Publications by authors named "Phil Crandall"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Wearable Technology Effects on Training Outcomes of Restaurant Food Handlers.

J Food Prot 2018 08;81(8):1220-1226

2 University of Arkansas Global Campus, 2 East Center Street, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, USA.

Food safety training does not always result in behavior change, perhaps because of flaws inherent in traditional training designs. New technologies such as augmented reality headsets or head-mounted action cameras could transform the way food safety training is conducted in the food industry. Training conducted with wearable technology presents visual content in the first-person or actor's perspective, as opposed to the traditional third-person or observer perspective. This visual hands-on first-person perspective may provide an effective way of conveying information and encouraging behavior execution because it uses the mirror neuron system. There is little published literature about the impact of perspective on food safety training outcomes, such as motivation. The present study included a repeated-measures design to determine how first- and third-person camera angles affected hand washing training reactions among 108 currently employed restaurant food handlers. Participants were assessed on their posttraining compliance intentions, compliance self-efficacy, perceived utility of the training, overall satisfaction with the training, and video perspective preference. A significant proportion of food handlers (64%) preferred the first-person video perspective ( z = 5.00, P < 0.001), and a significant correlation was found between compliance intentions and compliance self-efficacy ( r(108) = 0.361, P < 0.001) for the first-person video. No significant differences in video preference were found for demographic variables, including age (χ (2, n = 104) = 1.69, P = 0.430), which suggests that the first-person training format appeals to a diverse workforce. These findings support the application of wearable technology to enhance hand washing training outcomes across a wide range of demographic groups. This research lays the framework for future studies to assess the impact of instructional design on compliance concerning hand washing and other food handling behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-18-033DOI Listing
August 2018

Companies' opinions and acceptance of global food safety initiative benchmarks after implementation.

J Food Prot 2012 Sep;75(9):1660-72

Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72704, USA.

International attention has been focused on minimizing costs that may unnecessarily raise food prices. One important aspect to consider is the redundant and overlapping costs of food safety audits. The Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) has devised benchmarked schemes based on existing international food safety standards for use as a unifying standard accepted by many retailers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of the decision made by Walmart Stores (Bentonville, AR) to require their suppliers to become GFSI compliant. An online survey of 174 retail suppliers was conducted to assess food suppliers' opinions of this requirement and the benefits suppliers realized when they transitioned from their previous food safety systems. The most common reason for becoming GFSI compliant was to meet customers' requirements; thus, supplier implementation of the GFSI standards was not entirely voluntary. Other reasons given for compliance were enhancing food safety and remaining competitive. About 54 % of food processing plants using GFSI benchmarked schemes followed the guidelines of Safe Quality Food 2000 and 37 % followed those of the British Retail Consortium. At the supplier level, 58 % followed Safe Quality Food 2000 and 31 % followed the British Retail Consortium. Respondents reported that the certification process took about 10 months. The most common reason for selecting a certain GFSI benchmarked scheme was because it was widely accepted by customers (retailers). Four other common reasons were (i) the standard has a good reputation in the industry, (ii) the standard was recommended by others, (iii) the standard is most often used in the industry, and (iv) the standard was required by one of their customers. Most suppliers agreed that increased safety of their products was required to comply with GFSI benchmarked schemes. They also agreed that the GFSI required a more carefully documented food safety management system, which often required improved company food safety practices and increased employee training. Adoption of a GFSI benchmarked scheme resulted in fewer audits, i.e., one less per year. An educational opportunity exists to acquaint retailers and suppliers worldwide with the benefits of having an internationally recognized certification program such as that recognized by the GFSI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-550DOI Listing
September 2012

Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations in ruminants can be reduced by orange peel product feeding.

J Food Prot 2011 Nov;74(11):1917-21

Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, College Station, Texas 77845, USA.

Foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 are threats to the safety of beef. Citrus peel and dried orange pulp are by-products from citrus juice production that have natural antimicrobial effects and are often incorporated into least-cost ration formulations for beef and dairy cattle. This study was designed to determine if orange peel and pulp affected E. coli O157:H7 populations in vivo. Sheep (n = 24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based diet that was supplemented with a 50-50 mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (dry matter basis, wt/wt) of 0, 5, or 10% pelleted orange peel (OP) for 10 days. Sheep were artificially inoculated with 10(10) CFU of E. coli O157:H7 by oral dosing. Fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 was measured daily for 5 days after inoculation, after which all animals were humanely euthanized. At 96 h postinoculation, E. coli O157:H7 shedding was reduced (P < 0.05) in sheep fed 10% OP. Populations of inoculated E. coli O157:H7 were reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract; however, this reduction reached significant levels in the rumen (P < 0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Cecal and rectal populations of E. coli O157:H7 were reduced (P < 0.05) by inclusion of both 5 and 10% OP diets. Our results demonstrate that orange peel products can be used as a preharvest intervention strategy as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-11-234DOI Listing
November 2011

Orange peel products can reduce Salmonella populations in ruminants.

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2011 Oct 8;8(10):1071-5. Epub 2011 Jun 8.

Food and Feed Safety Research Unit, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2881 F&B Road, College Station, TX 77845, USA.

Salmonella can live undetected in the gut of food animals and be transmitted to humans. Animal diets can impact intestinal populations of foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp. Orange juice production results in a waste product, orange peel and orange pulp, which has a high nutritive value and is often included in cattle diets as a least-cost ration ingredient. Here we show that the inclusion of orange peel products reduced Salmonella Typhimurium populations in the gut of experimentally inoculated sheep. Sheep (n=24) were fed a cracked corn grain-based high grain diet that was supplemented with a 50%/50% (dry matter [DM], w/w) mixture of dried orange pellet and fresh orange peel to achieve a final concentration (DM, basis) of 0%, 10%, or 20% orange product (OP) for 10 days before inoculation with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sheep were experimentally inoculated with 10(10) colony forming units Salmonella Typhimurium, and fecal samples were collected every 24 h after inoculation. Sheep were humanely euthanized at 96 h after oral Salmonella inoculation. Populations of inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium were numerically reduced by OP treatment throughout the gastrointestinal tract, and this reduction only reached significant levels in the cecum (p<0.05) of sheep fed 10% OP diets. Apparent palatability issues decreased the consumption of OP in sheep fed 20% OP to intake levels below that of 10% OP (approximately 7% dry matter intake [DMI]/d feed refusal), thereby reducing the potential effects of OP feeding at this higher level. Our results demonstrate that orange peel and pellets are environmentally friendly and low-cost products that can be used as a pre-harvest intervention as part of an integrated pathogen reduction scheme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2011.0867DOI Listing
October 2011
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