Publications by authors named "Philip J Clark"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Chronic modafinil administration to preadolescent rats impairs social play behavior and dopaminergic system.

Neuropharmacology 2021 02 13;183:108404. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica y Aplicada (CIBAP), Escuela de Medicina, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Chile. Electronic address:

Some clinical trials are investigating modafinil (Mod) as a treatment for attentional deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents. Mod increases dopamine (DA) levels in the reward system by blocking dopamine transporter (DAT). Social interactions are rewarding behaviors and evidence reveals the importance of reward circuitry in social interactions. Chronic psychostimulant treatments alter DA neurotransmission and associated behaviors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of chronic Mod treatment during preadolescence on social play behavior, locomotor activity, and DA in nucleus accumbens (NAc). Preadolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with Mod (75 mg/kg i.p.) or vehicle for 14 days (PND22 to PND35). After that, we measured social play behavior, content and DA release in NAc by HPLC coupled to electrochemical detection, protein levels of DA type 2 receptor (D) by Western blot and DA kinetic by fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in NAc. Regarding social play, the total number of pinning events decreased in the Mod group compared with the vehicle. The K-stimulated DA release in NAc was significantly lower in Mod-treated rats compared with vehicle group. Also, Mod increases locomotor activity at the first injection, but this effect is almost completely lost at day 14 of Mod treatment. Chronic Mod treatment during preadolescence in rats impairs dopaminergic neurotransmission in NAc and decreases the capacity of rats to perceive rewarding effects of social play. Importantly, as Mod is being evaluated to treat ADHD in children and adolescents, potential effects on social behavior should be considered since this kind of behavior in this particular stage is crucial for neurodevelopment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2020.108404DOI Listing
February 2021

Adult Human Glioblastomas Harbor Radial Glia-like Cells.

Stem Cell Reports 2020 02 30;14(2):338-350. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Radial glia (RG) cells are the first neural stem cells to appear during embryonic development. Adult human glioblastomas harbor a subpopulation of RG-like cells with typical RG morphology and markers. The cells exhibit the classic and unique mitotic behavior of normal RG in a cell-autonomous manner. Single-cell RNA sequencing analyses of glioblastoma cells reveal transcriptionally dynamic clusters of RG-like cells that share the profiles of normal human fetal radial glia and that reside in quiescent and cycling states. Functional assays show a role for interleukin in triggering exit from dormancy into active cycling, suggesting a role for inflammation in tumor progression. These data are consistent with the possibility of persistence of RG into adulthood and their involvement in tumor initiation or maintenance. They also provide a putative cellular basis for the persistence of normal developmental programs in adult tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7014025PMC
February 2020

Identification of a Novel Allosteric Modulator of the Human Dopamine Transporter.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2019 08 24;10(8):3718-3730. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology , Drexel University College of Medicine , Philadelphia , Pennsylvania 19102 , United States.

The dopamine transporter (DAT) serves a pivotal role in controlling dopamine (DA)-mediated neurotransmission by clearing DA from synaptic and perisynaptic spaces and controlling its action at postsynaptic DA receptors. Major drugs of abuse such as amphetamine and cocaine interact with DAT to mediate their effects by enhancing extracellular DA concentrations. We previously identified a novel allosteric site in the related human serotonin transporter that lies outside the central substrate and inhibitor binding pocket. We used the hybrid structure based (HSB) method to screen for allosteric modulator molecules that target a similar site in DAT. We identified a compound, KM822, that was found to be a selective, noncompetitive inhibitor of DAT. We confirmed the structural determinants of KM822 allosteric binding within the allosteric site by structure/function and substituted cysteine scanning accessibility biotinylation experiments. In the in vitro cell-based assay and ex vivo in both rat striatal synaptosomal and slice preparations, KM822 was found to decrease the affinity of cocaine for DAT. The in vivo effects of KM822 on cocaine were tested on psychostimulant-associated behaviors in a planarian model where KM822 specifically inhibited the locomotion elicited by DAT-interacting stimulants amphetamine and cocaine. Overall, KM822 provides a unique opportunity as a molecular probe to examine allosteric modulation of DAT function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6703927PMC
August 2019