Publications by authors named "Philip Adebayo"

43 Publications

Frequency and factors associated with post-stroke seizures in a large multicenter study in West Africa.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Aug 9;427:117535. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; Center for Genomic and Precision Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Post-stroke seizures (PSS) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality across the globe. There is a paucity of data on PSS in Africa.

Purpose: To assess the frequency and factors associated with PSS by stroke types across 15 hospitals in Nigeria and Ghana.

Methods: We analyzed data on all stroke cases recruited into the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN). We included adults aged ≥18 years with radiologically confirmed ischemic stroke (IS) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PSS were defined as acute symptomatic seizures occurring at stroke onset and/or during acute hospitalization up until discharge. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) with 95% Confidence Interval.

Results: Among 3344 stroke patients, 499 (14.9%) had PSS (95% CI: 13.7-16.2%). The mean duration of admission in days for those with PSS vs no PSS was 17.4 ± 28.6 vs 15.9 ± 24.7, p = 0.72. There were 294(14.1%) PSS among 2091 ischemic strokes and 159(17.7%) among 897 with ICH, p = 0.01. The factors associated with PSS occurrence were age < 50 years, aOR of 1.59 (1.08-2.33), National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS), 1.29 (1.16-1.42) for each 5 units rise and white cell count 1.07 (1.01-1.13) for each 10^3 mm rise. Factors associated with PSS in ischemic were NIHSS score, aOR of 1.17 (1.04-1.31) and infarct volume of 10-30 cm aOR of 2.17(1.37-3.45). Among ICH, associated factors were alcohol use 5.91 (2.11-16.55) and lobar bleeds 2.22 (1.03-4.82).

Conclusion: The burden of PSS among this sample of west Africans is substantial and may contribute to poor outcomes of stroke in this region. Further longitudinal studies are required to understand the impact on morbidity and mortality arising from PSS in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325635PMC
August 2021

Testicular torsion induced by epididymo-orchitis: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jun 26;83:106038. Epub 2021 May 26.

Consultant General and Laparoscopic Surgeon The Ag Khan Hospital Dar Es Salaam Tanzania, Aga Khan University Medical college East Africa, United Republic of Tanzania. Electronic address:

Introduction And Importance: Acute scrotum is considered a urological emergency requiring early intervention depending on the cause. There are multiple causes of acute scrotum with testicular torsion being the most feared as delayed treatment leads to testicular loss. However, differentiating between epididymo-orchitis and torsion can be very difficult.

Case Presentation: We present a case of an 18-year old male patient with 2 separate episodes of acute scrotum. He had epididymo-orchitis as the first presentation followed by testicular torsion 5 days later. To our knowledge this is the first case of testicular torsion secondary to epididymo-orchitis.

Clinical Discussion: Differentiating between epididymo-orchitis and torsion is challenging but important due to risk of loss of testis with a wrong diagnosis. Once you establish epididymo-orchitis the suspicion for subsequent torsion should be high with close follow up and adequate counselling.

Conclusion: He ultimately had orchiectomy, although a rare presentation, enlarged testis due to epididymo-orchitis can predispose an individual to developing testicular torsion thus adequate counselling on warning signs to patients with epididymo-orchitis is of particular importance so as to intervene early and ultimately save the testis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2021.106038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8178082PMC
June 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205458PMC
June 2021

COVID-19 and stroke in sub-Saharan Africa: case series from Dar es Salaam.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 3;35(Suppl 2):100. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Neurosurgery Section, Department of Surgery, Aga Khan Hospital, Dar es Salaam.

Low and middle-income countries including those in sub-Saharan (SSA) Africa are experiencing a steady increase in the number of COVID-19 cases. To the best of our knowledge, reports of COVID-19 related strokes are scarce in SSA. The peculiar situation of stroke care in SSA makes COVID-19 associated stroke a bothersome entity as it adds other dynamics that tilt the prognostic balance. We present a case series of COVID -19 related stroke in 3 patients from Tanzania. We emphasized protected code stroke protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.24611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880116PMC
March 2021

F-wave parameters and body mass index in carpal tunnel syndrome.

Brain Behav 2021 04 15;11(4):e02072. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratory, Aga Khan Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background: Severe carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) readily lends itself to both clinical and electrophysiological recognition. The uncertainty sometimes is in identifying and quantifying motor involvement in mild and, perhaps, in moderate CTS. Our study aimed to evaluate F responses in mild and moderate CTS and determine the contribution of BMI to the F-wave parameters.

Methods: A retrospective review of the clinical and electrophysiological data of patients with CTS seen at the clinical neurophysiology laboratory of Aga Khan Hospital, Dar es Salaam, between 1 August 2017 and 31 July 2019 was retrieved. Carpal tunnel syndrome was graded according to the electrophysiological criteria of Padua. The F-wave parameters of patients with mild-to-moderate CTS were analyzed and compared with asymptomatic controls.

Result: We studied 91 hands. Twenty-two hands were asymptomatic controls, 30 hands had mild CTS, and 39 hands had moderate CTS. Patients with moderate CTS were more obese (p =.011), had more females (p =.044), and were older (p= <0.001). F-wave parameters were not convincingly different between mild and moderate CTS. F-wave chronodispersion (p =.035) and F-wave persistence (0.019) were significantly different between nonobese control and mild and moderate CTS. Median-ulnar F-wave latency difference (FWLD) was significant between obese patients with mild CTS and moderate CTS scores (p =.017).

Conclusion: Although a clear difference exists between F-wave parameters in asymptomatic controls and those with CTS, the F-wave study is inadequate in distinguishing mild and moderate CTS even in the context of BMI. Median-ulnar F-wave latency difference (FWLD) appeared to be a promising discriminant parameter between obese patients with mild CTS and those with moderate CTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035476PMC
April 2021

COVID-19 and Teleneurology in Sub-Saharan Africa: Leveraging the Current Exigency.

Front Public Health 2020 25;8:574505. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Neurology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Africa has over 1.3 billion inhabitants, with over 60% of this population residing in rural areas that have poor access to medical experts. Despite having a ridiculously huge, underserved population, very few African countries currently have any form of sustained and organized telemedicine practice, and even fewer have dedicated tele-neurology services. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has proved to be one of the most significant disruptors of vital sectors of human endeavor in modern times. In the healthcare sector, there is an increasing advocacy to deliver non-urgent care telemedicine. This paper examined the current state of tele-neurology practice and infrastructural preparedness in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, there is over 70% mobile phone penetration in most of the countries and virtually all of them have mobile internet services of different technologies and generations. Although the needed infrastructure is increasingly available, it should be improved upon. We have proposed the access, costs, ethics, and support (ACES) model as a bespoke, holistic strategy for the successful implementation and advancement of tele-neurology in sub-Saharan Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.574505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868436PMC
February 2021

The changing trend of teleconsultations during COVID-19 era at a tertiary facility in Tanzania.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 28;35(Suppl 2):125. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Dar es Salaam.

Introduction: the current COVID-19 pandemic has occasioned the increased adoption of telemedicine. This study reports the uptake and trend of a new teleconsultation service in a Tanzanian hospital.

Methods: this is a retrospective observational study that profiled requests for teleconsultations and uptake of the service between April 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020.

Results: two hundred and eighteen telephone inquiries were received over the 3 months. One hundred and sixteen (53.2%) individuals followed through with the teleconsultations. Paediatric (38.8%) and Internal medicine (32.8%) were the subspecialties with the highest number of teleconsultations. In a frame of 3 months, teleconsultation uptake was highest in May and lowest in June.

Conclusion: there was a steady rise and a rapid fall in requests and uptake of teleconsultation services over the period under evaluation. Lack of insurance coverage for teleconsultations was a significant barrier. We propose a re-education and reiteration of the benefits of telemedicine to all stakeholders. This is important for the current era and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.2.24977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687499PMC
December 2020

Furrowed tongue, fatten lip and facial droop.

Pan Afr Med J 2020;36:325. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Neurology Section, Department of Medicine, Aga Khan University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2020.36.325.25052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7603815PMC
March 2021

Inadvertent Stone Migration During Pneumatic Lithotripsy: Still a Conundrum in the 21st Century.

Cureus 2020 Sep 18;12(9):e10521. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Surgery, The Aga Khan University, Dar Es Salaam, TZA.

Currently, an ideal gadget to stop retrograde stone migration remains a holy grail, and the hunt for such a device is still ongoing in the 21st century. The quest for an ideal instrument is driven by the need to reduce cost, minimize ancillary procedure rates, reduce the device's operative time, and improve the stone-free rate. The purpose of the present review is to provide an update on the use of preventive measures that are used to stop retrograde stone migration during pneumatic lithotripsy for ureteric stone management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.10521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574817PMC
September 2020

Post-Vaccination Pharyngeal-Cervical-Brachial Variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

Cureus 2020 Aug 17;12(8):e9804. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Neurology, Aga Khan University, Dar es Salaam, TZA.

The pharyngeal-cervical-brachial (PCB) variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is very rare. It is characterized by weakness of the upper extremities associated with bulbar symptoms and facial diplegia. Documented cases were post-infectious, a post-vaccination occurrence has not been documented in the available literature. Even rarer is the occurrence of any variant of GBS following the mumps measles rubella (MMR) vaccine. The neurophysiological hallmark of PCB variant of GBS is a combination of myelinopathy and axonopathy, hence, its consideration as a subtype of the acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) variant. It should be suspected in any case of acute-onset flaccid symmetrical weakness of the upper extremities, as early diagnosis and treatment are key to preventing fatal bulbar weakness. Here we report a case of a middle-aged man, who presented with features of PCB a fortnight after being vaccinated for MMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494422PMC
August 2020

Out-patient neurological disorders in Tanzania: Experience from a private institution in Dar es Salaam.

eNeurologicalSci 2020 Sep 6;20:100262. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Neurology Section, Aga Khan Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Background And Introduction: Low and middle-income countries (LMIC) have a considerable burden of neurological disorders. Available profile of neurological disorders in our environment is biased towards neurological admissions. There is a paucity of data on out-patient neurological conditions in sub-Saharan Africa.

Objective: To determine the frequency and demographic data of neurological illnesses being managed at the adult out-patient neurology clinic of the Aga Khan Hospital, Dar es Salaam (AKHD).

Materials And Methods: The electronic medical records of all cases with neurological diseases who presented to the adult neurology clinic of the AKHD between January 2018, and December 2019 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Neurological disorders are categorized according to the international classification of diseases version-11(ICD-11).

Results: Of the 1186 patients seen in a period of 2 years, there were 597 (50.4%) females and 588(49.6%) males, with median age (IQR) of 38 (30.0-52.0) and 42 (33.0-54.5) years respectively ( = 0.001). Headache disorders (27.0%); disorders of the nerve root, plexus or peripheral nerves (23.4%); epilepsy (9.3%), cerebrovascular disorders (8.9%); movement disorders (3.6%) and disorders of cognition (3.5%) were the primary neurological conditions encountered. Musculoskeletal disorders (7.5%) and mental/behavioral disorders (5.4%) were other conditions seen in the clinic.

Conclusion: The pattern of neurological disorders in this cohort mirrors that of high-income countries. However, the manpower to tackle these conditions pales in comparison. Increasing the neurology workforce and paying extra attention to non-communicable disorders in SSA is advocated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ensci.2020.100262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7417890PMC
September 2020

Relationship Between Obesity and Severity of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in Tanzania.

Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2020 12 13;18(10):485-492. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common focal mononeuropathy in the general population, and obesity is one of its established independent risk factors The prevalence of obesity in CTS patients and its association with CTS severity are yet to be fully studied among Tanzanians. In this study, we determined the frequency of obesity in patients with CTS and its relationship with the electrophysiological severity of CTS in a Tanzanian private tertiary level hospital. This is a retrospective observational and analytical study of patients referred for electrodiagnostic (EDX) evaluation of suspected CTS at the clinical neurophysiology laboratory of the Aga Khan Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. All EDX studies done for CTS indications between August 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019, were reviewed. The frequency of CTS patients with obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m) and overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m) was determined. Next, we explored the relationship between obesity and the electrophysiologic severity of CTS. One-hundred nine hands were studied. The prevalence of obesity was 50.5% and overweight was 31.2%. Females were significantly more obese than males ( = 0.001). Many of the EDX parameters that defined CTS, including prolonged median nerve sensory and distal motor latencies as well as sensory conduction velocity, were significantly more abnormal in the obese when compared to the nonobese patients. On univariate analysis, severe CTS (stage 5) was commoner among nonobese patients ( = 0.031), while moderate CTS (stage3) was more prevalent among obese patients ( < 0.001). Multivariate regression analysis, however, revealed no effect of obesity on CTS severity ( = 0.490). Obesity and overweight are prevalent among this cohort with CTS, but did not predict severe CTS. The use of other indices of adiposity may show a trend.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/met.2020.0062DOI Listing
December 2020

Conceptual framework for establishing the African Stroke Organization.

Int J Stroke 2021 01 6;16(1):93-99. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.

Africa is the world's most genetically diverse, second largest, and second most populous continent, with over one billion people distributed across 54 countries. With a 23% lifetime risk of stroke, Africa has some of the highest rates of stroke worldwide and many occur in the prime of life with huge economic losses and grave implications for the individual, family, and the society in terms of mental capital, productivity, and socioeconomic progress. Tackling the escalating burden of stroke in Africa requires prioritized, multipronged, and inter-sectoral strategies tailored to the unique African epidemiological, cultural, socioeconomic, and lifestyle landscape. The African Stroke Organization (ASO) is a new pan-African coalition that brings together stroke researchers, clinicians, and other health-care professionals with participation of national and regional stroke societies and stroke support organizations. With a vision to reduce the rapidly increasing burden of stroke in Africa, the ASO has a four-pronged focus on (1) research, (2) capacity building, (3) development of stroke services, and (4) collaboration with all stakeholders. This will be delivered through advocacy, awareness, and empowerment initiatives to bring about people-focused changes in policy, clinical practice, and public education. In the spirit of the " the ASO will harness the power of diversity, inclusiveness, togetherness, and team work to build a strong, enduring, and impactful platform for tackling stroke in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493019897871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006214PMC
January 2021

Menstrual-Related Headaches Among a Cohort of African Adolescent Girls.

J Pain Res 2020 16;13:143-150. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Introduction: Migraine attacks associated with menstruation are generally perceived as more severe than attacks outside this period.

Aim And Objective: The study aimed at determining the frequency of menstrual-related headaches among a cohort of senior secondary school girls in Abeokuta, Nigeria. We also determined its burden among these school girls.

Methodology: This study was cross-sectional using a validated adolescent headache survey questionnaire. A self-administration of the instrument was done during a school visit. A headache was classified using the ICHD-II criteria.

Results: Of the 183 students interviewed, 123(67.2%) had recurrent headaches. Mean age ±SD, 16.18±1.55 (range 12-19). The prevalence of definite migraine was 17.5% while the prevalence of probable migraine was 6.0%. The prevalence of tension-type headache was 41.0%. Migraine was significantly menstrual-related (p=0.001, 95% CI=1.06-6.63). Median pain severity score was higher among MRH group (p=0.043). The median number of days of reduced productivity and missed social activities was significantly higher in the MRH group; p= 0.001 and p=0.03, respectively. Subjects with MRH were more incapacitated by their headaches (p= 0.003).

Conclusion: Menstrually related headache is prevalent even among the adolescent and it has adversely affected their productivity and social life. Care of adolescent with headaches should be intensified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S207620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6970628PMC
January 2020

RE: Electrodiagnostic consultations in Zambia: Referral characteristics and neuromuscular disorders.

J Neurol Sci 2020 01 4;408:116561. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Nigeria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2019.116561DOI Listing
January 2020

Differential Impact of Risk Factors on Stroke Occurrence Among Men Versus Women in West Africa.

Stroke 2019 04;50(4):820-827

Centre for Genomic and Precision Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria (R.A., A.A., M.O.).

Background and Purpose- The interplay between sex and the dominant risk factors for stroke occurrence in sub-Saharan Africa has not been clearly delineated. We compared the effect sizes of risk factors of stroke by sex among West Africans. Methods- SIREN study (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Networks) is a case-control study conducted at 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases were adults aged >18 years with computerized tomography/magnetic resonance imaging confirmed stroke, and controls were age- and sex-matched stroke-free adults. Comprehensive evaluation for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was performed using validated tools. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios and reported risk factor specific and composite population attributable risks with 95% CIs. Results- Of the 2118 stroke cases, 1193 (56.3%) were males. The mean±SD age of males was 58.1±13.2 versus 60.15±14.53 years among females. Shared modifiable risk factors for stroke with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) among females versus males, respectively, were hypertension [29.95 (12.49-71.77) versus 16.1 0(9.19-28.19)], dyslipidemia [2.08 (1.42-3.06) versus 1.83 (1.29-2.59)], diabetes mellitus [3.18 (2.11-4.78) versus 2.19 (1.53-3.15)], stress [2.34 (1.48-3.67) versus 1.61 (1.07-2.43)], and low consumption of green leafy vegetables [2.92 (1.89-4.50) versus 2.00 (1.33-3.00)]. However, salt intake and income were significantly different between males and females. Six modifiable factors had a combined population attributable risk of 99.1% (98.3%-99.6%) among females with 9 factors accounting for 97.2% (94.9%-98.7%) among males. Hemorrhagic stroke was more common among males (36.0%) than among females (27.6%), but stroke was less severe among males than females. Conclusions- Overall, risk factors for stroke occurrence are commonly shared by both sexes in West Africa favoring concerted interventions for stroke prevention in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.022786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433514PMC
April 2019

EMG indications and findings in a sub-Saharan African neurorehabilitation center.

Clin Neurophysiol Pract 2018 7;3:99-103. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

Blossom Medical Centre/WFNR Centre for Neuro-rehabilitation, Nigeria.

Objective: This study aims to assess the frequency and indication for electrodiagnostic referrals as well as to summarize the findings from the procedure at a neurorehabilitation center in Ibadan, Nigeria.

Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Data from referrals to Blossom Medical Centre/World Federation for Neurorehabilitation (BMC/WFNR) center, Ibadan, Nigeria, from April 2014 to December 2016 were collated and analyzed.

Results: Sixty referrals were received during the period of evaluation. Neurologists referred most of the patients (47; 71.7%). Disorders of the peripheral nerves were the most frequent reasons for electromyography (EMG), and they were the most common electrodiagnosis with better classified into axonal and demyelinating types. The overall congruence between the suspected diagnosis and final diagnosis was 58.3%. Requests by neurologists were significantly more appropriate than those by other specialists (p value = 0.02).

Conclusion: Polyneuropathy, entrapment neuropathy, and disorders of the motor nerve root and plexus were the most common reasons for electrodiagnostic requests, and the majority of the referrals were from neurologists.

Significance: EMG has changed the approach towards the diagnosis and management of neuromuscular disorders in Nigeria. It is hoped that with more neurophysiology education in this environment, neurophysiological practice will become widely available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cnp.2018.02.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6133910PMC
April 2018

Knowledge, attitudes and practices of West Africans on genetic studies of stroke: Evidence from the SIREN Study.

Int J Stroke 2019 01 24;14(1):69-79. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

7 Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: It is crucial to assess genomic literacy related to stroke among Africans in preparation for the ethical, legal and societal implications of the genetic revolution which has begun in Africa.

Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of West Africans about stroke genetic studies.

Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among stroke patients and stroke-free controls recruited across 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Participants' knowledge of heritability of stroke, willingness to undergo genetic testing and perception of the potential benefits of stroke genetic research were assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive, frequency distribution and multiple regression analyses were performed.

Results: Only 49% of 2029 stroke patients and 57% of 2603 stroke-free individuals knew that stroke was a heritable disorder. Among those who knew, 90% were willing to undergo genetic testing. Knowledge of stroke heritability was associated with having at least post-secondary education (OR 1.51, 1.25-1.81) and a family history of stroke (OR 1.20, 1.03-1.39) while Islamic religion (OR=0.82, CI: 0.72-0.94), being currently unmarried (OR = 0.81, CI: 0.70-0.92), and alcohol use (OR = 0.78, CI: 0.67-0.91) were associated with lower odds of awareness of stroke as a heritable disorder. Willingness to undergo genetic testing for stroke was associated with having a family history of stroke (OR 1.34, 1.03-1.74) but inversely associated with a medical history of high blood pressure (OR = 0.79, 0.65-0.96).

Conclusion: To further improve knowledge of stroke heritability and willingness to embrace genetic testing for stroke, individuals with less formal education, history of high blood pressure and no family history of stroke require targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493018790059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325169PMC
January 2019

Biobanking in a Challenging African Environment: Unique Experience from the SIREN Project.

Biopreserv Biobank 2018 Jun 7;16(3):217-232. Epub 2018 May 7.

Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Center, Umuahia, Nigeria.

Africa was previously insufficiently represented in the emerging discipline of biobanking despite commendable early efforts. However, with the Human, Heredity, and Health in Africa (H3Africa) initiative, biorepository science has been bolstered, regional biobanks are springing up, and awareness about biobanks is growing on the continent. The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) project is a transnational, multicenter, hospital and community-based study involving over 3000 cases and 3000 controls recruited from 16 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. SIREN aims to explore and unravel the genetic and environmental factors that interact to produce the peculiar phenotypic and clinical characteristics of stroke as seen in people of African ancestry and facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and preventative strategies. The aim of this article is to describe our experience with the development of the procedure for collection, processing, storage, and shipment of biological samples (blood, serum, plasma, buffy coat, red cell concentrates, and DNA) and brain imaging across coordinating and participating sites within the SIREN Project. The SIREN network was initiated in 2014 with support and funding from the H3Africa Initiative. The SIREN Biobank currently has 3015 brain images, 92,950 blood fractions (serum, plasma, red cell concentrates, and buffy coat) accrued from 8450 recruited subjects, and quantified and aliquoted good-quality DNA extracts from 6150 study subjects. This represents an invaluable resource for future research with expanding genomic and trans-omic technologies. This will facilitate the involvement of indigenous African samples in cutting-edge stroke genomics and trans-omics research. It is, however, critical to effectively engage African stroke patients and community members who have contributed precious biological materials to the SIREN Biobank to generate appropriate evidence base for dealing with ethical, legal, and social issues of privacy, autonomy, identifiability, biorights, governance issues, and public understanding of stroke biobanking in the context of unique African culture, language, and belief systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bio.2017.0113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5995267PMC
June 2018

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and Other Entrapment Neuropathies.

Oman Med J 2017 Nov;32(6):449-454

Department of Surgery, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Entrapment neuropathy is the result of pressure on a peripheral nerve as it passes through a narrow canal that is bounded by stiff tissues. In spite of their ubiquitous nature, they are underdiagnosed, underreported, and sometimes not properly managed, especially in developing countries. Entrapment neuropathies are of various types, but the most common type is carpal tunnel syndrome. Mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of entrapment neuropathies include mechanical compression and nerve ischemia. A clear understanding of the various types and the underlying mechanisms of entrapment neuropathies are invaluable in the decision-making process involved in the management of every patient with the condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2017.87DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5702987PMC
November 2017

Erectile Dysfunction in Men with and without Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Nigeria.

World J Mens Health 2017 Aug;35(2):107-114

Department of Medicine, Latoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.

Purpose: Much attention has been focused in recent decades on the effects of erectile dysfunction (ED) secondary to lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), potentially underestimating its effects in men without LUTS. This study aimed to compare the prevalence and predictors of ED in men with and without LUTS.

Materials And Methods: The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire was administered to 303 patients between January 2014 and June 2016. Within this sample, 147 patients with LUTS (cases) were compared to 156 men without LUTS who were matched for age, level of education, and occupation (controls).

Results: The mean age was 66.03±9.64 years and 65.78±8.61 years for the cases and controls, respectively. The prevalence of ED was 64.6% and 73.7% (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94~2.51) in the case cohort and controls, respectively (p=0.086). There was no difference in the prevalence of impaired erectile function (p=0.067), impaired orgasmic function (p=0.108), impaired sexual desire (p=0.291), impaired intercourse satisfaction (p=0.869), or impaired overall satisfaction (p=0.191). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that being currently employed was a significant predictor of ED both in men with LUTS (OR, 8.08; 95% CI, 1.51~9.27; p=0.004) and in men without LUTS (OR, 7.00; 95% CI, 1.49~14.51; p=0.008). Being married only predicted for impaired EF in men without LUTS (OR, 6.34; 95% CI, 1.40~15.20; p<0.05).

Conclusions: ED was not found to be more prevalent in men with LUTS. Being employed was a predictor of ED in both groups of men, while being married was also a predictor of ED in men without LUTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5534/wjmh.2017.35.2.107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5583367PMC
August 2017

Development and Reliability of a User-Friendly Multicenter Phenotyping Application for Hemorrhagic and Ischemic Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2017 Nov 29;26(11):2662-2670. Epub 2017 Jul 29.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Annotation and Image Markup on ClearCanvas Enriched Stroke-phenotyping Software (ACCESS) is a novel stand-alone computer software application that allows the creation of simple standardized annotations for reporting brain images of all stroke types. We developed the ACCESS application and determined its inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study to assess its suitability for multicenter studies.

Methods: One hundred randomly selected stroke imaging reports from 5 SIREN sites were re-evaluated by 4 trained independent raters to determine the inter-rater reliability of the ACCESS (version 12.0) software for stroke phenotyping. To determine intra-rater reliability, 6 raters reviewed the same cases previously reported by them after a month of interval. Ischemic stroke was classified using the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP), Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST), and Atherosclerosis, Small-vessel disease, Cardiac source, Other cause (ASCO) protocols, while hemorrhagic stroke was classified using the Structural lesion, Medication, Amyloid angiopathy, Systemic disease, Hypertensive angiopathy and Undetermined (SMASH-U) protocol in ACCESS. Agreement among raters was measured with Cohen's kappa statistics.

Results: For primary stroke type, inter-rater agreement was .98 (95% confidence interval [CI], .94-1.00), while intra-rater agreement was 1.00 (95% CI, 1.00). For OCSP subtypes, inter-rater agreement was .97 (95% CI, .92-1.00) for the partial anterior circulation infarcts, .92 (95% CI, .76-1.00) for the total anterior circulation infarcts, and excellent for both lacunar infarcts and posterior circulation infarcts. Intra-rater agreement was .97 (.90-1.00), while inter-rater agreement was .93 (95% CI, .84-1.00) for TOAST subtypes. Inter-rater agreement ranged between .78 (cardioembolic) and .91 (large artery atherosclerotic) for ASCO subtypes and was .80 (95% CI, .56-1.00) for SMASH-U subtypes.

Conclusion: The ACCESS application facilitates a concordant and reproducible classification of stroke subtypes by multiple investigators, making it suitable for clinical use and multicenter research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.06.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5624839PMC
November 2017

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) rs1800796 and cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKN2A/CDKN2B) rs2383207 are associated with ischemic stroke in indigenous West African Men.

J Neurol Sci 2017 Aug 23;379:229-235. Epub 2017 May 23.

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; WFNR-Blossom Specialist Medical Center Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Inherited genetic variations offer a possible explanation for the observed peculiarities of stroke in sub - Saharan African populations. Interleukin-6 polymorphisms have been previously associated with ischemic stroke in some non-African populations.

Aim: Herein we investigated, for the first time, the association of genetic polymorphisms of IL-6, CDKN2A- CDKN2B and other genes with ischemic stroke among indigenous West African participants in the Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network (SIREN) Study.

Methods: Twenty-three previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes of relevance to the neurobiology of ischemic stroke were investigated. Logistic regression models adjusting for known cardiovascular disease risk factors were constructed to assess the associations of the 23 SNPs in rigorously phenotyped cases (N=429) of ischemic stroke (Men=198; Women=231) and stroke- free (N=483) controls (Men=236; Women=247).

Results: Interleukin-6 (IL6) rs1800796 (C minor allele; frequency: West Africans=8.6%) was significantly associated with ischemic stroke in men (OR=2.006, 95% CI=[1.065, 3.777], p=0.031) with hypertension in the model but not in women. In addition, rs2383207 in CDKN2A/CDKN2B (minor allele A with frequency: West Africans=1.7%) was also associated with ischemic stroke in men (OR=2.550, 95% CI=[1.027, 6.331], p=0.044) with primary covariates in the model, but not in women. Polymorphisms in other genes did not show significant association with ischemic stroke.

Conclusion: Polymorphisms rs1800796 in IL6 gene and rs2383207 in CDKN2A/CDKN2B gene have significant associations with ischemic stroke in indigenous West African men. CDKN2A/CDKN2B SNP rs2383207 is independently associated with ischemic stroke in indigenous West African men. Further research should focus on the contributions of inflammatory genes and other genetic polymorphisms, as well as the influence of sex on the neurobiology of stroke in people of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2017.05.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5546618PMC
August 2017

Patients' feelings about the presence of medical students in a New Teaching Hospital in Southwestern Nigeria.

Educ Health (Abingdon) 2016 Sep-Dec;29(3):210-216

Department of Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology and Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate how patients feel about the introduction of medical students into a former general hospital transformed to a teaching hospital in southwestern Nigeria and to also assess the extent to which they are willing to involve medical students in the management of their conditions.

Methods: In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a sample of 251 randomly selected patients were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire that assessed patients' demography, patients' acceptance of and reaction to the involvement of medical students in their clinical care including the specific procedures the patients would allow medical students to perform.

Results: Two hundred and fifty-one patients with mean age ± standard deviation of 37.33 ± 19.01 (age range = 16-120 years; M:F = 1:1.26) were recruited between January 01 and March 31, 2013. Most patients (86.5%) preferred to be treated in a teaching hospital and were comfortable with medical students as observers (83.7%) and serving as the doctors' assistant (83.3%) during common diagnostic procedures. Men were more willing to have invasive procedures such as insertion of urinary catheter (56.6% vs. 43.4%, P = 0.001). Acceptability of medical students (such as willingness of patients to have students read their medical notes) was significantly higher in nonsurgical specialties than in surgical specialties (77.5% vs. 22.5%, P< 0.001). Factors associated with a positive disposition include age> 40 years, male gender, and higher level of education as well as consultation in nonsurgical specialties (P = 0.001).

Discussion: Medical students are well received into this new teaching hospital setting. However, there is a need for more education of younger, less educated female patients of surgical subspecialties so that they can understand their importance as irreplaceable partners in the training of medical students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1357-6283.204222DOI Listing
September 2017

Stroke in Indigenous Africans, African Americans, and European Americans: Interplay of Racial and Geographic Factors.

Stroke 2017 05 7;48(5):1169-1175. Epub 2017 Apr 7.

From the Department of Medicine (M.O., E.M.) and Department of Radiology (G.O.), University of Ibadan, Nigeria; Department of Medicine, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana (F.S.); Department of Epidemiology (V.J.H., M.R.I.) and Department of Biostatistics (A.B., H.K.T., G.H.), University of Alabama at Birmingham; Department of Public Health Sciences (M.G.), Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Sciences (K.A.), Department of Neurology (R.S., D.T.L., B.O.), and Department of Nursing (C.J.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria (R.A.); Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, University of Ghana, Accra (A.A., R.L.); Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin, Nigeria (K.W.W.); Department of Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Nigeria (L.O.); Department of Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, Nigeria (B.F., M.K.); Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria (R.O.); Department of Internal Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria (P.A.); Department of Neurology, Columbia University, New York (J.M.M.); and College of Public Health, University of Kentucky at Lexington (D.K.A.).

Background And Purpose: The relative contributions of racial and geographic factors to higher risk of stroke in people of African ancestry have not been unraveled. We compared stroke type and contributions of vascular risk factors among indigenous Africans (IA), African Americans (AA), and European Americans (EA).

Methods: SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network) is a large multinational case-control study in West Africa-the ancestral home of 71% AA-whereas REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) is a cohort study including AA and EA in the United States. Using harmonized assessments and standard definitions, we compared data on stroke type and established risk factors for stroke in acute stroke cases aged ≥55 years in both studies.

Results: There were 811 IA, 452 AA, and 665 EA stroke subjects, with mean age of 68.0±9.3, 73.0±8.3, and 76.0±8.3 years, respectively (<0.0001). Hemorrhagic stroke was more frequent among IA (27%) compared with AA (8%) and EA (5.4%; <0.001). Lacunar strokes were more prevalent in IA (47.1%), followed by AA (35.1%) and then EA (21.0%; <0.0001). The frequency of hypertension in decreasing order was IA (92.8%), followed by AA (82.5%) and then EA (64.2%; <0.0001) and similarly for diabetes mellitus IA (38.3%), AA (36.8%), and EA (21.0%; <0.0001). Premorbid sedentary lifestyle was similar in AA (37.7%) and EA (34.0%) but lower frequency in IA (8.0%).

Conclusions: Environmental risk factors such as sedentary lifestyle may contribute to the higher proportion of ischemic stroke in AA compared with IA, whereas racial factors may contribute to the higher proportion of hypertension and diabetes mellitus among stroke subjects of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.116.015937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5404953PMC
May 2017

Prevalence and Prognostic Features of ECG Abnormalities in Acute Stroke: Findings From the SIREN Study Among Africans.

Glob Heart 2017 06 14;12(2):99-105. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

University of Ghana Medical School, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Africa has a growing burden of stroke with associated high morbidity and a 3-year fatality rate of 84%. Cardiac disease contributes to stroke occurrence and outcomes, but the precise relationship of abnormalities as noted on a cheap and widely available test, the electrocardiogram (ECG), and acute stroke outcomes have not been previously characterized in Africans.

Objectives: The study assessed the prevalence and prognoses of various ECG abnormalities among African acute stroke patients encountered in a multisite, cross-national epidemiologic study.

Methods: We included 890 patients from Nigeria and Ghana with acute stroke who had 12-lead ECG recording within first 24 h of admission and stroke classified based on brain computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging. Stroke severity at baseline was assessed using the Stroke Levity Scale (SLS), whereas 1-month outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS).

Results: Patients' mean age was 58.4 ± 13.4 years, 490 were men (55%) and 400 were women (45%), 65.5% had ischemic stroke, and 85.4% had at least 1 ECG abnormality. Women were significantly more likely to have atrial fibrillation, or left ventricular hypertrophy with or without strain pattern. Compared to ischemic stroke patients, hemorrhagic stroke patients were less likely to have atrial fibrillation (1.0% vs. 6.7%; p = 0.002), but more likely to have left ventricular hypertrophy (64.4% vs. 51.4%; p = 0.004). Odds of severe disability or death at 1 month were higher with severe stroke (AOR: 2.25; 95% confidence interval: 1.44 to 3.50), or atrial enlargement (AOR: 1.45; 95% confidence interval: 1.04 to 2.02).

Conclusions: About 4 in 5 acute stroke patients in this African cohort had evidence of a baseline ECG abnormality, but presence of any atrial enlargement was the only independent ECG predictor of death or disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2017.01.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5582979PMC
June 2017

Exploring Overlaps Between the Genomic and Environmental Determinants of LVH and Stroke: A Multicenter Study in West Africa.

Glob Heart 2017 06 13;12(2):107-113.e5. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Whether left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is determined by similar genomic and environmental risk factors with stroke, or is simply an intermediate stroke marker, is unknown.

Objectives: We present a research plan and preliminary findings to explore the overlap in the genomic and environmental determinants of LVH and stroke among Africans participating in the SIREN (Stroke Investigative Research and Education Network) study.

Methods: SIREN is a transnational, multicenter study involving acute stroke patients and age-, ethnicity-, and sex-matched control subjects recruited from 9 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Genomic and environmental risk factors and other relevant phenotypes for stroke and LVH are being collected and compared using standard techniques.

Results: This preliminary analysis included only 725 stroke patients (mean age 59.1 ± 13.2 years; 54.3% male). Fifty-five percent of the stroke subjects had LVH with greater proportion among women (51.6% vs. 48.4%; p < 0.001). Those with LVH were younger (57.9 ± 12.8 vs. 60.6 ± 13.4; p = 0.006) and had higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure (167.1/99.5 mm Hg vs 151.7/90.6 mm Hg; p < 0.001). Uncontrolled blood pressure at presentation was prevalent in subjects with LVH (76.2% vs. 57.7%; p < 0.001). Significant independent predictors of LVH were age <45 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14 to 3.19), female sex (AOR: 2.01; 95% CI: 1.44 to 2.81), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mm Hg (AOR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.39 to 3.19; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The prevalence of LVH was high among stroke patients especially the younger ones, suggesting a genetic component to LVH. Hypertension was a major modifiable risk factor for stroke as well as LVH. It is envisaged that the SIREN project will elucidate polygenic overlap (if present) between LVH and stroke among Africans, thereby defining the role of LVH as a putative intermediate cardiovascular phenotype and therapeutic target to inform interventions to reduce stroke risk in populations of African ancestry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gheart.2017.01.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5583025PMC
June 2017

Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome in a Nigerian.

Epilepsy Behav Case Rep 2017 15;7:10-12. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria.

Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome (DDMS) is a rare, but important cause of drug-resistant seizures. Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome is a constellation of clinical features that consists of hemiparesis, seizure, facial asymmetry, and intellectual disability with distinct neuroimaging features. A 27-year-old lady presented to us with drug-resistant epilepsy, hemiparesis, and intellectual disability that necessitated her withdrawal from school. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral hemiatrophy, calvarial thickening, and hyperpneumatization of the frontal sinuses consistent with DDMS. We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of DDMS and advocate early referral and evaluation of people with epilepsy in sub-Saharan African settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebcr.2016.09.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5199153PMC
September 2016

Comparison of Neuropsychological Patterns in Nigerians with different Heart Failure Phenotypes.

Arch Clin Neuropsychol 2017 May;32(3):280-288

Departments of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of left ventricular dysfunction type on the pattern of neuropsychological dysfunctions among heart failure (HF) subjects.

Method: A sub-analysis of the data of subjects recruited in a cross-sectional survey of cognitive dysfunction among Nigerians with HF was performed. Cognitive performance on the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSI'D), Word List Learning Delayed Recall (WLLDR), Boston Naming Test (BNT), and Modified Token Test (MTT) were compared between heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Clinical and echocardiographic correlation analysis with cognitive performance was performed.

Results: Subjects with HFpEF were impaired on the WLLDR (71.4% vs. 34.6%, p = .026). The group with HFpEF scored lower on the language domain (definition subscale) of CSI'D (p = .036), and WLLDR (p = .005). The performance on the MTT (p = .185) and BNT (p = .923) were comparable between the two groups. An inverse relationship was found between pulse pressure and delay recall (r = -.565 p = .003) among the cohort with HFpEF whereas body mass index, BMI (r = -.737, p = .023) and tricuspid valve E/A ratio, TVEA (r = -.650, p = .042) showed an inverse relationship with the total CSI'D score in the cohort with HFrEF.

Conclusions: Cognitive dysfunction is largely similar between the two groups. Delay recall is however poorer among subjects with HFpEF. Regular cognitive screening is advocated among HF subjects to prevent non-adherence with therapeutic options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/arclin/acw113DOI Listing
May 2017

Profile and Determinants of Neurocognitive Dysfunction in a Sample of Adult Nigerians With Heart Failure.

J Cardiovasc Nurs 2016 Nov/Dec;31(6):535-544

Philip Babatunde Adebayo, FWACP Consultant Neurologist, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo; and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoşo, Nigeria. Adeseye Abiodun Akintunde, FMCP, FWACP Consultant Cardiologist, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo; and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoşo, Nigeria. Morenike Bosede Audu, MBBS Registrar in Neurology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoşo, Nigeria. Olugbenga Edward Ayodele, FWACP Professor, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo; and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoşo, Nigeria. Rufus Olushola Akinyemi, PhD, FMCP Consultant Neurologist, Neurology Division, Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria. Oladimeji George Opadijo, FWACP Professor, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo; and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoşo, Nigeria.

Background: Heart failure (HF) in Africans is peculiar because subjects are younger than whites and have lower socioeconomic and educational level in addition to the high prevalence of hypertension-related etiology and increased mortality. Whereas cognitive dysfunction have been demonstrated among whites with HF, the prevalence and pattern of cognitive dysfunction among sub-Saharan African patients with HF have not been evaluated against this background.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the 1-year prevalence and the factors contributing to cognitive dysfunction in a cohort of Nigerian patients with HF.

Materials And Methods: In this cross-sectional case-control study, cognitive performance was evaluated in 111 consecutive individuals (60 HF patients and 51 controls matched for age, gender, and level of education) using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia, Word List Learning Delayed Recall, Boston Naming Test, and Modified Token Test. Other clinical and disease-specific variables were collated and correlated with cognitive performance.

Results: The mean total Community Screening Interview for Dementia, Word List Learning Delayed Recall, Boston Naming Test, and Modified Token Test scores were significantly lower among HF patients (P = < .001). The prevalence of global cognitive dysfunction was 90.0% in HF and 5.9% among controls (odds ratio, 15.3; 95% confidence interval, 5.08-46.01). Elevated systolic blood pressure, increased comorbidity index, and wide pulse pressure were significantly associated with poorer performance on at least 1 neuropsychological test. Using a multivariate linear regression analysis, pulse pressure retained its significance (P = .029; 95% confidence interval, -0.117 to -0.007) as the most important predictor of cognitive dysfunction in the cohort of HF patients.

Conclusion: Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent among this sample of Nigerians with HF. Regular cognitive screening is therefore advocated among this high-risk group. Controlling comorbidities as well as blood pressure may improve cognitive performance among patients with HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCN.0000000000000289DOI Listing
April 2018
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