire du Cancer de Toulouse, Toulouse; Philippe A. Cassier, Centre Regional Leon-Berard, Lyon; Mario Campone, Institute de Cancerologie de l'Ouest-René Gauducheau, Nantes, France; Jan H.M. Schellens, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, and Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; D. Ross Camidge, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO; Ulka Vaishampayan, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI; Howard Burris, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville; G. Gary Tian, The West Clinic, Memphis, TN; Zev A. Wainberg, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA; Wan-Teck Lim, National Cancer Centre, Singapore; Patricia LoRusso, Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, CT; Katie Parker, Xueying Chen, Somesh Choudhury, and Randi Isaacs, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ; Dale Porter, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA; Francois Ringeisen, Novartis Pharma AG; and Diana Graus-Porta, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Switzerland.

Purpose This two-part, first-in-human study was initiated in patients with advanced solid tumors harboring genetic alterations in fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), the recommended phase II dose (RP2D), and the schedule, safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of oral BGJ398, a selective FGFR1-3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Patients and Methods Adult patients were treated with escalating dosages of BGJ398 5 to 150 mg once daily or 50 mg twice daily continuously in 28-day cycles. During expansion at the MTD, patients with FGFR1-amplified squamous cell non-small-cell lung cancer (sqNSCLC; arm 1) or other solid tumors with FGFR genetic alterations (mutations/amplifications/fusions) received BGJ398 daily on a continuous schedule (arm 2), or on a 3-weeks-on/1-week-off schedule (arm 3). Results Data in 132 patients from the escalation and expansion arms are reported (May 15, 2015, cutoff). The MTD, 125 mg daily, was determined on the basis of dose-limiting toxicities in four patients (100 mg, grade 3 aminotransferase elevations [n = 1]; 125 mg, hyperphosphatemia [n = 1]; 150 mg, grade 1 corneal toxicity [n = 1] and grade 3 aminotransferase elevations [n = 1]). Common adverse events in patients treated at the MTD (n = 57) included hyperphosphatemia (82.5%), constipation (50.9%), decreased appetite (45.6%), and stomatitis (45.6%). A similar safety profile was observed using the 3-weeks-on/1-week-off schedule (RP2D). However, adverse event-related dose adjustments/interruptions were less frequent with the 3-weeks-on/1-week-off (50.0%) versus the continuous (73.7%) schedule. Antitumor activity (seven partial responses [six confirmed]) was demonstrated with BGJ398 doses ≥ 100 mg in patients with FGFR1-amplified sqNSCLC and FGFR3-mutant bladder/urothelial cancer. Conclusion BGJ398 at the MTD/RP2D had a tolerable and manageable safety profile and showed antitumor activity in several tumor types, including FGFR1-amplified sqNSCLC and FGFR3-mutant bladder/urothelial cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.67.2048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6865065PMC
January 2017
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