Publications by authors named "Philip M Hritcko"

5 Publications

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Assessing experiential education factors contributing to a PGY1 residency match: Pharmacy residency program director and comparative student survey.

Curr Pharm Teach Learn 2018 02 10;10(2):146-153. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

MCPHS University School of Pharmacy, 179 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare and contrast experiential education perceptions of pharmacy residency program directors (RPDs) and doctor of pharmacy students in their last year of the curriculum for residency application considerations.

Methods: The New England Regional Departments of Experiential Education (NERDEE) consortium developed a 17-question survey to assess residency factors, including those related to experiential education. The survey was dispersed to advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) students from six colleges/schools of pharmacy and RPDs nationwide.

Results: Students have different values on experiential preferences compared to RPDs. Sample findings include internal medicine and specialty clinical elective experiences prior to American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Midyear were extremely important to important for students, while RPDs viewed these experiences as somewhat important at best (p < 0.02). The majority of RPDs (67%) have no APPE schedule preference, while most students (77%) feel that certain APPE schedules may influence acceptance into residency.

Conclusion: Based on findings, information outlined can be used to dispel and/or validate common beliefs held by students regarding experiential factors that help or hinder a successful postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) residency match.
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February 2018

The Report of the 2016-2017 Professional Affairs Standing Committee: Formally Embracing and Engaging Preceptors in the Academy - The Time Has Come.

Am J Pharm Educ 2017 Nov;81(9):S16

American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy, Alexandria, VA.

The 2016-2017 AACP Professional Affairs Committee (PAC) was charged to examine strategies to include adjunct/affiliate preceptors as AACP members and to determine the value proposition of AACP membership for this group of educators. The PAC defined adjunct/affiliate preceptors as preceptors who are neither full-time employees nor have a primary employment commitment (≥50% of the preceptor's work salary) at a school/college of pharmacy. Specific charges to the PAC included: recommend an approach to increase the number of adjunct/affiliate preceptors as AACP members, examine AACP membership from an adjunct/affiliate preceptor value perspective, and prepare a concise summary of available literature describing value-added contributions of student pharmacists and pharmacy preceptors to pharmacy practice models, interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional practice (IPP). The summary of the plan developed by the PAC to address the charges is presented in the following report, which includes three sections: the value proposition of AACP membership for adjunct/affiliate preceptors, expansion of the presence of adjunct/affiliate preceptors in AACP, and the value of student pharmacists in experiential education settings. The value proposition of AACP membership for adjunct/affiliate preceptors section describes results of surveys and focus groups conducted by the PAC. The PAC surveyed experiential education directors at schools/colleges of pharmacy, adjunct/affiliate preceptors (from a request via the experiential education directors), and new pharmacy practice faculty members in order to determine current resources available for adjunct/affiliate preceptor development, as well as explore potential resources AACP could provide for adjunct/affiliate preceptor development. Focus groups were held with adjunct/affiliate preceptors and experiential education faculty/staff to explore some of the results and concepts generated from the surveys. The PAC developed three recommendations for AACP as a result of the surveys and focus groups. The report also describes various factors that should be considered by AACP in developing a membership category for adjunct/affiliate preceptors, including potential membership models, establishment of an advisory board, and collaboration with other stakeholder groups. The final section of the report provides an executive summary and detailed table, which summarizes available literature on the value of student pharmacists in experiential education. The brief literature review reinforces that there are many different practice settings where student pharmacists add value to patient care and the practice site. This information is significant for experiential education faculty/staff, as well as adjunct/affiliate preceptors, and serves as an example of best practices which document the value experiential education provides to patient care and practice sites. The final section of the report provides a policy statement that was adopted by the 2017 AACP House of Delegates and one suggestion to schools/colleges of pharmacy. The report concludes with a call to action regarding the formal involvement of adjunct/affiliate preceptors by AACP and the academy.
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November 2017

National Survey of Volunteer Pharmacy Preceptors: effects of region, practice setting, and population density on responses.

J Pharm Pract 2010 Jun 14;23(3):265-72. Epub 2010 Apr 14.

Office of Experiential Education, Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Omaha, NE, USA.

Objectives: To survey volunteer pharmacy preceptors regarding experiential education and determine whether differences in responses relate to such factors as geographic region, practice setting, and population density.

Methods: An online survey was sent to 4396 volunteer experiential preceptors. The survey consisted of 41 questions asking the preceptor to comment on the experiential education environment. Experiential education administrators from 9 schools of pharmacy administered the survey to their volunteer preceptors in all regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West) of the United States, in various pharmacy practice settings, and areas of differing population densities.

Results: A total of 1163 (26.5%) preceptors responded. Regionally, preceptors in the West disagreed more than those in the Midwest and the South that they had enough time to spend with students to provide a quality experience and also required compensation less often than their counterparts in the Northeast and South. Concerning practice settings, hospital preceptors accepted students from more schools, had greater increases in requests, turned away more students, and spent less time with the students compared to preceptors in other settings. Population density differences reflected that preceptors at urban sites took and turned away more students than those at rural sites. Preceptors from rural areas spent more time with students and felt they were spending enough time with their students to provide quality experiences when compared to other preceptors.

Conclusions: The results of this national volunteer preceptor survey may assist pharmacy school leaders in understanding how location, practice type, and population density affect experiential education, preceptor time-quality issues, and site compensation so they can take necessary actions to improve quality of student practice experiences.
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June 2010

A review of remediation programs in pharmacy and other health professions.

Am J Pharm Educ 2010 Mar;74(2):25

John and Rita Feik School of Pharmacy, University of the Incarnate Word, San Antonio, TX, USA.

The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) Accreditation Standards and Guidelines 2007 states that colleges and schools of pharmacy must have a remediation policy. Few comparative studies on remediation have been published by colleges and schools of pharmacy, making it challenging to implement effective and validated approaches. Effective remediation policies should include early detection of problems in academic performance, strategies to help students develop better approaches for academic success, and facilitation of self-directed learning. While the cost of remediation can be significant, revenues generated either cover or exceed the cost of delivering the remediation service. Additional research on remediation in pharmacy education across the United States and abroad is needed to make sound decisions in developing effective policies. This paper provides a review of current practices and recommendations for remediation in pharmacy and health care education.
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March 2010

National survey of volunteer pharmacy preceptors.

Am J Pharm Educ 2008 Oct;72(5):112

Creighton University School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, Nebraska 68178, USA.

Objectives: To survey pharmacy preceptors regarding experiential education and determine the implications of the findings on colleges and schools of pharmacy.

Methods: An online survey was sent to 4,396 experiential sites. The survey instrument consisted of 41 questions regarding the experiential education environment from the preceptor's perspective (eg, experiential load, time-quality issues, compensation, etc).

Results: One thousand one hundred sixty-three preceptors responded (26.5%) to the survey. Concerning experiential load, 73% took 2 or more students in the past year and almost half of the sites had to turn placements away. Nearly all preceptors felt that the more time they spent with students, the higher quality the experience, and 20% felt they didn't have enough time to provide a quality experience. Thirty-six percent of respondents chose monetary stipend as the form of compensation they valued most.

Conclusions: This study provides insights into the issues that concern volunteer preceptors and the findings could be used to enhance the quality of experiential education in pharmacy.
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October 2008