Publications by authors named "Pham Chau Thuy"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in airborne particulate matter samples from Hanoi, Vietnam: Particle size distribution, aryl hydrocarbon ligand receptor activity, and implication for cancer risk assessment.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 30;280:130720. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi, 11400, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Concentrations and profiles of unsubstituted and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and Me-PAHs) were analyzed in airborne particulate matter (PM) samples collected from high-traffic roads in Hanoi urban area. Levels of PAHs and Me-PAHs ranged from 210 to 660 (average 420) ng/m in total PM, and these pollutants were mainly associated with fine particles (PM) rather than coarser ones (PM and PM). Proportions of high-molecular-weight compounds (i.e., 5- and 6-ring) increased with decreasing particle size. Benzo[b+k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and benzo[ghi]perylene were the most predominant compounds in the PM samples. In all the samples, Me-PAHs were less abundant than unsubstituted PAHs. The PAH-CALUX assays were applied to evaluate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand activities in crude extracts and different fractions from the PM samples. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalents (BaP-EQs) derived by the PAH-CALUX assays for low polar fractions (mainly PAHs and Me-PAHs) ranged from 300 to 840 ng/m, which were more consistent with theoretical values derived by using PAH-CALUX relative potencies (270-710 ng/m) rather than conventional toxic equivalency factor-based values (22-69 ng/m). Concentrations of PAHs and Me-PAHs highly correlated with bioassay-derived BaP-EQs. AhR-mediated activities of more polar compounds and interaction effects between PAH-related compounds were observed. By using PAH-CALUX BaP-EQs, the ILCR values ranged from 1.0 × 10 to 2.8 × 10 for adults and from 6.4 × 10 to 1.8 × 10 for children. Underestimation of cancer risk can be eliminated by using effect-directed method (e.g., PAH-CALUX) rather than chemical-specific approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.130720DOI Listing
April 2021

Chemical characterization and source apportionment of ambient nanoparticles: a case study in Hanoi, Vietnam.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Aug 29;27(24):30661-30672. Epub 2020 May 29.

Center for Research and Technology Transfer, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Hanoi, Vietnam.

PM has been believed to have adverse short- and long-term effects on human health. However, the information of PM that is needed to fully evaluate its influence on human health and environment is still scarce in many developing countries. This is a comprehensive study on the levels, chemical compositions, and source apportionment of PM conducted in Hanoi, Vietnam. Twenty-four-hour samples of PM were collected during the dry season (November to December 2015) at a mixed site to get the information on mass concentrations and chemical compositions. Multiple linear regression analysis was utilized to investigate the simultaneous influence of meteorological factors on fluctuations in the daily levels of PM. Multiple linear regression models could explain about 50% of the variations of PM concentrations, in which wind speed is the most important variable. The average concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions (Ca, K, Mg, Na, NH, Cl, NO, SO, CO), and elements (Be, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Tl, Pb, Na, Fe, Mg, K, and Ca) were 2.77 ± 0.90 μg m, 0.63 ± 0.28 μg m, 0.88 ± 0.39 μg m, and 0.05 ± 0.02 μg m, accounting for 51.23 ± 9.32%, 11.22 ± 2.10%, 16.28 ± 2.67%, and 1.11 ± 0.94%, respectively. A positive matrix factorization model revealed the contributions of five major sources to the PM mass including traffic (gasoline and diesel emissions, 46.28%), secondary emissions (31.18%), resident/commerce (12.23%), industry (6.05%), and road/construction (2.92%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09417-5DOI Listing
August 2020

Application of WRF-Chem to simulate air quality over Northern Vietnam.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 23;28(10):12067-12081. Epub 2020 May 23.

University of Engineering and Technology, Vietnam National University Hanoi, 144 Xuan Thuy Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi, Vietnam.

The WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry) model is implemented and validated against ground-based observations for meteorological and atmospheric variables for the first time in Northern Vietnam. The WRF-Chem model was based on HTAPv2 emission inventory with MOZCART chemical-aerosol mechanism to simulate atmospheric variables for winter (January) and summer (July) of 2014. The model satisfactorily reproduces meteorological fields, such as temperature 2 m above the ground and relative humidity 2 m above the ground at 45 NCHMF meteorological stations in January, but lower agreement was found in those simulations of July. PM and PM concentrations in January showed good temporal and spatial agreements to observations recorded at three CEM air monitoring stations in Phutho, Quangninh, and Hanoi, with correlation coefficients of 0.36 and 0.59. However, WRF-Chem model was underestimated with MFBs from - 27.9 to - 118.7% for PM levels and from - 34.2 to - 115.1% for PM levels. It has difficulty in capturing day-by-day variation of PM and PM concentrations at each station in July, but MFBs were in the range from - 27.1 to - 40.2% which is slightly lower than those in January. It suggested that further improvements of the model and local emission data are needed to reduce uncertainties in modeling the distribution of atmospheric pollutants. Assessment of biomass burning emission on air quality in summer was analyzed to highlight the application aspect of the WRF-Chem model. The study may serve as a reference for future air quality modeling using WRF-Chem in Vietnam.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08913-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Soil and sediment contamination by unsubstituted and methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an informal e-waste recycling area, northern Vietnam: Occurrence, source apportionment, and risk assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Mar 5;709:135852. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Centre for Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development (CETASD), VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 334 Nguyen Trai, Hanoi, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Improper processing activities of e-waste are potential sources of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, however, information about the environmental occurrence and adverse impacts of these toxic substances is still limited for informal e-waste recycling areas in Vietnam and Southeast Asia. In this study, unsubstituted and methylated PAHs were determined in surface soil and river sediment samples collected from a rural village with informal e-waste recycling activities in northern Vietnam. Total levels of PAHs and MePAHs decreased in the order: workshop soil (median 2900; range 870-42,000 ng g) > open burning soil (2400; 840-4200 ng g) > paddy field soil (1200; range 530-6700 ng g) > river sediment samples (750; 370-2500 ng g). About 60% of the soil samples examined in this study were heavily contaminated with PAHs. Fingerprint profiles of PAHs and MePAHs in the soil and sediment samples indicated that these pollutants were mainly released from pyrogenic sources rather than petrogenic sources. The emissions of PAHs and MePAHs in this area were probably attributed to uncontrolled burning of e-waste and agricultural by-products, domestic coal and biomass combustion, and traffic activities. Carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of PAHs in the e-waste workshop soils were significantly higher than those of the field soils; however, the incremental lifetime cancer risk of PAH-contaminated soils in this study ranged from 5.5 × 10 to 4.6 × 10, implying acceptable levels of human health risk. Meanwhile, concentrations of some compounds such as phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, benz[a]anthracene, and benzo[a]pyrene in several soil samples exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations, indicating the risk of ecotoxicological effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135852DOI Listing
March 2020

Emission Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitro-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Open Burning of Rice Straw in the North of Vietnam.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 07 2;16(13). Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan.

This research investigated the distribution and contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) bound to particulate matter (PM) emitted from open burning of rice straw (RS) into the atmosphere in the north of Vietnam. The experiments were conducted to collect PM and total suspended particulates (TSP) prior to and during burning in the period of 2016-2018 in suburban areas of Hanoi. Nine PAHs and 18 NPAHs were determined using the HPLC-FL system. The results showed that the proportion of RS burning seasonally affects the variation of PAHs emission in atmospheric environment. The levels of nine PAHs from RS burning were 254.4 ± 87.8 µg g for PM and 209.7 ± 89.5 µg g for TSP. We observed the fact that, although fluoranthene (Flu) was the most abundant PAH among detected PAHs both in PM and TSP, the enrichment of Flu in TSP from burning smoke was higher than that in PM while the contribution of benzo[]pyrene (BP) and indeno[]pyrene (IDP) in PM from burning smoke were much higher than those in TSP. This research found that 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and 6-nitrochrysene (6-NC) emit from RS burning with the same range with those from wood burning. The 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF) and 2-nitropyrene (2-NP) released from RS burning as the secondary NPAHs. This research provides a comprehensive contribution characterization of PAHs and NPAHs in PM with different size emitted from traditional local rice straw burning in the north of Vietnam. The results help to clarify the environmental behavior of toxic organic compounds from RS burning in Southeast Asia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6651601PMC
July 2019

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates emitted by motorcycles.

Environ Pollut 2013 Dec 9;183:175-83. Epub 2013 Feb 9.

Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan. Electronic address:

We determined eleven PAHs and four NPAHs in particulates and regulated pollutants (CO, CO2, HC, NOx, PM) exhausted from motorcycles to figure out the characteristics of motorcycle exhausts. Fluoranthene and pyrene accounted for more than 50% of the total detected PAHs. Among four detected NPAHs, 6-nitrochrysene and 7-nitrobenz[a]anthracene were the predominant NPAHs and were highly correlated relationship with their parent PAHs (R = 0.93 and 0.97, respectively). The PM and HC emissions tended to be close to the PAH emissions. NOx and NPAHs were negatively correlated. Despite their small engine size, motorcycles emitted much more PM and PAHs, showed stronger PAH-related carcinogenicity and indirect-acting mutagenicity, but weaker NPAH-related direct-acting mutagenic potency than automobiles. This is the first study to analyze both PAHs and NPAHs emitted by motorcycles, which could provide useful information to design the emission regulations and standards for motorcycles such as PM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2013.01.003DOI Listing
December 2013