Dr.  Philipp Hess, PhD, HDR - Ifremer

Dr. Philipp Hess

PhD, HDR

Ifremer

Nantes, Pays de la Loire | France

Main Specialties: Chemistry

Additional Specialties: Analytical chemistry

ORCID logohttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-9047-1345


Top Author

Dr.  Philipp Hess, PhD, HDR - Ifremer

Dr. Philipp Hess

PhD, HDR

Introduction

Researcher interested in the detection, chemistry, ecological role and impact of phycotoxins on marine environment and human health. After studies of chemistry at EHICS Strasbourg (FR), he completed his PhD in 1998 on organic contaminants in the marine environment (UK). Subsequently, he studied algal toxins, initially focussing on domoic acid and saxitoxins. In 2001, he helped implement chemical testing for lipophilic toxins in parallel to mouse bioassays to combat azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (IE). He then investigated toxin isolation and reference materials for official control, facilitating legislative changes in Europe for lipophilic toxins. Furthermore, he implemented proficiency testing for shellfish toxins within QUASIMEME, undertook method validation exercises for domoic acid and lipophilic toxins and contributed to method standardisation (UK-FSA, EU-project BIOTOX, ECVAM, CEN, INAB, AFNOR, AOAC Presidential Task Force for Phycotoxin Methods). In parallel, he contributed to risk evaluation & management, through a number of WGs (Irish, UK and French Food Safety Agencies, European Food Safety Agency, FAO Expert consultation 2005, Codex alimentarius).
Since 2008, P. Hess continues his studies on phycotoxins at the French Research Institute for the Exploitation of the Seas, Ifremer. His research interests are algal culture for the production of purified toxins and generic methods for biodiscovery (miniaturised bioassays and metabolomic techniques based on high resolution mass spectrometry). He also teaches a course on phycotoxins at Nantes University and is the adjunct director of the regional Research Federation on ocean & coastal activities (IUML), integrating 16 labs from life, engineering and social sciences. Since 2011, he contributes to communicating science to policy stakeholders through the Marine Board WG “Oceans and Human Health”, European Science Foundation and represents France on the Intergovernmental Panel on Harmful Algal Blooms (IOC-UNESCO).

Primary Affiliation: Ifremer - Nantes, Pays de la Loire , France

Specialties:

Additional Specialties:

Research Interests:


View Dr. Philipp Hess’s Resume / CV

Metrics

Number of Publications

132

Publications

Number of Profile Views

283

Profile Views

Number of Article Reads

779

Reads

Number of Citations

1

Citations

Education

Mar 2009 - Nov 2010
Université de Nantes
Habilitation à Diriger des Recherches / Contributions to the charactisation of risks posed by marine biotoxins
Oct 2010
University of Nantes, France
Habilitation
Nov 1993 - Mar 1998
Robert Gordon University
PhD / The determination and environmental significance of planar armoatic compounds in the marine environment
Mar 1998
Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK
PhD
Sep 1990 - Jun 1993
Ecole Européenne de Chimie Polymères et Matériaux de Strasbourg
Diplôme d'Ingénieur / Ecole Européene des Hautes Etudes des Industries Chimiques de Strasbourg
Jun 1993
EHICS, Strasbourg, France
Master Degree
Sep 1987 - Sep 1990
Universität des Saarlandes
Vordiplom Chemie
Sep 1990
Universität des Saarlandes, Saarbrücke, Germany
Vordiplom Chemie

Experience

Oct 2008
Senior researcher
Principal investigator
Feb 2001 - Sep 2008
Marine Institute
Team Leader Biotoxin Chemistry
Jun 1998 - Feb 2001
Marine Scotland Science
Scientific Officer - Marine Biotoxins
Feb 2001
Team Leader
Team Leader
Jun 1998
Scientific Officer
Team Leader
Oct 2008
Ifremer Centre Atlantique
Senior Researcher

Top co-authors

Christine Herrenknecht
Christine Herrenknecht

University of Nantes

15
Zouher Amzil
Zouher Amzil

Laboratoire Phycotoxines

14
Christopher O Miles
Christopher O Miles

Norwegian Veterinary Institute

14
Jane Kilcoyne
Jane Kilcoyne

Marine Institute

11
Manoella Sibat
Manoella Sibat

Phycotoxins Laboratory

10
Michael J Twiner
Michael J Twiner

Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research

8
Michael A Quilliam
Michael A Quilliam

National Research Council Canada

8

Publications

132Publications

779Reads

1PubMed Central Citations

First identification of a C9-diol-ester of okadaic acid in Dinophysis acuta from Galician Rías Baixas (NW Spain).

Toxicon 2018 Oct 23;153:19-22. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

IFREMER, Phycotoxins Laboratory, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, BP 21105, F-44311, Nantes, France. Electronic address:

View Article
October 2018
2.490 Impact Factor

Detection of pacific ciguatoxins using liquid chromatography coupled to either low or high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

J Chromatogr A 2018 Oct 4;1571:16-28. Epub 2018 Aug 4.

Ifremer, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, 44311, Nantes, France. Electronic address:

View Article
October 2018
39 Reads
1 Citation
4.170 Impact Factor

Experimental evidence of dietary ciguatoxin accumulation in an herbivorous coral reef fish.

Aquat Toxicol 2018 Jul 26;200:257-265. Epub 2018 May 26.

International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, 98000, Monaco, Monaco. Electronic address:

View Article
July 2018
4 Reads
3.450 Impact Factor

Metabolomic Profiles of Dinophysis acuminata and Dinophysis acuta Using Non-Targeted High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry: Effect of Nutritional Status and Prey

Garcia-Portela Maria, Reguera Beatriz, Sibat Manoella, Altenburger Andreas, Rodriguez Francisco, Hess Philipp (2018). Metabolomic Profiles of Dinophysis acuminata and Dinophysis acuta Using Non-Targeted High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry: Effect of Nutritional Status and Prey. Marine Drugs, 16(5), 1

Marine Drugs

Photosynthetic species of the genus Dinophysis are obligate mixotrophs with temporary plastids (kleptoplastids) that are acquired from the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum, which feeds on cryptophytes of the Teleaulax-Plagioselmis-Geminigera clade. A metabolomic study of the three-species food chain Dinophysis-Mesodinium-Teleaulax was carried out using mass spectrometric analysis of extracts of batch-cultured cells of each level of that food chain. The main goal was to compare the metabolomic expression of Galician strains of Dinophysis acuminata and D. acuta that were subjected to different feeding regimes (well-fed and prey-limited) and feeding on two Mesodinium (Spanish and Danish) strains. Both Dinophysis species were able to grow while feeding on both Mesodinium strains, although differences in growth rates were observed. Toxin and metabolomic profiles of the two Dinophysis species were significantly different, and also varied between different feeding regimes and different prey organisms. Furthermore, significantly different metabolomes were expressed by a strain of D. acuminata that was feeding on different strains of the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Both species-specific metabolites and those common to D. acuminata and D. acuta were tentatively identified by screening of METLIN and Marine Natural Products Dictionary databases. This first metabolomic study applied to Dinophysis acuminata and D.acuta in culture establishes a basis for the chemical inventory of these species

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00439/55077/

View Article
May 2018
1 Read

Tissue Distribution and Elimination of Ciguatoxins in (, Bivalvia) Fed .

Toxins (Basel) 2018 May 10;10(5). Epub 2018 May 10.

Institut Louis Malardé (ILM), Laboratory of Toxic Microalgae-UMR 241-EIO, PO Box 30, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia.

View Article
May 2018
3 Reads
2.480 Impact Factor

Metabolomic Profiles of and Using Non-Targeted High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry: Effect of Nutritional Status and Prey.

Mar Drugs 2018 Apr 26;16(5). Epub 2018 Apr 26.

IFREMER, Phycotoxins Laboratory, rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes, France.

View Article
April 2018
3 Reads
2.850 Impact Factor

Identification of 21,22-Dehydroazaspiracids in Mussels ( Mytilus edulis) and in Vitro Toxicity of Azaspiracid-26.

J Nat Prod 2018 Apr 28;81(4):885-893. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Measurement Science and Standards , National Research Council Canada , Halifax , NS B3H 3Z1 , Canada.

View Article
April 2018
4 Reads
3.800 Impact Factor

Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) after acute oral exposure of azaspiracid 1, −2 and −3 in mice

Pelin M., Kilcoyne J., Nulty C., Crain S., Hess Philipp, Tubaro A., Sosa S. (2018). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) after acute oral exposure of azaspiracid 1, −2 and −3 in mice. Toxicology Letters, 282, 136-146. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.10.016

Toxicology Letters

Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine algal toxins that can be accumulated by edible shellfish to cause a foodborne gastrointestinal poisoning in humans. In the European Union, only AZA1, −2 and −3 are currently regulated and their concentration in shellfish is determined through their toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) derived from the intraperitoneal lethal potency in mice. Nevertheless, considering the potential human exposure by oral route, AZAs TEFs should be calculated by comparative oral toxicity data. Thus, the acute oral toxicity of AZA1, −2 and −3 was investigated in female CD-1 mice treated with different doses (AZA1: 135–1100 μg/kg; AZA2 and AZA3: 300–1100 μg/kg) and sacrificed after 24 h or 14 days. TEFs derived from the median lethal doses (LD50) were 1.0, 0.7 and 0.5, respectively for AZA1, −2 and −3. In fact, after 24 h from gavage administration, LD50s were 443 μg/kg (AZA1; 95% CL: 350−561 μg/kg), 626 μg/kg (AZA2; 95% CL: 430−911 μg/kg) and 875 μg/kg (AZA3; 95% CL: 757−1010 μg/kg). Mice dead more than 5 h after the treatment or those sacrificed after 24 h (doses: ≥175 μg AZA1/kg, ≥500 μg AZA2/kg and ≥600 μg AZA3/kg) showed enlarged pale liver, while increased serum markers of liver alteration were recorded even at the lowest doses. Blood chemistry revealed significantly increased serum levels of K+ ions (≥500 mg/kg), whereas light microscopy showed tissue changes in the gastrointestinal tract, liver and spleen. No lethality, macroscopic, tissue or haematological changes were recorded two weeks post exposure, indicating reversible toxic effects. LC–MS/MS analysis of the main organs showed a dose-dependency in gastrointestinal absorption of these toxins: at 24 h, the highest levels were detected in the stomach and, in descending order, in the intestinal content, liver, small intestine, kidneys, lungs, large intestine, heart as well as detectable traces in the brain. After 14 days, AZA1 and AZA2 were still detectable in almost all the organs and intestinal content.

View Article
January 2018
1 Read

Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Detection of Pacific Ciguatoxins in Toxic Samples from Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia)

Darius Helene Taiana, Roue Melanie, Sibat Manoella, Viallon Jerome, Gatti Clemence Mahana Iti, Vandersea Mark W., Tester Patricia A., Litaker R. Wayne, Amzil Zouher, Hess Philipp, Chinain Mireille (2018). Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Detection of

Toxins

Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood (fish and marine invertebrates) contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs) produced by dinoflagellates in the genus Gambierdiscus. The report of a CFP-like mass-poisoning outbreak following the consumption of Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) from Anaho Bay on Nuku Hiva Island (Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia) prompted field investigations to assess the presence of CTXs in T. niloticus. Samples were collected from Anaho Bay, 1, 6 and 28 months after this poisoning outbreak, as well as in Taiohae and Taipivai bays. Toxicity analysis using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) detected the presence of CTXs only in Anaho Bay T. niloticus samples. This is consistent with qPCR results on window screen samples indicating the presence of Gambierdiscus communities dominated by the species G. polynesiensis in Anaho Bay. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major congener, followed by P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A and P-CTX-4B in toxic samples. Between July 2014 and November 2016, toxin content in T. niloticus progressively decreased, but was consistently above the safety limit recommended for human consumption. This study confirms for the first time T. niloticus as a novel vector of CFP in French Polynesia.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00426/53798/

View Article
January 2018
1 Read

Ciguatoxicity of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa species from the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico

Litaker R. Wayne, Holland William C., Hardison D. Ransom, Pisapia Francesco, Hess Philipp, Kibler Steven R., Tester Patricia A. (2017). Ciguatoxicity of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa species from the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico. Plos One, 12(10), e0185776 (1-19). Publisher's official version : http://

Plos One

Dinoflagellate species belonging to the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa produce ciguatoxins (CTXs), potent neurotoxins that concentrate in fish causing ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans. While the structures and toxicities of ciguatoxins isolated from fish in the Pacific and Caribbean are known, there are few data on the variation in toxicity between and among species of Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Quantifying the differences in species-specific toxicity is especially important to developing an effective cell-based risk assessment strategy for CFP. This study analyzed the ciguatoxicity of 33 strains representing seven Gambierdiscus and one Fukuyoa species using a cell based Neuro-2a cytotoxicity assay. All strains were isolated from either the Caribbean or Gulf of Mexico. The average toxicity of each species was inversely proportional to growth rate, suggesting an evolutionary trade-off between an investment in growth versus the production of defensive compounds. While there is 2- to 27-fold variation in toxicity within species, there was a 1740-fold difference between the least and most toxic species. Consequently, production of CTX or CTX-like compounds is more dependent on the species present than on the random occurrence of high or low toxicity strains. Seven of the eight species tested (G. belizeanus, G. caribaeus, G. carolinianus, G. carpenteri, Gambierdiscus ribotype 2, G. silvae and F. ruetzleri) exhibited low toxicities, ranging from 0 to 24.5 fg CTX3C equivalents cell-1, relative to G. excentricus, which had a toxicity of 469 fg CTX3C eq. cell-1. Isolates of G. excentricus from other regions have shown similarly high toxicities. If the hypothesis that G. excentricus is the primary source of ciguatoxins in the Atlantic is confirmed, it should be possible to identify areas where CFP risk is greatest by monitoring only G. excentricus abundance using species-specific molecular assays.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00407/51839/

View Article
October 2017
1 Read

World Health Organization and international guidelines for toxin control, harmful algal bloom management, and response planning

Soltani Alex, Hess Philipp, Dixon Mike B, Boerlage Siobhan F.E., Anderson Donald M, Newcombe Gayle, House Jenny, Ho Lionel, Baker Peter, Burch Michael (2017). World Health Organization and international guidelines for toxin control, harmful algal bloom management, and response planning. In Harmful

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00407/51836/

View Article
October 2017
1 Read

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Desalination: A Guide to Impacts, Monitoring and Management

Hess Philipp, Villacorte Loreen O, Dixon Mike B, Boerlage Siobhan Fe, Anderson Donald M, Kennedy Maria D, Schippers Jan C (2017). Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Desalination: A Guide to Impacts, Monitoring and Management. In Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) and Desalination: A Guide to Impacts, Monitor

Once harmful algal blooms (HABs) reach a desalination plant, they can cause significant operational issues and potential health concerns for consumers. These issues stem from two factors – first, the algal cells produce organic matter that can cause filter clogging and membrane fouling, and secondly, some cells produce toxic substances or taste and odor compounds. This chapter first explains the mechanisms for cellular release of organic matter, the types of matter that are produced, and the relative contribution of each type of matter to fouling mechanisms. It then describes the wide range of toxins that are produced by HABs, their mode of toxicity, and analytical methods for detecting them. While taste and odor compounds are non-toxic, they are included in this chapter as they can create customer perception issues and distrust in the water supply system.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00407/51837/

View Article
October 2017
1 Read

Preliminary metabolomic approach on cyanobacterial co-cultures: Chemically mediated interactions between Microcystis and Planktothrix

Mondeguer Florence, Sibat Manoella, Reubrecht Sébastien, Amzil Zouher, Bormans Myriam, Hess Philipp, Briand Enora (2017). Preliminary metabolomic approach on cyanobacterial co-cultures: Chemically mediated interactions between Microcystis and Planktothrix. SMMAP 2017 - Mass Spectrometry, Metabolomi

Cyanobacterial proliferation is one of the most harmful hazards, in both freshwater and marine ecosystems. Cyanobacteria are well known for their ability to produce a wide variety of bioactive compounds, some of which have been described as allelochemicals. There is growing evidence that these secondary metabolites play an important role in shaping community composition through biotic interactions; however, for the most part, their biological role and mode of regulation of the production are poorly understood. In temperate eutrophic freshwaters, Microcystis and Planktothrix often co-occur, with Planktothrix being an early colonizer and Microcystis appearing subsequently. By integrating LC-MS/MS molecular networking and an innovative experimental design, we tested if the production of cyanopeptides by co-existing species could be regulated through interspecifc interactions. We investigated chemically mediated interactions between two cyanobacteria, a toxic M. aeruginosa strain and a non-toxic P. agardhii strain, using a combined approach of co-cultures and metabolomic profiling. More precisely, we evaluated changes in growth, morphology and metabolites production and release by both interacting species. Interestingly, culturing Microcystis with Planktothrix resulted in a reduction of the growth of Planktothrix together with a decrease of its filament size and alterations in the morphology of its cells. Ours untargeted metabolomic profiling allow to observe that the production of specific intracellular compounds by Planktothrix was not different between mono and co-culture conditions. Concerning Microcystis, the number of specific intracellular compounds was higher under co-culture condition than under monoculture. In general, Microcystis produced a lower number of intracellular compounds under monoculture than Planktothrix, and a higher number of compounds than Planktothrix under co-culture condition. These results suggest that specific compounds produced by Microcystis in the presence of Planktothrix have been specifically produced as potential allelochemicals. Identification of compounds specifically involved in the observed physiological and morphological changes of Planktothrix cells is still in progress.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00405/51666/

View Article
October 2017
1 Read

Relative molar response of lipophilic marine algal toxins in liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2017 Sep;31(17):1453-1461

Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Halifax, NS, Canada.

View Article
September 2017
18 Reads
2.250 Impact Factor

Poisoning caused by marine biotoxins

Hess Philipp (2017). Intoxikation durch marine Biotoxine. Bundesgesundheitsblatt-gesundheitsforschung-gesundheitsschutz, 60(7), 757-760. Publisher's official version : http://doi.org/10.1007/s00103-017-2562-5 , Open Access version : http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00385/49671/

Bundesgesundheitsblatt-gesundheitsforschung-gesundheitsschutz

This paper presents a short summary of the knowledge on marine biotoxins. As toxins are known for their acute effects, they have been classified here according to the effects they cause in acute human poisoning incidents. Toxins may thus be distinguished into those that affect the nervous system (paralytic and other neurotoxins), memory (amnesic poisons), and the digestive system (diarrhetic toxins). Furthermore, newly emerging toxins, such as ciguatoxins or shark toxins, and factors that lead to the introduction of toxins in new areas, are presented. Relevant suggestions for further reading are given.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00385/49671/

View Article
July 2017
1 Read

Maitotoxin-4, a Novel MTX Analog Produced by Gambierdiscus excentricus.

Mar Drugs 2017 Jul 11;15(7). Epub 2017 Jul 11.

Ifremer, Phycotoxins Laboratory, rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes, France.

View Article
July 2017
25 Reads
2.850 Impact Factor

Metabolomic differences between modern and ancient dinoflagellates in phosphorous-limited culture conditions

Siano Raffaele, Mondeguer Florence, Latimier Marie, Quere Julien, Sibat Manoella, Guillou Laure, Hess Philipp (2017). Metabolomic differences between modern and ancient dinoflagellates in phosphorous-limited culture conditions. DINO11 - 11th International Conference on Modern and Fossil Dinoflagell

View Article
July 2017
1 Read

[Poisoning caused by marine biotoxins].

Authors:
Philipp Hess

Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2017 Jul;60(7):757-760

Laboratoire Phycotoxines, Ifremer, Rue de l'Île d'Yeu, 44311, Nantes Cedex 03, Frankreich.

View Article
July 2017
9 Reads
1.010 Impact Factor

COSELMAR. Biodiversity and coastal environment Exploitation and valorisation of marine resources. Scientific review 2013-2017

Pardo Sophie, Hess Philipp, Simon Elodie, Barille Laurent, Geslin Emmanuelle, Cognie Bruno, Martin-Jezequel Véronique, Sechet Véronique, Herrenknecht Christine, Baron Regis, Bourseau Patrick, Amzil Zouher, Masse Anthony, Vandanjon Laurent, Dumay Justine, Lebeau Thierry, Turpin Vincent, Mondeguer Flo

COSELMAR, a 4-year project financed by the Région des Pays de la Loire at 2.1 M€, officially started on the 7th January 2013. The project is coordinated by Philipp Hess (IFREMER) and Sophie Pardo (Université de Nantes-LEMNA) and falls under the Federation for Research Institut Universitaire Mer et Littoral (IUML, FR CNRS 3473)*. COSELMAR has also been approved by the Scientific Council of the MSH Ange Guépin. COSELMAR is a research project uniting 5 research units of IFREMER and 11 laboratories of the Université de Nantes, along with academic partners, and national and international industries. The aim is to achieve a better understanding of the marine and coastal ecosystems and the associated resources. The project will also provide insights into risk management and prevention of natural events and anthropogenic impacts. COSELMAR’s main objective is to integrate and promote the interdisciplinary scientific work concerning the issues above in order to build a real expertise on potential risks of coastal and marine zones. The project is divided into 3 axes of research and 1 integrated axis:

https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00406/51793/

View Article
June 2017
1 Read

Mini projet GDR. MEDINA 2016-2017. MEtabolomics of ancient populations of DInoflAgellates in phosphorous-limited conditions

Siano Raffaele, Mondeguer Florence, Latimier Marie, Quere Julien, Youenou Agnes, Sibat Manoella, Guillou Laure, Hess Philipp (2017). Mini projet GDR. MEDINA 2016-2017. MEtabolomics of ancient populations of DInoflAgellates in phosphorous-limited conditions. Phycotox2017 : conférence annuelle GdR Ph

View Article
March 2017
1 Read

Chemically mediated interactions between Microcystis and Planktothrix: Impact on their physiology and metabolic profiles

Briand Enora, Reubrech Sébastien, Mondeguer Florence, Sibat Manoella, Hess Philipp, Amzil Zouher, Bormans Myriam (2017). Chemically mediated interactions between Microcystis and Planktothrix: Impact on their physiology and metabolic profiles. Phycotox2017 : Conférence annuelle Gdr Phycotox - GIS Cy

Freshwater cyanobacteria are well known for their ability to produce a wide variety of bioactive compounds, some of which have been described as allelochemicals. There is growing evidence that these secondary metabolites play an important role in shaping community composition through biotic interactions; however, for the most part, their biological role and mode of regulation of the production are poorly understood. In temperate eutrophic freshwaters, Microcystis and Planktothrix often co-occur, with Planktothrix being an early colonizer and Microcystis appearing subsequently. We tested if the production of a range of peptides by co-existing species could be regulated through interspecific interactions. Using a combined approach of co-cultures and analyses of metabolic profiles, we investigated chemically mediated interactions between two cyanobacteria, M. aeruginosa and P. agardhii. More precisely, we evaluated changes in growth, morphology and metabolites production and release by both interacting species. Interestingly, culturing Microcystis cells with Planktothrix resulted in a reduction of the growth of Planktothrix together with a decrease of its filament size and alterations in the morphology of its cells. However, the production of specific intracellular compounds by Planktothrix was not different between mono and co-culture conditions. Concerning Microcystis, the number of specific intracellular compounds was higher under co-culture condition than under monoculture. In general, Microcystis produced a lower number of intracellular compounds under monoculture than Planktothrix, and a higher number of compounds than Planktothrix under co-culture condition. Our investigation did not allow us to identify specifically the compounds involved in the observed physiological and morphological changes of Planktothrix cells. However, altogether, these results suggest that specific compounds produced by Microcystis in the presence of Planktothrix have been specifically produced as potential allelochemicals.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00374/48515/

View Article
March 2017
1 Read

Toxicity screening of 13 Gambierdiscus strains using neuro-2a and erythrocyte lysis bioassays.

Harmful Algae 2017 03 9;63:173-183. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Ifremer, Phycotoxins Laboratory, rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes, France.

View Article
March 2017
23 Reads
3.870 Impact Factor

A study of Vulcanodinium rugosum (dinoflagellate producer of pinnatoxins) developping in the Mediterranean lagoon of Ingril

Abadie Eric, Muguet Alexia, Berteaux Tom, Chomerat Nicolas, Hess Philipp, Masseret Estelle, Laabir Mohamed (2016). A study of Vulcanodinium rugosum (dinoflagellate producer of pinnatoxins) developping in the Mediterranean lagoon of Ingril. ICHA2016 - The 17th International Conference on Harmful Alg

View Article
2016
1 Read

Production of BMAA and DAB by diatoms (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Chaetoceros sp., Chaetoceros calcitrans and, Thalassiosira pseudonana) and bacteria isolated from a diatom culture.

Harmful Algae 2016 09 20;58:45-50. Epub 2016 Aug 20.

Ifremer, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes, France. Electronic address:

View Article
September 2016
5 Reads
3.870 Impact Factor

Passive Sampling and High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Chemical Profiling of French Coastal Areas with a Focus on Marine Biotoxins.

Environ Sci Technol 2016 08 4;50(16):8522-9. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

Ifremer, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France.

View Article
August 2016
15 Reads
5.330 Impact Factor

First metabolomic approach of the epiphytic bacteria-marine diatom Haslea ostrearia relationships

Mondeguer Florence, Lepinay Alexandra, Capiaux Hervé, Turpin Vincent, Baron Regis, Hess Philipp, Lebeau Thierry (2016). First metabolomic approach of the epiphytic bacteria-marine diatom Haslea ostrearia relationships. OCEANEXT, Interdisciplinary Conference. 8-10 juin 2016, Nantes, France. http://a

The marine diatom Haslea ostrearia [1] produces a water-soluble blue-pigment named marennine [2] of economic interest. But the lack of knowledge of the ecological conditions, under which this microalga develops in its natural ecosystem, more especially bacteria H. ostrearia interactions, prevents any optimization of its culture in well-controlled conditions. The structure of the bacterial community was analyzed by PCR-TTGE before and after the isolation of H. ostrearia cells recovered from 4 localities, to distinguish the relative part of the biotope and the biocenose and eventually to describe the temporal dynamic of the structure of the bacterial community at two time-scales. The differences in genetic fingerprints, more especially high between two H. ostrearia isolates (HO-R and HO-BM) showed also the highest differences in the bacterial structure [3] as the result of specific metabolomics profiles. The non-targeted metabolomic investigation showed that these profiles were more distinct in case of bacteria-alga associations than for the H. ostrearia monoculture Here we present a Q-TOF LC/MS metabolomic fingerprinting approach [3]: - to investigate differential metabolites of axenic versus non axenic H. ostrearia cultures. - to focus on the specific metabolites of a bacterial surrounding associated with the activation or inhibition of the microalga growing. The Agilent suite of data processing software makes feature finding, statistical analysis, and identification easier. This enables rapid transformation of complex raw data into biologically relevant metabolite information.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00342/45367/

View Article
June 2016
1 Read

Differentiation of gonyautoxins by ion mobility - mass spectrometry; a cationization study

Poyer Salome, Loutelier-Bourhis Corinne, Tognetti Vincent, Joubert Laurent, Enche Julien, Bossee Anne, Mondeguer Florence, Hess Philipp, Afonso Carlos (2016). Differentiation of gonyautoxins by ion mobility - mass spectrometry; a cationization study. International Journal Of Mass Spectrometry, 402,

International Journal Of Mass Spectrometry

Gonyautoxins are potent natural neurotoxic analogues of saxitoxin. Due to their biological activity and submilligram lethal dose for man, fast and efficient methods are required for their characterization. Recent advances in ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) showed that differentiation of isomers could be achieved using specific experimental conditions involving particular buffer gases as well as cationic species. In this work, IM-MS experiments were carried out using alkali metal ions (Met = Li+, Na+ or K+) and different buffer gases (N2, N2O and CO2) to improve the differentiation of gonyautoxin isomers. The separation of [GTX + Met]+ ion was achieved for GTX2/3 and GTX1/4 from their Na or K adducts. For dcGTX2/3, the ion mobility separation can only be obtained with peak to peak resolution (Rp-p) close to 1 from the [GTXs + Met − H2O]+ species. To understand the gas phase conformation of the different diastereomers, density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed. IM separation, and collision cross sections on [GTXs + Met]+ and [GTXs + Met − H2O]+ are reported for the first time.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00317/42863/

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May 2016
1 Read

Algal toxin profiles in Nigerian coastal waters (Gulf of Guinea) using passive sampling and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

Toxicon 2016 May 16;114:16-27. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Ifremer, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France.

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May 2016
18 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Systematic detection of BMAA (β-N-methylamino-l-alanine) and DAB (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) in mollusks collected in shellfish production areas along the French coasts.

Toxicon 2016 Feb 23;110:35-46. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Ifremer, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes, France.

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February 2016
18 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Azaspiracid Toxins: Toxicological Profile

Hess Philipp, Twiner Michael J, Kilcoyne Jane, Sosa Sylvio (2015). Azaspiracid Toxins: Toxicological Profile. In Marine and Freshwater Toxins : Marine and Freshwater Toxins. 2015. Editors: P. Gopalakrishnakone, Vidal Haddad Jr., William R. Kem, Aurelia Tubaro, Euikyung Kim ISBN: 978-94-007-6650-1 (

Azaspiracids (AZAs) are a toxin group that originate from marine dinoflagellates of the genera Azadinium and Amphidoma. After accumulation of these toxins in edible marine organisms and their subsequent consumption, humans develop a gastrointestinal syndrome referred to as azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP). This syndrome is very similar to diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP), with main symptoms appearing after a few hours from consumption and including diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps. Due to extensive metabolism in shellfish, more than 30 analogues have been reported to date, and purified compounds for selected analogues have recently been made available for toxicological studies. Currently, only AZA1, AZA2, and AZA3 are regulated in Europe and internationally; however, more recent evidence suggests that AZA6, AZA17, and AZA19 may also be analogues of importance for estimating the full risk of seafood. Even though animal studies have pointed out target organs (digestive tract, liver, heart, and lung), mechanism of action studies at cellular level are not yet conclusive. While a number of common targets have been excluded (protein phosphatases, kinases, actin depolymerization, G protein-coupled receptors), some evidence points toward ion channel activity of AZAs. Still, in vitro studies do not correlate well with symptoms observed in humans. Also, while some animal studies point toward longer-term effects, no such evidence has been reported from human poisoning events. However, it should be noted that in-depth epidemiological studies are still lacking. Even though all risk assessments have based their evaluation on a single, relatively early poisoning event in 1997, in Arranmore Island, Ireland, producing organisms and toxin occurrences have been reported worldwide, and further occurrence studies should provide a better base for such epidemiological studies

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00320/43146/

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2015
1 Read

Effects of Heating on Proportions of Azaspiracids 1-10 in Mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Identification of Carboxylated Precursors for Azaspiracids 5, 10, 13, and 15.

J Agric Food Chem 2015 Dec 17;63(51):10980-7. Epub 2015 Dec 17.

Norwegian Veterinary Institute , P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, 0106 Oslo, Norway.

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December 2015
6 Reads
2.910 Impact Factor

Marine harmful algal blooms, human health and wellbeing: challenges and opportunities in the 21st century.

J Mar Biol Assoc U.K. 2015;2015. Epub 2015 Nov 20.

Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, IOC Science and Communication Centre on Harmful Algae, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 4, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

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November 2015
8 Reads
1.060 Impact Factor

Pinnatoxines en lien avec l’espèce Vulcanodinium rugosum (II)

Mondeguer Florence, Abadie Eric, Herve Fabienne, Bardouil Michele, Sechet Veronique, Raimbault Virginie, Berteaux Tom, Zendong Suzie Zita, Palvadeau Hubert, Amzil Zouher, Hess Philipp, Fessard Valérie, Huguet Antoine, Sosa Silvio, Tubaro Aurelia, Aráoz Rómulo, Molgó Jordi (2015). Pinnatoxines en li

Pour tenter d’apporter des réponses aux questions soulevées par une précédente étude commanditée pour approfondir les connaissances sur Vulcanodinium rugosum, l’organisme producteur de la Pinnatoxine G (PnTX G) (Hess et al., 2012), les objectifs de cette nouvelle étude sont les suivants : - Elargissement de la zone initiale de prélèvement d’Ingril à toute la lagune méditerranéenne et mise à profit de l’augmentation du nombre d’échantillons pour vérifier l’impact de l’effet matrice dans l’analyse LC-SM/MS. - Mise en culture en masse de Vulcanodinium rugosum et - Conduite d’une expérience de contamination in vivo sur des moules pour vérifier l’accumulation de la PnTX-G et comprendre les mécanismes de la métabolisation des PnTXs et de ses composés associés.. - Analyse par test sur récepteur et analyse cytotoxique (ANSES) pour vérifier l’accumulation éventuelle d’autres substances cytotoxiques. - Evaluation de la contribution des autres substances cytotoxiques aux toxicités atypiques par le biais de l’analyse histopathologique (Université de Trieste) réalisée à partir d’expériences d’exposition de PnTX-G pure par voie orale sur souris.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00285/39635/

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October 2015
1 Read

High resolution mass spectrometry for quantitative analysis and untargeted screening of algal toxins in mussels and passive samplers.

J Chromatogr A 2015 Oct 3;1416:10-21. Epub 2015 Sep 3.

Ifremer, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France.

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October 2015
11 Reads
4.170 Impact Factor

β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and isomers: Distribution in different food web compartments of Thau lagoon, French Mediterranean Sea.

Mar Environ Res 2015 Sep 1;110:8-18. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

Ifremer, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, BP 21105, F-44311, Nantes, France.

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September 2015
7 Reads
2.760 Impact Factor

Effect of Nitrate, Ammonium and Urea on Growth and Pinnatoxin G Production of Vulcanodinium rugosum.

Mar Drugs 2015 Sep 2;13(9):5642-56. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Center for Marine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation (MARBEC), Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, Place Eugène Bataillon, CC93, Montpellier Cedex 5 34095, France.

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September 2015
8 Reads
2.850 Impact Factor

Metabolic profiling and control hypothesis through kinetic accumulation or elimination of secondary metabolites associated with phycotoxins of filter-feeding bivalves.

Mondeguer Florence, Guitton Yann, Herve Fabienne, Abadie Eric, Dechamps Lucie, Raimbault Virginie, Berteaux Tom, Bardouil Michele, Zendong Suzie Zita, Palvadeau Hubert, Wilson Johanna, Taggart John B, Sechet Veronique, Amzil Zouher, Hess Philipp (2015). Profilage métabolique et contrôle d’hypothèse

In a previous study, Pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) had been identified as a toxin accumulating in mussels and clams in Ingril Lagoon, a small lagoon on the French Mediterranean coast. The levels found in shellfish from this lagoon were sufficient to explain positive mouse bioassays (MBA) in the absence of other regulated toxins. The present study has been commissioned by the French Directorate General for Food and the Directorate General for Health in order to: (i) gain knowledge on the distribution of PnTX-G in other Mediterranean lagoons, (ii) better characterise the analytical methodology used (liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and (iii) better understand the accumulation in shellfish of PnTX-G and potentially other bioactive or toxic compounds produced by Vulcanodinium rugosum, the dinoflagellate producing PnTX-G. A one-year study (2013 – 2014) in five Mediterranean lagoons (Prévost, Vic, Ingril, Thau and Leucate) revealed that mussels at Ingril were by far the most contaminated, with mussels in the other four lagoons typically accumulating PnTX-G to levels less than those that would cause positive MBAs. Limits of quantification (LoQ) and matrix effects in the LC-MS/MS analysis of PnTX-G have been characterised on two models of tandem mass spectrometers (API-4000 and API-5500 Q-Traps). The LoQs were sufficiently low on both instruments to detect and reliably quantify concentrations below those that would cause positive MBAs (50 μg PnTX-G / kg whole flesh). Matrix effects did not significantly differ between instrument models; however, matrix effects differed between clams, mussel whole flesh and mussel hepatopancreas, with the latter matrix yielding the least signal for PnTX-G in crude extract (50% signal suppression) and clams showing the least signal suppression. Live mussels (M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis) have been exposed to live cells of V. rugosum in three separate accumulation experiments. Depending on the experiment, mussels accumulated PnTX-G to concentrations of approximately 20 to 65 μg kg-1 whole flesh. These levels are lower than those observed in mussels from Ingril lagoon, probably due to (i) lower toxin cell quota in the cultured V. rugosum than those in situ and (ii) shorter exposure times in the laboratory (24 – 72h). However, the levels are comparable to or higher than those observed in mussels from the other four lagoons. Portimine, another recently identified, major metabolite of V. rugosum, also accumulated in mussels in the laboratory. Concentrations of portimine in mussels were estimated to exceed those of PnTX-G five-fold; however, the ratio of portimine over PnTX-G in V. rugosum is much higher (ca. 20), and hence, portimine is either less accumulated or metabolised or excreted faster in mussels.

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June 2015
1 Read

Structure Elucidation, Relative LC–MS Response and In Vitro Toxicity of Azaspiracids 7–10 Isolated from Mussels (Mytilus edulis)

Kilcoyne Jane, Twiner Michael J., McCarron Pearse, Crain Sheila, Giddings Sabrina D., Foley Barry, Rise Frode, Hess Philipp, Willdns Alistair L., Miles Christopher O. (2015). Structure Elucidation, Relative LC–MS Response and In Vitro Toxicity of Azaspiracids 7–10 Isolated from Mussels (Mytilus edu

Journal Of Agricultural And Food Chemistry

Azaspiracids (AZAs) are marine biotoxins produced by dinoflagellates that can accumulate in shellfish, which if consumed can lead to poisoning events. AZA7–10, 7–10, were isolated from shellfish and their structures, previously proposed on the basis of only LC–MS/MS data, were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. Purified AZA4–6, 4–6, and 7–10 were accurately quantitated by qNMR and used to assay cytotoxicity with Jurkat T lymphocyte cells for the first time. LC–MS(MS) molar response studies performed using isocratic and gradient elution in both selected ion monitoring and selected reaction monitoring modes showed that responses for the analogues ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 relative to AZA1, 1. All AZA analogues tested were cytotoxic to Jurkat T lymphocyte cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; however, there were distinct differences in their EC50 values, with the potencies for each analogue being: AZA6 > AZA8 > AZA1 > AZA4 ≈ AZA9 > AZA5 ≈ AZA10. This data contributes to the understanding of the structure–activity relationships of AZAs.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00269/38059/

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May 2015
1 Read

Structure Elucidation, Relative LC-MS Response and In Vitro Toxicity of Azaspiracids 7-10 Isolated from Mussels (Mytilus edulis).

J Agric Food Chem 2015 May 12;63(20):5083-91. Epub 2015 May 12.

○Norwegian Veterinary Institute, P.O. Box 750 Sentrum, 0106 Oslo Norway.

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May 2015
4 Reads
2.910 Impact Factor

Characterization of ovatoxin-h, a new ovatoxin analog, and evaluation of chromatographic columns for ovatoxin analysis and purification.

J Chromatogr A 2015 Apr 14;1388:87-101. Epub 2015 Feb 14.

LUNAM, University of Nantes, MMS EA2160, Pharmacy Faculty, 9 rue Bias, F-44035 Nantes, France. Electronic address:

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April 2015
34 Reads
4.170 Impact Factor

A mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue certified reference material for the marine biotoxins azaspiracids.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2015 Apr 22;407(11):2985-96. Epub 2014 Oct 22.

National Research Council of Canada, Measurement Science and Standards, Biotoxin Metrology, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, NS, B3H 3Z1, Canada,

View Article
April 2015
12 Reads
3.440 Impact Factor

Pinnatoxin-G: analytical methodology, distribution in Mediterranean lagoons and accumulation in mussels (Mytilus edulis and Mytilus galloprovincialis)

Mondeguer Florence, Abadie Eric, Herve Fabienne, Dechamps Lucie, Bardouil Michele, Sechet Veronique, Raimbault Virginie, Berteaux Tom, Zendong Suzie Zita, Palvadeau Hubert, Amzil Zouher, Hess Philipp (2015). Pinnatoxine-G: méthodologie analytique, distribution et accumulation dans les moules: Mytil

In a previous study, Pinnatoxin G (PnTX-G) had been identified as a toxin accumulating in mussels and clams in Ingril Lagoon, a small lagoon on the French Mediterranean coast. The levels found in shellfish from this lagoon were sufficient to explain positive mouse bioassays (MBA) in the absence of other regulated toxins. The present study has been commissioned by the French Directorate General for Food and the Directorate General for Health in order to: (i) gain knowledge on the distribution of PnTX-G in other Mediterranean lagoons, (ii) better characterise the analytical methodology used (liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and (iii) better understand the accumulation in shellfish of PnTX-G and potentially other bioactive or toxic compounds produced by Vulcanodinium rugosum, the dinoflagellate producing PnTX-G. A one-year study (2013 – 2014) in five Mediterranean lagoons (Prévost, Vic, Ingril, Thau and Leucate) revealed that mussels at Ingril were by far the most contaminated, with mussels in the other four lagoons typically accumulating PnTX-G to levels less than those that would cause positive MBAs. Limits of quantification (LoQ) and matrix effects in the LC-MS/MS analysis of PnTX-G have been characterised on two models of tandem mass spectrometers (API-4000 and API-5500 Q-Traps). The LoQs were sufficiently low on both instruments to detect and reliably quantify concentrations below those that would cause positive MBAs (50 μg PnTX-G / kg whole flesh). Matrix effects did not significantly differ between instrument models; however, matrix effects differed between clams, mussel whole flesh and mussel hepatopancreas, with the latter matrix yielding the least signal for PnTX-G in crude extract (50% signal suppression) and clams showing the least signal suppression. Live mussels (M. edulis and M. galloprovincialis) have been exposed to live cells of V. rugosum in three separate accumulation experiments. Depending on the experiment, mussels accumulated PnTX-G to concentrations of approximately 20 to 65 μg kg-1 whole flesh. These levels are lower than those observed in mussels from Ingril lagoon, probably due to (i) lower toxin cell quota in the cultured V. rugosum than those in situ and (ii) shorter exposure times in the laboratory (24 – 72h). However, the levels are comparable to or higher than those observed in mussels from the other four lagoons. Portimine, another recently identified, major metabolite of V. rugosum, also accumulated in mussels in the laboratory. Concentrations of portimine in mussels were estimated to exceed those of PnTX-G five-fold; however, the ratio of portimine over PnTX-G in V. rugosum is much higher (ca. 20), and hence, portimine is either less accumulated or metabolised or excreted faster in mussels.

View Article
April 2015
1 Read

Final Project Report COLNACOQ (Lipophilic Natural Compounds in Shellfish Environments)

Hess Philipp, Geiger Marie, Brochard Solene, Lepretre Thomas, Fessard Valerie, Antignac Jean-Philippe, Dupont Jacques, Sechet Veronique, Vanel Faustine, Mondeguer Florence, Herve Fabienne, Leborgne Sabrina, Deslanglois Gwenaëlle, Marshall Lindsey, Rounds Lucy, Guitton Yann, Amzil Zouher, Grovel Oliv

Cette étude s’est inscrite dans un contexte d’évaluation de la salubrité des mollusques bivalves destinés à la consommation humaine. Ces organismes peuvent en effet accumuler des toxines, en particulier de microalgues, en concentrations importantes, pouvant induire des intoxications chez les personnes les consommant. Afin d’assurer la protection des consommateurs, les toxines réglementées sont recherchées dans les coquillages par techniques physico-chimiques. En parallèle, les toxines émergentes, potentiellement produites par d’autres organismes que les micro-algues telles que les micromycètes, peuvent être detectées par l’utilisation du test de toxicité aigüe sur souris. Cependant, ce bio-essai présente de très nombreux inconvénients, notamment éthiques et méthodologiques. C’est pourquoi une suite de bio-essais miniaturisés a été développée en utilisant trois types de tests : cytotoxicité sur cellules KB, la toxicité aguë sur larves de diptères, et activités antibactériennes sur bactéries marines. Ces tests ont dans un premier temps été adaptés à des protocoles de routine, puis leur périmètre de détection a été évalué à différents niveaux de complexité de la matrice : toxine lipophile pure connue ou émergente, extrait brut de micro-algue ou de micromycète producteur de toxine, et matrices de bivalves dopées par des toxines. Les trois tests se sont révélés être complémentaires dans leurs champs de détection, et une démarche pour leur mise en place a pu été proposée. Une douzaine de souches de microalgues et 24 souches de micromycètes ont été cultivées et testées avec la suite de bio-essais. Pour certaines souches de micro-algues et de micromycètes de nouveaux composés ont pu être mis en évidence. En s’appuyant sur des techniques de spectrométrie de masse haute résolution, des exercices de déréplication ont été entrepris pour deux organismes en particulier : le dinoflagellé Vulcanodinium rugosum et le micromycète Beauveria brongniartii. La procédure développée a été validée pour la matrice coquillage et pourra de ce fait être utilisé dans le cadre de recherche de composés toxiques dans cette matrice, notamment dans les dispositifs nationaux de vigilance alimentaire.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00253/36470/

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February 2015
1 Read

Identification and separation of saxitoxins using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to traveling wave ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

J Mass Spectrom 2015 Jan;50(1):175-81

Normandie Université, COBRA, UMR 6014 et FR 3038, Université de Rouen, INSA de Rouen, CNRS, IRCOF,1 rue Tesnière, 76821, Mont-Saint-Aignan Cedex, France.

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January 2015
15 Reads
2.380 Impact Factor

AZASPIRACIDS – Toxicological Evaluation, Test Methods and Identifcation of the Source Organisms (ASTOX II)

Kilcoyne Jane, Jauffrais Thierry, Twiner Michael J., Doucette Gregory J., Aasen Bunaes John A, Sosa Sylvio, Krock Bernd, Sechet Veronique, Nulty Ciara, Salas Rafael, Clarke Dave, Geraghty Jennifer, Duffy Conor, Foley Barry, John Uwe, Quiliam Michael A, McCarron Pearse, Miles Christopher O., Silke Jo

Since the Irish monitoring program was set up in 2001 azaspiracids (AZAs) have been detected in shellfish above the regulatory limit every year with the exception of 2004. The south west coast of Ireland is especially prone to the onsets of AZA events. Over this period a number of poisoning incidents associated with this toxin group have occurred, all related to Irish shellfish. In 2003 the Marine Institute was awarded funding for a research project named ASTOX. This project was very successful in producing a range of reference materials (RMs, which are essential for accurate detection and monitoring, and which up to this point were unavailable. The project also examined the toxicity of AZAs, primarily using in vitro cell assays but some in vivo studies were also performed. The overall aims of the ASTOX 2 project were to strengthen knowledge on the causative organism and toxicity of AZAs. The project aims were grouped into three areas: ecology, chemical support and toxicology.

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2014
1 Read

Extended evaluation of polymeric and lipophilic sorbents for passive sampling of marine toxins.

Toxicon 2014 Dec 5;91:57-68. Epub 2014 Apr 5.

Ifremer, Laboratoire Phycotoxines, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France.

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December 2014
15 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Effect of seawater salinity on pore-size distribution on a poly(styrene)-based HP20 resin and its adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

J Chromatogr A 2014 Dec 13;1373:1-8. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China; Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266100, China. Electronic address:

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December 2014
8 Reads
4.170 Impact Factor

Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine: LC-MS/MS optimization, screening of cyanobacterial strains and occurrence in shellfish from Thau, a French Mediterranean lagoon.

Mar Drugs 2014 Nov 17;12(11):5441-67. Epub 2014 Nov 17.

Ifremer (French Research Institute for the Exploitation of the Seas), Phycotoxins Laboratory, rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes, France.

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November 2014
16 Reads
2.850 Impact Factor

Oceans and Human Health: A Rising Tide of Challenges and Opportunities for Europe

Fleming L. E., McDonough N., Austen M., Mee L., Moore Michelle, Hess Philipp, Depledge M. H., White M., Philippart Katja, Bradbrook P., Smalley A. (2014). Oceans and Human Health: A Rising Tide of Challenges and Opportunities for Europe. Marine Environmental Research, 99, 16-19. Publisher's officia

Marine Environmental Research

The European Marine Board recently published a position paper on linking oceans and human health as a strategic research priority for Europe. With this position paper as a reference, the March 2014 Cornwall Oceans and Human Health Workshop brought together key scientists, policy makers, funders, business, and non governmental organisations from Europe and the US to review the recent interdisciplinary and cutting edge research in oceans and human health specifically the growing evidence of the impacts of oceans and seas on human health and wellbeing (and the effects of humans on the oceans). These impacts are a complex mixture of negative influences (e.g. from climate change and extreme weather to harmful algal blooms and chemical pollution) and beneficial factors (e.g. from natural products including seafood to marine renewable energy and wellbeing from interactions with coastal environments). Integrated approaches across disciplines, institutions, and nations in science and policy are needed to protect both the oceans and human health and wellbeing now and in the future.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00192/30328/

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August 2014
1 Read

Azaspiracids

Seafood and Freshwater Toxins

View Article
March 2014
1 Read

Metabolomic approach for the analysis of micro-algae : direct analysis versus passive sampling

Zendong Suzie Zita, Herrenknecht Christine, Mondeguer Florence, Hess Philipp (2013). Metabolomic approach for the analysis of micro-algae : direct analysis versus passive sampling. 4th International Symposium On Marine & Freshwater Toxin Analysis and AOAC Task Force Meeting, 5-9 May 2013, Baiona, S

By 2014, the new targeted LC-MS/MS reference method for the detection of lipophilic toxins will replace the mouse bioassay (MBA). This bioassay, which has the advantage of being a rapid and global toxicity test, can not be used for toxin identification purposes. Furthermore, it has appeared that, in some cases, the mouse bioassay could reveal uncharacterized toxicities that could not be elucidated by targeted mass spectrometry methods. Therefore, moving from the global toxicity assessment test to a targeted technique leads to a lack of information on emerging toxins. Objectives: - Beside targeted methods, develop metabolomic approaches to screen for known and unknown emerging toxins - Develop passive sampling devices suitable for toxins of varying polarities, as a tool complementary to traditional monitoring - Compare metabolomic profiles of passively sampled algal constituents to those of algae themselves (footprint versus fingerprint)

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00179/29040/

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2013
1 Read

Cytotoxicity and mycotoxin production of shellfish-derived Penicillium spp., a risk for shellfish consumers

Geiger Marie, Guitton Yann, Vansteelandt M., Kerzaon I., Blanchet Estelle, Du Pont T. Robiou, Frisvad J. C., Hess Philipp, Pouchus Y. F., Grovel Olivier (2013). Cytotoxicity and mycotoxin production of shellfish-derived Penicillium spp., a risk for shellfish consumers. Letters In Applied Microbiolo

Letters In Applied Microbiology

In order to assess the putative toxigenic risk associated with the presence of fungal strains in shellfish-farming areas, Penicillium strains were isolated from bivalve molluscs and from the surrounding environment, and the influence of the sample origin on the cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated. Extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillia exhibited higher cytotoxicity than the others. Ten of these strains were grown on various media including a medium based on mussel extract (Mytilus edulis), mussel flesh-based medium (MES), to study the influence of the mussel flesh on the production of cytotoxic compounds. The MES host-derived medium was created substituting the yeast extract of YES medium by an aqueous extract of mussel tissues, with other constituent identical to YES medium. When shellfish-derived strains of fungi were grown on MES medium, extracts were found to be more cytotoxic than on the YES medium for some of the strains. HPLC-UV/DAD-MS/MS dereplication of extracts from Penicillium marinum and P. restrictum strains grown on MES medium showed the enhancement of the production of some cytotoxic compounds. The mycotoxin patulin was detected in some P. antarcticum extracts, and its presence seemed to be related to their cytotoxicity. Thus, the enhancement of the toxicity of extracts obtained from shellfish-derived Penicillium strains grown on a host-derived medium, and the production of metabolites such as patulin suggests that a survey of mycotoxins in edible shellfish should be considered.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00160/27166/

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December 2013
1 Read

Effect of environmental and nutritional factors on growth and azaspiracid production of the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum

Jauffrais Thierry, Sechet Veronique, Herrenknecht Christine, Truquet Philippe, Savar Veronique, Tillmann Urban, Hess Philipp (2013). Effect of environmental and nutritional factors on growth and azaspiracid production of the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum. Harmful Algae, 27, 138-148. Publisher's

Harmful Algae

Azadinium spinosum, a small dinoflagellate isolated from the North Sea, is a producer of azaspiracids (AZAs), a group of biotoxins associated with human illness following ingestion of contaminated shellfish. Using batch and continuous cultures of A. spinosum, the present study investigated the effects of different environmental and nutritional factors (salinity, temperature, photon flux density, aeration, culture media, nitrogen sources, phosphate source, and N/P ratios) on growth, maximum cell concentration, and AZA cell quota. Azadinium spinosum grew in a wide range of conditions; from 10 ̊C to 26 ̊C and salinities from 30 to 40, under irradiances ranging from 50 μmol m−2 s−1 to 250 μmol m−2 s−1, with or without aeration. Growth and maximum cell concentration were highest at a salinity of 35, at temperatures between 18 ̊C and 22 ̊C, and with aeration. Concerning AZA cell quota, the most significant effect was observed at low temperature; the AZA cell quota was more than 20 times higher at 10 ̊C (220 fg cell−1) than at temperatures between 18 ̊C and 26 ̊C. A. spinosum grew on all media tested with only slight differences in growth rate and AZA cell quota. In continuous culture, lowering the concentration of nutrients (0.5 strength of a modified K-medium) in the inflow improved AZA cell quota whereas higher concentration (doubling the normal strength of K-medium) improved maximal cell concentration. A. spinosum grew on different sources of nitrogen tested (nitrate, urea, ammonium) with almost no effect on toxin cell quota and growth, except that adding ammonium caused a decrease in growth. These first experiments on Azadinium spinosum increased our knowledge on factors affecting its growth and toxin production; furthermore, these results allowed and improved particularly A. spinosum production in pilot scale photobioreactors for AZA isolation.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00149/26054/

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July 2013
1 Read

Stratégie de mesure non ciblée de type métabolomique (couplage LC-HRMS ) pour identifier différents groupes de composés bioactifs accumulés dans les mollusques bivalves

Mondeguer Florence, Antignac Jean-Philippe, Guitton Yann, Monteau Fabrice, Le Borgne Sabrina, Hess Philipp (2013). Stratégie de mesure non ciblée de type métabolomique (couplage LC-HRMS ) pour identifier différents groupes de composés bioactifs accumulés dans les mollusques bivalves. 6e Journées Sc

La bioactivité des toxines du phytoplancton qui s’accumulent dans les coquillages est presque toujours évaluée sur modèle animal (test souris). Malgré ses avantages, la capacité de ce test à expliquer la nature de cette bio-activité reste limitée. Par ailleurs, le contrôle sanitaire actuellement basé sur une méthode ciblée d’identification et de quantification d’un ensemble de toxines connues ne permet pas de détecter des toxines encore inconnues. Afin de répondre à ce besoin de caractérisation de substances toxiques inconnues, une nouvelle approche de profilage chimique différentiel et non ciblé, de type métabolomique, a été proposée. Les 2 extraits sélectionnés sont ceux ayant montré une toxicité positive chez la souris, sans que les substances potentiellement responsables de cet effet toxique n’aient été révélées par des mesures ciblées.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00179/29042/

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May 2013
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Identification of paralytic shellfish poisons using liquid chromatography / ion mobility - high resolution mass spectrometry

Poyer Salomé, Loutelier-Bourhis Corinne, Mondeguer Florence, Coadou Gaël, Hubert-Roux Marie, Enche Julien, Bossee Anne, Hess Philipp, Afonso Carlos (2013). Identification of paralytic shellfish poisons using liquid chromatography / ion mobility - high resolution mass spectrometry. EuPA conference (

Saxitoxin and its analogues also called paralytic shellfish poisons (PSPs) are very potent neurotoxins [1] produced by dinoflagellates and referenced as chemical weapon in the chemical warfare convention (CWC). The official detection methods for these toxins present limitations concerning their speed and reliability [2]. Due to the presence of isomers, not differentiable by mass spectrometry (MS), an upstream separation is necessary. In order to separate saxitoxin analogues, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and ion mobility (IM) were used. Those techniques respectively developed for high polar compounds and three dimensional structure differentiation are particularly well adapted to the separation of PSPs. This HILIC/IM-MS coupling was used to develop a fast, reproducible and sensitive method for the separation and the detection of the PSPs

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00179/29039/

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May 2013
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Dissolved azaspiracids are absorbed and metabolized by blue mussels (Mytilus edulis).

Toxicon 2013 Apr 5;65:81-9. Epub 2013 Feb 5.

IFREMER, Laboratoire EMP/PHYC, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France.

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April 2013
8 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Effect of Azadinium spinosum on the feeding behaviour and azaspiracid accumulation of Mytilus edulis.

Aquat Toxicol 2012 Nov 28;124-125:179-87. Epub 2012 Aug 28.

IFREMER, Laboratoire EMP/PHYC, Nantes, France.

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November 2012
7 Reads
3.450 Impact Factor

Toxic Microalgae – Algal toxins. Know and emerging threats to seafood consumers and the marine environment

Hess Philipp, Goulletquer Philippe (2012). Toxic Microalgae – Algal toxins. Know and emerging threats to seafood consumers and the marine environment. Key environmental issues for marine coastal ecosystems, 5th Sino-French SEED Seminar, October 2nd & 3rd 2012, Montpellier.

Over the past century, it has become apparent that many poisoning incidents from fish and shellfish actually originate from micro-algal toxins that can accumulate in seafood through a range of mechanisms. Hence, a national surveillance program has been implemented in France and optimised for almost 30 years on toxic micro-algae and their toxins. Most common toxins in metropolitan France include saxitoxins and dinophysistoxins. However, over the last decade an array of lipophilic toxins has been discovered: azaspiracids, pectenotoxins, spirolides, yessotoxins, and most recently also pinnatoxins. Novel mass spectrometry and passive sampling techniques to detect these toxins are discussed as well as safeguarding of bivalve molluscs and threats to drinking water.

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October 2012
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Study of possible combined toxic effects of azaspiracid-1 and okadaic acid in mice via the oral route.

Toxicon 2012 Oct 28;60(5):895-906. Epub 2012 Jun 28.

Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P.O.Box 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo, Norway.

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October 2012
13 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Pinnatoxins and Vulcanodinium rugosum

Hess Philipp, Herve Fabienne, Abadie Eric, Sechet Veronique, Molgo Jordi, Amzil Zouher, Fessard Valerie (2012). Pinnatoxines en lien avec l’espèce Vulcanodinium rugosum. R.RBE/EMP/PHYC 12-05. http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00094/20518/

Suite à la découverte de la Pinnatoxine G comme agent responsable des toxicités atypiques à Ingril fin 2010, une étude a été commanditée afin d’approfondir les connaissances sur l’organisme producteur de cette toxine, Vulcanodinium rugosum, les toxines associées et leur toxicité. L’organisme, étant considéré « cryptique » dû à sa faible présence dans le milieu, a été suivi de manière plus proche à Ingril. Il est apparu dans la colonne d’eau en juillet et août 2012, et quelques échantillons ont pu être prélevés pour la mise en culture de souches supplémentaires. Une corrélation directe entre la croissance de l’organisme et la température est soupçonnée mais n’a pas encore pu être corroborée sur la période d’étude, faute d’un nombre suffisant d’échantillons. La salinité a été relevée comme étant potentiellement un autre facteur affectant la prolifération de cet organisme. La Pinnatoxine G purifiée a pu être obtenue auprès de collaborateurs néozélandais par le biais du CNRC Halifax. Les collaborateurs du CNRC ont caractérisé ce produit comme étant pur, et une solution d’étalon a été produite. La stabilité de cette solution a été testée, et l’étalon étant très stable a pu être utilisé pour l’analyse des échantillons par spectrométrie de masse. Une méthode analytique a été mise en place pour l’analyse des différents analogues de la Pinnatoxine et des Ptériatoxines (A à G et PtTX-A à C). Les facteurs de réponse des autres analogues sont supposés égaux à 1. L’analyse des pinnatoxines à Ingril clarifie que la Pinnatoxine G est l’analogue le plus abondant avec un faible pourcentage de la Pinnatoxine A (connu pour être un métabolite de la Pinnatoxine G produit par le coquillage). Les concentrations varient fortement d’année en année, mais les concentrations maximales ont dépassé 600 µg kg-1 pour les trois ans 2010 à 2012 et ont dépassé 1200 µg kg-1 en 2010. Ainsi, Ingril présente les concentrations les plus élevées mondialement, dépassant d’un facteur six les plus fortes teneurs rapportées (Nouvelle Zélande). La comparaison entre moules et palourdes montrent que les moules accumulent la Pinnatoxine G toujours de manière préférentielle, et que la moule reste donc l’espèce sentinelle par excellence. Les palourdes ont une très légère tendance à métaboliser plus largement ce composé, le pourcentage de PnTX-A constituant 1.9% de la Pinnatoxine G dans les palourdes par rapport aux 1.1% dans les moules. La culture en masse de l’organisme a été réalisée en mode batch dû à l’adhérence notoire des cellules aux parois des contenants des cultures. Différents facteurs environnementaux et nutritionnels ont été examinés pour leurs effets sur la croissance et la production toxinique de l’organisme. La salinité, les sources d’azote et potentiellement la température sont des facteurs à respecter. Un total d’environ 290 g de masse algale a été produit à partir de 350 litres de cultures. Cette biomasse contenait 3,1 mg de Pinnatoxine G. Bien que l’étude fût [...]

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00094/20518/

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September 2012
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Azaspiracid accumulation, detoxification and biotransformation in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) experimentally fed Azadinium spinosum.

Toxicon 2012 Sep 7;60(4):582-95. Epub 2012 May 7.

IFREMER, Laboratoire EMP/PHYC, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, 44311 Nantes, France.

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September 2012
50 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Information sur les intoxications potentielles dues à la consommation d'organismes marins autres que les mollusques bivalves en juillet 2012

Hess Philipp, Bavouzet Gerard (2012). Information sur les intoxications potentielles dues à la consommation d'organismes marins autres que les mollusques bivalves en juillet 2012. Capitainerie du Port de Plaisance de Lorient (Morbihan-56), Ref. STALO/E12_084, 2p., 3p.

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August 2012
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Quantitative analysis of azaspiracids in Azadinium spinosum cultures.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2012 May 26;403(3):833-46. Epub 2012 Feb 26.

IFREMER, Laboratoire EMP/PHYC, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, 44311, Nantes, France.

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May 2012
7 Reads
3.440 Impact Factor

New strategy of non-targeted, metabolomic analysis for the identification of bioactive compounds accumulated in bivalves molluscs

Mondeguer Florence, Antignac Jean-Philippe, Guitton Yann, Monteau Fabrice, Le Borgne Sabrina, Hess Philipp (2012). Nouvelle stratégie de caractérisation non ciblée de type métabolomique au service de l’identification de composés bioactifs accumulés dans les mollusques bivalves. Spectra Analyse, (28

Spectra Analyse

The bioactivity of phytoplankton toxins that accumulate in shellfish is almost always tested on animal model (mice assay). In spite of these advantages, the ability of this test to explain the nature of the bioactivity remains limited. Besides, the current sanitary control based on targeted methods of identification and quantification (LC-MS/MS) of known toxins, do not permit to detect unknown toxins. In order to cope with this need of identification of unknown toxic substances, a next approach based on global and differential metabolomic profiling was proposed. The first results obtained from extracts that have shown a positive toxicity in mice without the substances potentially responsible for these toxic effects have been measured by targeted methods, clearly open new perspectives regarding this atypical toxicity issue. This concept allows identifying a biological signature associated with this toxicity and shows the interest of characterizing biomarkers, which are potential candidates for the establishment of a new control strategy. Validity and robustness of this approach have now to be confirmed at a larger scale.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00077/18784/

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March 2012

Improved isolation procedure for azaspiracids from shellfish, structural elucidation of azaspiracid-6, and stability studies.

J Agric Food Chem 2012 Mar 2;60(10):2447-55. Epub 2012 Mar 2.

Marine Institute, Renville, Oranmore, County Galway, Ireland.

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March 2012
7 Reads
2.910 Impact Factor

Assessment and management of biotoxin risks in bivalve molluscs

Lawrence Jim, Loreal Henri, Toyofuku Hajime, Hess Philipp, Iddya Karunasagar (2011). Assessment and management of biotoxin risks in bivalve molluscs. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 551. http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00085/19588/

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00085/19588/

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2011
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The role of Azadinium spinosum (Dinophyceae) in the production of azaspiracid shellfish poisoning in mussels

Salas Rafael, Tillmann Urban, John Uwe, Kilcoyne Jane, Burson Amanda, Cantwell Caoimhe, Hess Philipp, Jauffrais Thierry, Silke Joe (2011). The role of Azadinium spinosum (Dinophyceae) in the production of azaspiracid shellfish poisoning in mussels. Harmful Algae, 10(6), 774-783. Publisher's officia

Harmful Algae

Azaspiracids (AZAs) are a group of lipophilic polyether compounds first detected in Ireland which have been implicated in shellfish poisoning incidents around Europe. These toxins regularly effect shellfish mariculture operations including protracted closures of shellfish harvesting areas for human consumption. The armoured dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum Elbrachter et Tillmann gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) has been described as the de novo azaspiracid toxin producer; nonetheless the link between this organism and AZA toxin accumulation in shellfish has not yet been established. In August 2009, shellfish samples of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) from the Southwest of Ireland were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and were found to be above the regulatory limit (0.16 mu g g-(1) AZA-equiv.) for AZAs. Water samples from this area were collected and one algal isolate was identified as A. spinosum and was shown to produce azaspiracid toxins. This is the first strain of A. spinosum isolated from Irish waters. The Irish A. spinosum is identical with the other two available A. spinosum strains from Scotland (3D9) and from Denmark (UTHE2) in its sequence of the D1-D2 regions of the LSU rDNA. A 24 h feeding trial of blue mussels (M. edulis) using an algal suspension of the Irish A. spinosum culture at different cell densities demonstrated that A. spinosum is filtered, consumed and digested directly by mussels. Also. LC-MS/MS analysis had shown that AZAs were accumulating in the shellfish hepatopancreas. The toxins AZA1 and -2 were detected in the shellfish together with the AZA analogues AZA3, AZA6, AZA17 and -19 suggesting that AZA1 and -2 are metabolised in the shellfish within the first 24 h after ingestion of the algae. The levels of AZA17 detected in the shellfish hepatopancreas (HP) were equivalent to the levels of AZA1 but in the remainder tissues the levels of AZA17 were four to five times higher than that of 1, only small quantities of AZA3 and -19 were present with negligible amounts of AZA6 detected after the 24 h period. This could have implications in the future monitoring of these toxins given that at present according to EU legislation only AZA1-AZA3 is regulated for. This is the first report of blue mussels' (M. edulis) feeding on the azaspiracid producing algae A. spinosum from Irish waters. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00049/16049/

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October 2011
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A mussel tissue certified reference material for multiple phycotoxins. Part 1: design and preparation.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2011 May 17;400(3):821-33. Epub 2011 Mar 17.

National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS, Canada.

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May 2011
5 Reads
3.440 Impact Factor

Combined oral toxicity of azaspiracid-1 and yessotoxin in female NMRI mice.

Toxicon 2011 May 21;57(6):909-17. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo, Norway.

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May 2011
5 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

The effects of growth phase and light intensity on toxin production by Dinophysis acuminata from the northeastern United States

Tong Mengmeng, Kulis David M., Fux Elie, Smith Juliette L., Hess Philipp, Zhou Qixing, Anderson Donald M. (2011). The effects of growth phase and light intensity on toxin production by Dinophysis acuminata from the northeastern United States. Harmful Algae, 10(3), 254-264. Publisher's official vers

Harmful Algae

For many years, the study of toxic Dinophysis species was primarily restricted to field populations until it was recently demonstrated that some of these organisms can be mixotrophically cultured in the laboratory with the ciliate prey, Myrionecta rubra. which had previously been fed with cryptophytes of the genus Teleaulax and Geminigera. Here we investigated the influence of growth phase and light intensity on the production of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins and pectenotoxins (PTXs) in cultures of Dinophysis acuminata from the northeastern United States. The cell toxin content of okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), and the okadaic acid diol ester (OA-D8) varied significantly with growth phase under all light treatments, at 6 degrees C. Each toxin quota remained low during middle and late exponential phases, but significantly increased by mid-plateau phase. DTX1 and OA-D8 were variable through plateau phase, while OA and PTX2 significantly decreased as the culture aged. Although maximum toxin content was not achieved until middle plateau phase, the rate of toxin production was generally greatest during exponential growth. The low and relatively constant cellular toxin levels observed during exponential and early-plateau phase indicate a balance between toxin production and growth, whereas in the middle-plateau phase, toxin production continues even though the cells are no longer capable of dividing, leading to higher toxin quotas. Light was required for Dinophysis growth and the production of all toxins, however, there was no significant difference in growth rates or toxin quotas between the higher light treatments ranging from 65 to 300 mu mol photons m(-2) s(-1). These results demonstrate that DSP production in D. acuminata is constitutive, and that specific toxins are differentially produced or accumulated during the cells' growth phase, possibly in response to changes to their environment. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00037/14827/

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March 2011
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Sub-lethal dosing of azaspiracid-1 in female NMRI mice.

Toxicon 2010 Dec 27;56(8):1419-25. Epub 2010 Aug 27.

Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, P.O. Box 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo, Norway.

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December 2010
4 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Recent developments in the detection of phycotoxins

Hess Philipp, Nicolau Elodie (2010). Recent developments in the detection of phycotoxins. Actes de Colloque: Avancées et nouvellles technologies en toxinologie, éditeurs: Julien BARBIER, Evelyne BENOIT, Pascale MARCHOT, César MATTEI, Denis SERVENT. http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00019/12975/

Over the past seven years, methods available for the detection of phycotoxins have been extensively reviewed in a number of international expert committees, such as the consultations organised by FAO/IOC/WHO and EFSA, as well as by individual scientists. These reviews have shown that the methods available have severe limitations for the use in official control, either due to their limited scope and detection capability or due to a lack of calibration standards, reference materials and validation efforts. The present review focuses on recent developments in the detection of phycotoxins in several areas of applied research. Not being able to exhaustively describe all recent developments, the review focussed on three areas of interest to the authors: (i) detection of ultra-trace amounts of toxins, (ii) metabolism of toxins and their localisation in biological tissues, and (iii) approaches to detect unknown toxins or analogues of known toxins. Miniaturisation in combination with physico-chemical techniques appears to be a very efficient approach to detect low trace amounts of individual toxin analogues. In particular, the detection of azaspiracids and okadaic acid and analogues, using micro-filtration and on-line pre-concentration techniques, has shown to be useful for the characterisation of various algal and shellfish species. In the area of interactions of toxins with shellfish and mammalian systems, it is noted that several studies on biomarkers reveal either protein biomarkers of exposure to toxins or potential pathways of metabolism of the toxins themselves. A particular focus is given to recent findings in the areas of brevetoxin metabolism and biomarkers as well as azaspiracid localisation and metabolism. Finally, the detection of novel compounds is a particularly challenging area. The interest in this area has risen over the past years following cases of unexplained mouse toxicity such as the UK cockle toxicity and the French atypical toxicity in mussels and oysters from the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. Some attention is given to immuno-, functional and cellular bio-assays for the identification of bioactive agents in shellfish.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00019/12975/

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December 2010
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The preparation of certified calibration solutions for azaspiracid-1, -2, and -3, potent marine biotoxins found in shellfish.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2010 Nov 9;398(5):2243-52. Epub 2010 Sep 9.

National Research Council of Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3Z1, Canada.

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November 2010
25 Reads
3.440 Impact Factor

Contributions to the characterisation of risks posed by marine biotoxins

Hess Philipp (2010). Contributions to the characterisation of risks posed by marine biotoxins. HDR. http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00015/12661/

Toxic algae producing an array of bioactive compounds may accumulate in shellfish, which in turn cause poisoning, following human consumption of contaminated shellfish. The chemistry, occurrence and toxicity of the toxins involved was reviewed. Following this review, the risk analysis and management processes are outlined for the production of shellfish. Subsequent sections describe five elements of risk characterisation to which my studies have significantly contributed: methods of analysis, distribution of toxins in the marine environment, preparative isolation of toxins, quality control tools in the determination of the toxins and characterisation of the chemical hazard in terms of lipophilicity, stability, reactivity and toxicity. The use of liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry for the detection of both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins is outlined, with emphasis on the contributions clarifiying critical parameters. For STX-group toxins, hydrophilic-lipophilic interaction chromatography has been introduced and demonstrated to achieve similar detection limits to the current regulatory bioassay, while providing a wealth of additional information in terms of toxin profiles. The determination of lipophilic toxins was critically evaluated. Matrix effects are systematically described and recommendations for their elimination or reduction are given. The geographical distribution of AZAs has been shown to extend all along the Atlantic coast of Europe, and the biogeographic differences between European and a North American strain of Dinophysis were elucidated. Mussels were shown to accumulate higher levels of AZA- and OA-group toxins than oysters through the introduction of routine monitoring of lipophilic shellfish toxins by LC-MS in Ireland. The contamination of scallops with DA and the causes of its variability were studied in Scotland and Ireland, with results contributing to legislation implemented. The distribution of shellfish toxins was also studied using passive sampling techniques. Thanks to these techniques, the existence of toxins previously unreported in Ireland was demonstrated (DTX1, YTX, SPX). The capability of predicting the occurrence of shellfish toxins using passive samplers was not confirmed in our studies. Compounds from three different toxin groups were isolated in the studies described: AZA, OA and PTX-group. Particular efforts were dedicated to the isolation of AZAs; these efforts have culminated in the production of a certified calibrant for AZA1 and in the discovery of 8 previously unknown analogues of AZAs, bringing the total number of analogues known to 20. DTX2 has been isolated to satisfactory purity, thus allowing further toxicological evaluation as well as the production of a standard currently undergoing certification at NRCC. The isolation of PTX2sa-fatty acid esters has outlined the complexity of natural products in shellfish. Shellfish tissue reference materials were prepared, and factors [...]

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00015/12661/

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October 2010
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Requirements for screening and confirmatory methods for the detection and quantification of marine biotoxins in end-product and official control.

Authors:
Philipp Hess

Anal Bioanal Chem 2010 Jul 30;397(5):1683-94. Epub 2010 Jan 30.

Ifremer, Centre de Nantes, Département Environnement, Microbiologie et Phycotoxines, Rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, 44311 Nantes, Cedex 03, France.

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July 2010
3 Reads
3.440 Impact Factor

Phycotoxins: chemistry, mechanisms of action and shellfish poisoning.

EXS 2010 ;100:65-122

Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Italy.

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April 2010
7 Reads

Opportunité d'autoriser le transfert de juvéniles d'huîtres creuses au départ du littoral du département de Charente-Maritime

Gaignon Jean-Louis, Ryckaert Mireille, Hess Philipp, Nezan Elisabeth, Chomerat Nicolas (2010). Opportunité d'autoriser le transfert de juvéniles d'huîtres creuses au départ du littoral du département de Charente-Maritime. DDTM Charente Maritime, Direction Départementale des Territoires et de la Mer

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March 2010
1 Read

Development and single-laboratory validation of a pseudofunctional biosensor immunoassay for the detection of the okadaic acid group of toxins.

Anal Chem 2009 Dec;81(24):10208-14

Institute of Agri-Food and Land Use, Queen's University of Belfast, Stranmillis Road, Belfast, Northern Ireland BT9 5AG.

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December 2009
4 Reads
5.640 Impact Factor

DSP toxin production de novo in cultures of Dinophysis acuminata (Dinophyceae) from North America

Hackett Jeremiah D., Tong Mengmeng, Kulis David M., Fux Elie, Hess Philipp, Bire Ronel, Anderson Donald M. (2009). DSP toxin production de novo in cultures of Dinophysis acuminata (Dinophyceae) from North America. Harmful Algae, 8(6), 873-879. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2009.04.004

Harmful Algae

For decades, many aspects of Dinophysis biology have remained intractable due to our inability to maintain these organisms in laboratory cultures. Recent breakthroughs in culture methods have opened the door for detailed investigations of these important algae. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate toxin production in cultures of North American Dinophysis acuminata, isolated from Woods Hole, MA. These findings show that, despite the rarity of Dinophysis-related DSP events in North America, D. acuminata from this area has the ability to produce DSP toxins just as it does in other parts of the world where this species is a major cause of DSP toxicity. In our cultures, D. acuminata cells were observed feeding on Myrionecta rubra using a peduncle. Culture extracts were analyzed using LC-MS/MS, providing unequivocal evidence for the toxin DTX1 in the Dinophysis cultures. In addition, a significant amount of an okadaic acid diol ester, OA-D8, was detected. These results suggest that this Dinophysis isolate stores much of its CIA as a diol ester. Also, toxin PTX-2 and a hydroxylated PTX-2 with identical fragmentation mass spectrum to that of PTX-11, but with a different retention time, were detected in this D. acuminata culture. This demonstration of toxin production in cultured North American Dinophysis sets the stage for more detailed studies investigating the causes of geographic differences in toxicity. It is now clear that North American Dinophysis have the ability to produce DSP toxins even though they only rarely cause toxic DSP events in nature. This may reflect environmental conditions that might induce or repress toxin production, genetic differences that cause modifications in toxin gene expression, or physiological and biochemical differences in prey species. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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October 2009
1 Read

Solid phase extraction for removal of matrix effects in lipophilic marine toxin analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2009 Jun 24;394(4):1213-26. Epub 2009 Apr 24.

RIKILT-Institute of Food Safety, Bornsesteeg 45, 6708 PD, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

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June 2009
8 Reads
3.440 Impact Factor

Comparative accumulation and composition of lipophilic marine biotoxins in passive samplers and in mussels (M. edulis) on the West Coast of Ireland

Fux Elie, Bire Ronel, Hess Philipp (2009). Comparative accumulation and composition of lipophilic marine biotoxins in passive samplers and in mussels (M. edulis) on the West Coast of Ireland. Harmful Algae, 8(3), 523-537. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2008.10.007

Harmful Algae

Monitoring of lipophilic marine toxins was carried out in three shellfish production sites on the West Coast of Ireland. The toxins were monitored using passive samplers (solid phase adsorption toxin tracking; SPATT) and toxin-free mussels that were replaced weekly in the selected sampling stations. The toxin profiles and concentrations obtained in the SPATT and in the transplanted mussels were compared with those observed in indigenous (native) mussels from each production site as well as with the phytoplankton that was detected in the water. Numerous lipophilic toxins were detected in the SPATT discs by ultra-performance liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and included okadaic acid (CA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), AZA1, AZA2, yessotoxin (YTX) and SPX-13-DesMe-C. The accumulation rate of toxins in the indigenous mussels and in the SPATT discs correlated well. Toxins were detected in all SPATT discs from all locations, even in the absence of toxin-producing phytoplankton, as observed previously by other research groups. It is quite clear from our data that the presence of okadaic acid in the water (even at high concentrations) did not induce toxicity in the transplanted mussels in the absence of phytoplankton. A severe toxic event of azaspiracids (AZAs) occurred in one of the sampling stations. The SPATT discs accumulated predominantly AZA1 and -2 suggesting that both toxins are biosynthesized by the AZA-producing organism. As opposed to the DSP event, the AZA event resulted in the contamination of the transplanted mussels for several consecutive weeks. This is the first study that reports the presence of YTX and SPX-13-DesMe-C in Irish waters. In our study conditions, the SPATT did not enable the forecasting of shellfish contamination as the increase in toxin concentration occurred at the same time in the shellfish and in the SPATT. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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March 2009
1 Read

Formation of Azaspiracids-3,-4,-6, and-9 via Decarboxylation of Carboxyazaspiracid Metabolites from Shellfish

McCarron Pearse, Kilcoyne Jane, Miles Christopher O., Hess Philipp (2009). Formation of Azaspiracids-3,-4,-6, and-9 via Decarboxylation of Carboxyazaspiracid Metabolites from Shellfish. Journal Of Agricultural And Food Chemistry, 57(1), 160-169. http://doi.org/10.1021/jf8025138

Journal Of Agricultural And Food Chemistry

The azaspiracid (AZA) class of phycotoxins has been responsible for extended closures of shellfisheries in various locations around Europe, where levels of AZA1-3 are regulated in shellfish. Since their discovery in 1995, AZAs have been the focus of much research, resulting in the discovery of numerous analogues. During studies of procedures for processing of AZA-contaminated mussels (Mytilus edulis), an unusual phenomenon was observed involving AZA3. In uncooked tissues, AZA3 levels would increase significantly when heated for short periods of time in the absence of water loss. A similar increase in AZA3 concentrations occurred during storage of shellfish tissue reference materials for several months at temperatures as low as 4 degrees C. Concentrations of AZA1 and AZA2 did not change during these experiments. Several possible explanations were investigated, including an AZA3-specific matrix effect upon heating of tissues, release of AZA3 from the matrix, and formation of AZA3 from a precursor. Preliminary experiments indicated that toxin conversion was responsible, and more detailed studies focused on this possibility. LC-MS analysis of heating trials, deuterium labeling experiments, and kinetic studies demonstrated that a carboxylated AZA analogue, AZA1 7, undergoes rapid decarboxylation when heated to produce AZA3. Heat-induced decarboxylation of AZA19, AZA21, and AZA23 to form AZA6, AZA4, and AZA9, respectively, was also demonstrated. This finding is of great significance in terms of procedures used in the processing of shellfish for regulatory analysis, and it exemplifies the role that chemical analysis can play in understanding the contribution of metabolic processes to the toxin profiles observed in shellfish samples.

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January 2009
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Formation of Azaspiracids-3, -4, -6, and -9 via decarboxylation of carboxyazaspiracid metabolites from shellfish.

J Agric Food Chem 2009 Jan;57(1):160-9

Marine Environment and Food Safety Services, Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, County Galway, Ireland.

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January 2009
4 Reads
2.910 Impact Factor

Evaluation of various pH and temperature conditions on the stability of azaspiracids and their importance in preparative isolation and toxicological studies.

Anal Chem 2008 Dec;80(24):9672-80

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

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December 2008
36 Reads
5.640 Impact Factor

Field and mesocosm trials on passive sampling for the study of adsorption and desorption behaviour of lipophilic toxins with a focus on OA and DTX1

Fux E, Marcaillou-Le Baut Claire, Mondeguer Florence, Bire R, Hess Philipp (2008). Field and mesocosm trials on passive sampling for the study of adsorption and desorption behaviour of lipophilic toxins with a focus on OA and DTX1. Harmful Algae, 7(5), 574-583. Publisher's official version : http:/

Harmful Algae

It has been demonstrated that polymeric resins can be used as receiving phase in passive samplers designed for the detection of lipophilic marine toxins at sea and was referred to as solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT). The present study describes the uptake and desorption behaviour of the lipophilic marine toxins okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) from Prorocentrum lima cultures by five styrene-divinylbenzene based polymeric resins Sepabeads (R) SP850, Sepabeads (R) SP825L, Amberlite (R) XAD4, Dowex (R) Optipore (R) L-493 and Diaion (R) HP-20. All resins accumulated OA and DTX1 from the P. lima culture with differences in adsorption rate and equilibrium rate. Following statistical evaluation, HP-20, SP850 and SP825L demonstrated similar adsorption rates. However, possibly due to its larger pore size, the HP-20 did not seem to reach equilibrium within 72 h exposure as opposed to the SP850 and SP825L. This was confirmed when the resins were immersed at sea for I week on the West Coast of Ireland. Furthermore, this work also presents a simple and efficient extraction method suitable to SPATT samplers exposed to artificial or natural culture media. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/4739/

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August 2008
1 Read

Confirmation by LC-MS/MS of azaspiracids in shellfish from the Portuguese north-western coast.

Toxicon 2008 Jun 25;51(8):1449-56. Epub 2008 Mar 25.

Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos, Avenida Brasília s/n, Lisbon, Portugal.

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June 2008
3 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Azaspiracid shellfish poisoning: a review on the chemistry, ecology, and toxicology with an emphasis on human health impacts.

Mar Drugs 2008 May 7;6(2):39-72. Epub 2008 May 7.

Marine Biotoxins Program, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, NOAA/National Ocean Service, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston SC 29412, USA.

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May 2008
7 Reads
2.850 Impact Factor

Effects of cooking and heat treatment on concentration and tissue distribution of okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-2 in mussels (Mytilus edulis).

Toxicon 2008 May 2;51(6):1081-9. Epub 2008 Feb 2.

Marine Institute, Marine Environment and Food Safety Services, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway, Ireland.

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May 2008
4 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Discovery of new analogs of the marine biotoxin azaspiracid in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2008 ;22(4):549-58

Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway, Ireland.

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April 2008
4 Reads
2.250 Impact Factor

Transcriptional profiling and inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis in human T lymphocyte cells by the marine toxin azaspiracid.

Genomics 2008 Mar 11;91(3):289-300. Epub 2008 Jan 11.

Marine Biotoxins Program, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, NOAA/National Ocean Service, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, SC 29412, USA.

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March 2008
7 Reads
2.280 Impact Factor

Development of an ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the detection of lipophilic marine toxins.

J Chromatogr A 2007 Jul 10;1157(1-2):273-80. Epub 2007 May 10.

Biotoxins Chemistry, Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, County Galway, Ireland.

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July 2007
4 Reads
4.170 Impact Factor

Freeze-drying for the stabilisation of shellfish toxins in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) reference materials.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2007 Apr 26;387(7):2475-86. Epub 2007 Jan 26.

Marine Institute, Marine Environment and Food Safety Service, Rinville, Oranmore, Galway, Ireland.

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April 2007
5 Reads
3.440 Impact Factor

Feasibility of gamma irradiation as a stabilisation technique in the preparation of tissue reference materials for a range of shellfish toxins.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2007 Apr 5;387(7):2487-93. Epub 2007 Jan 5.

Marine Institute, Marine Environment and Food Safety Services, Rinville, Oranmore, County, Galway, Ireland.

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April 2007
6 Reads
3.440 Impact Factor

Fit-for-purpose shellfish reference materials for internal and external quality control in the analysis of phycotoxins.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2007 Apr 27;387(7):2463-74. Epub 2006 Sep 27.

Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co. Galway, Ireland.

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April 2007
7 Reads
3.440 Impact Factor

Effect of addition of antibiotics and an antioxidant on the stability of tissue reference materials for domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poison.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2007 Apr 1;387(7):2495-502. Epub 2006 Nov 1.

Marine Environment and Food Safety Services, Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Co., Galway, Ireland.

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April 2007
4 Reads
3.440 Impact Factor

Azaspiracid-1 alters the E-cadherin pool in epithelial cells.

Toxicol Sci 2007 Feb 21;95(2):427-35. Epub 2006 Nov 21.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, I-41100 Modena, Italy.

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February 2007
37 Reads

Relative toxicity of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2) compared with okadaic acid, based on acute intraperitoneal toxicity in mice.

Toxicon 2007 Jan 14;49(1):1-7. Epub 2006 Aug 14.

Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, P. O. Box 8146 Dep., 0033 Oslo, Norway.

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January 2007
4 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Azaspiracid-1 inhibits bioelectrical activity of spinal cord neuronal networks.

Toxicon 2006 Jun 19;47(7):766-73. Epub 2006 Apr 19.

Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Code 6900, Washington, DC 20375, USA.

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June 2006
25 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Tissue distribution and effects of heat treatments on the content of domoic acid in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis.

Toxicon 2006 Mar 20;47(4):473-9. Epub 2006 Feb 20.

Marine Institute, Marine Environment and Food Safety Services, Galway Technology Park, Parkmore, Galway, Ireland.

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March 2006
5 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography--mass spectrometry for the analysis of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins.

J Chromatogr A 2005 Jul;1081(2):190-201

Institute for Marine Biosciences, National Research Council of Canada, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

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July 2005
3 Reads
4.170 Impact Factor

Tissue distribution, effects of cooking and parameters affecting the extraction of azaspiracids from mussels, Mytilus edulis, prior to analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

Toxicon 2005 Jul;46(1):62-71

Marine Environment and Food Safety Services, Marine Institute, Biotoxins, Galway Technology Park, Parkmore, Galway, Ireland.

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July 2005
4 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Teratogenic effects of azaspiracid-1 identified by microinjection of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos.

Toxicon 2005 Jun 2;45(7):881-90. Epub 2005 Apr 2.

Marine Biotoxins Program, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, NOAA/National Ocean Service, Charleston, SC 29412, USA.

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June 2005
5 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Cytotoxic and cytoskeletal effects of azaspiracid-1 on mammalian cell lines.

Toxicon 2005 Jun 18;45(7):891-900. Epub 2005 Apr 18.

Marine Biotoxins Program, Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research, NOAA/National Ocean Service, Charleston SC 29412, USA.

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June 2005
5 Reads
2.490 Impact Factor

Chapter 6 Methods for the determination and evaluation of chlorinated biphenyls (CBs) in environmental matrices

Sample handling and trace analysis of pollutants - Techniques, applications and quality assurance

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2000
1 Read

Chapter 2 Separation, clean-up and recoveries of persistent trace organic contaminants from soils, sediment and biological matrices

Sample handling and trace analysis of pollutants - Techniques, applications and quality assurance

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2000
1 Read

Top co-authors

Christine Herrenknecht
Christine Herrenknecht

University of Nantes

15
Zouher Amzil
Zouher Amzil

Laboratoire Phycotoxines

14
Christopher O Miles
Christopher O Miles

Norwegian Veterinary Institute

14
Jane Kilcoyne
Jane Kilcoyne

Marine Institute

11
Manoella Sibat
Manoella Sibat

Phycotoxins Laboratory

10
Michael J Twiner
Michael J Twiner

Center for Coastal Environmental Health and Biomolecular Research

8
Michael A Quilliam
Michael A Quilliam

National Research Council Canada

8