Publications by authors named "Petra Muus"

67 Publications

A phase I clinical trial to study the safety of treatment with tipifarnib combined with bortezomib in patients with advanced stages of myelodysplastic syndrome and oligoblastic acute myeloid leukemia.

Leuk Res 2021 Mar 31;105:106573. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Dept. of Hematology, Radboudumc, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; Dept. of Tumor Immunology, Radboudumc, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To determine the safety of tipifarnib in combination with escalating doses of bortezomib and to determine the maximum tolerated dose in patients with untreated high-risk MDS and oligoblastic acute myeloid leukemia, who were not eligible for intensive therapy.

Experimental Design: In a "3 + 3″ design, patients received fixed doses of tipifarnib 200 mg bid (days 1-21) and escalating doses of bortezomib (days 8, 15, 22) every 4 weeks in 4-6 cycles.

Results: The combination was tolerated well by the 11 patients in this study without reaching the maximum tolerated dose. Myelosuppression was the most frequent side effect, but usually of short duration. Interestingly a complete response with or without complete count recovery was observed in three patients and three additional patients had stable disease. The median duration of overall survival was 449 days. Two patients were still alive at 4.0 and 4.3 years, including one patient in continuing CR.

Conclusions: The combination of tipifarnib and bortezomib was tolerated well and appeared to have clinical activity in patients with high-risk MDS and AML with low counts of marrow blasts. Our results warrant further evaluation in a phase II study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2021.106573DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical and prognostic significance of small paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clones in myelodysplastic syndrome and aplastic anemia.

Leukemia 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Hematological medicine, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

In this large single-centre study, we report high prevalence (25%) of, small (<10%) and very small (<1%), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) clones by high-sensitive cytometry among 3085 patients tested. Given PNH association with bone marrow failures, we analyzed 869 myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and 531 aplastic anemia (AA) within the cohort. PNH clones were more frequent and larger in AA vs. MDS (p = 0.04). PNH clone, irrespective of size, was a good predictor of response to immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and to stem cell transplant (HSCT) (in MDS: 84% if PNH+ vs. 44.7% if PNH-, p = 0.01 for IST, and 71% if PNH+ vs. 56.6% if PNH- for HSCT; in AA: 78 vs. 50% for IST, p < 0.0001, and 97 vs. 77%, p = 0.01 for HSCT). PNH positivity had a favorable impact on disease progression (0.6% vs. 4.9% IPSS-progression in MDS, p < 0.005; and 2.1 vs. 6.9% progression to MDS in AA, p = 0.01), leukemic evolution (6.8 vs. 12.7%, p = 0.01 in MDS), and overall survival [73% (95% CI 68-77) vs. 51% (48-54), p < 0.0001], with a relative HR for mortality of 2.37 (95% CI 1.8-3.1; p < 0.0001) in PNH negative cases, both in univariate and multivariable analysis. Our data suggest systematic PNH testing in AA/MDS, as it might allow better prediction/prognostication and consequent clinical/laboratory follow-up timing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01190-9DOI Listing
March 2021

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria caused by CN-LOH of constitutional PIGB mutation and 70-kbp microdeletion on 15q.

Blood Adv 2020 11;4(22):5755-5761

Research Institute for Microbial Diseases and WPI Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) disorder characterized by defective synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors as a result of somatic mutations in the X-linked PIGA gene. The disease is acquired. No constitutional PNH has been described. Here, we report familial PNH associated with unusual inflammatory symptoms. Genetic analysis revealed a germline heterozygous PIGB mutation on chromosome 15 without mutations in PIGA or any of the other genes involved in GPI biosynthesis. In vitro data confirmed that transfection of the mutant PIGB could not restore the surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins (APs) in PIGB-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells. Homozygosity was caused by copy number-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CN-LOH) of the germline PIGB mutation, leading to deficient expression of GPI-APs in the affected blood cells of the index patient and her mother. The somatic event leading to homozygosity of the germline mutant PIGB gene involved a 70-kbp microdeletion of chromosome 15q containing the TM2D3 and TARSL2 genes, which was implicated in chromosome 15q mosaicism. Interestingly, we detected the deletion in both the patient and her mother. A sister of the mother, who carried the same germline PIGB mutation but without this microdeletion involving TM2D3 and TARSL2, did not have a PNH clone or CN-LOH. In conclusion, we describe PNH caused by CN-LOH of a germline heterozygous PIGB mutation in a patient and her mother and hypothesize that the 70-kbp microdeletion may have contributed to the PNH clone in both.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686886PMC
November 2020

Survival Improvement over Time of 960 s-AML Patients Included in 13 EORTC-GIMEMA-HOVON Trials.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 11;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 11.

GIGA-I3, Hematology, University of Liège, 4000 Liège, Belgium.

We report the outcomes of secondary acute myeloid leukemia (s-AML) patients included in one of 13 European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) collaborative AML trials using intensive remission-induction chemotherapy. Among 8858 patients treated between May 1986 and January 2008, 960 were identified as having s-AML, either after MDS (cohort A; = 508), occurring after primary solid tumors or hematologic malignancies other than MDS (cohort B; = 361), or after non-malignant conditions or with a history of toxic exposure (cohort C; = 91). Median age was 64 years, 60 years and 61 years in cohort A, B and C, respectively. Among patients ≤60 years and classified in the cohorts A or B ( = 367), the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 28%. There was a systematic improvement in the 5-year OS rate over three time periods ( < 0.001): 7.7% (95% CI: 1.3-21.7%) for patients treated before 1990 (period 1: = 26), 23.3% (95% CI: 17.1-30.0%) for those treated between 1990 and 2000 (period 2: = 188) and 36.5% (95% CI: 28.7-44.3%) for those treated in 2000 or later (period 3: n = 153). In multivariate analysis, male gender (HR = 1.39; = 0.01), WBC ≥ 25 × 10/L (HR = 2.00; < 0.0001), age 46-60 years (HR = 1.65; < 0.001) and poor-risk cytogenetics (HR = 2.17; < 0.0001) were independently associated with shorter OS, while being treated during period 2 (HR = 0.50, = 0.003) or period 3 (HR = 0.43; = 0.0008). Having received high-dose cytarabine (HD-AraC) ( = 48) in the induction chemotherapy (HR = 0.54, = 0.012) was associated with a longer OS. In contrast, among patients >60 years of age ( = 502), the OS was dismal, and there was no improvement over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697114PMC
November 2020

Impact of the type of anthracycline and of stem cell transplantation in younger patients with acute myeloid leukaemia: Long-term follow up of a phase III study.

Am J Hematol 2020 07 17;95(7):749-758. Epub 2020 Apr 17.

EORTC Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium.

We provide a long-term evaluation of patients enrolled in the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-10 trial which included a total of 2157 patients, 15-60 years old, randomized to receive either daunorubicin (DNR, 50 mg/m ), mitoxantrone (MXR, 12 mg/m ), or idarubicin (IDA, 10 mg/m ) in addition to standard-dose cytarabine and etoposide for induction chemotherapy and intermediate dose cytarabine for consolidation. Younger patients who reached complete remission with complete (CR) or incomplete (CRi) recovery were then scheduled to receive an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). That was if they had a HLA-identical sibling donor; in all other cases, an autologous HSCT had to be administered. At an 11-year median follow-up, the 5-year, 10-year and 15-year overall survival (OS) rates were 33.2%, 30.1% and 28.0%, respectively. No significant difference between the three randomized groups regarding OS was observed (P = .38). In young patients, 15-45 years old, no treatment difference (P = .89) regarding OS was observed, while in patients 46-60 years old, MXR and IDA groups had a trend for a longer OS as compared to the DNR group (P = .029). Among younger patients without a favorable MRC cytogenetic risk subgroup who achieved a CR/CRi after induction chemotherapy, those with a HLA-identical sibling donor had higher 10-year and 15-year OS rates than those without. In older patients who reached CR/CRi, the long-term outcomes of those with or without a donor was similar. In conclusion, long-term outcomes of the study confirmed similar OS in the three randomized groups in the whole cohort of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25795DOI Listing
July 2020

Similar outcomes of alemtuzumab-based hematopoietic cell transplantation for SAA patients older or younger than 50 years.

Blood Adv 2019 10;3(20):3070-3079

Department of Haematological Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT) for severe aplastic anemia (SAA) among older patients remains poor and associated with increased risk for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In this retrospective study of 65 consecutive patients with acquired SAA who were transplanted using fludarabine, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and alemtuzumab (FCC), outcomes of 27 patients aged at least 50 years were compared with those of 38 patients younger than 50 years. The median age of the older cohort was 61 years (range, 51-71 years); 21 (78%) patients were transplanted from unrelated donors (3 of 21 from HLA 9/10 mismatch donors) and 6 from matched sibling donors. One-year GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) was comparable to that of patients younger than 50 years (84% vs 94%, respectively; P = .23). Both groups showed low rates of acute (5% vs 4%) and chronic (18% vs 14%) GVHD, with no cases of severe GVHD among matched donor transplants, and similar 1-year transplant-related mortality (14% vs 5.4%, older vs younger; P = .23). HSCT comorbidity index (HTC-CI) scores were similar between the groups, but overall survival with an HCT-CI of at least 3 was lower compared with a score less than 3 (76% vs 98%; P = .005). Median donor T-cell chimerism among older patients was 64% and 60% at 1 and 3 years, respectively, and was similar to that of younger patients. Increased B regulatory cells potentially contributed to low alloreactivity and mutual donor-recipient tolerance in older patients. Effect of comorbidities rather than age alone may be a more important determinant of suitability for FCC HSCT in older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849949PMC
October 2019

Impact of induction regimen and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation on outcome in younger adults with acute myeloid leukemia with a monosomal karyotype.

Haematologica 2019 06 6;104(6):1168-1175. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

EORTC Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium.

Monosomal karyotype confers a poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Here, we determined the impact of the type of remission-induction chemotherapy and the impact of having a donor in younger acute myeloid leukemia patients with a monosomal karyotype included in two phase III trials. In the first trial patients were randomized to receive either daunorubicin, mitoxantrone, or idarubicin in addition to standard-dose cytarabine and etoposide for induction chemotherapy. In the second trial patients were randomized to standard-dose cytarabine or high-dose cytarabine induction, both with daunorubicin and etoposide. In both trials, patients who achieved a complete remission with or without complete hematologic recovery underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation if they had a donor; otherwise, they underwent autologous transplantation. In comparison to patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics without a monosomal karyotype (n=1,584) and with adverse cytogenetics without a monosomal karyotype (n=218), patients with a monosomal karyotype (n=188) were more likely not to achieve a complete remission with or without count recovery [odds ratio=2.85, 95% confidence interval (95%, CI): 2.10-3.88] and had shorter overall survival [hazard ratio, (HR)=2.44, 95% CI: 2.08-2.88]. There was no impact of the type of anthracycline or of the dose of cytarabine on outcomes in patients with a monosomal karyotype. Among monosomal karyo type patients who achieved a complete remission with or without count recovery, HLA-identical related donor availability was associated with longer survival from complete remission with or without count recovery (HR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.95). ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: AML-10: NCT00002549; AML-12: NCT00004128.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2018.204826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6545848PMC
June 2019

Cytogenetic clonal heterogeneity is not an independent prognosis factor in 15-60-year-old AML patients: results on 1291 patients included in the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-10 and AML-12 trials.

Ann Hematol 2018 Oct 20;97(10):1785-1795. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

EORTC Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium.

The presence of cytogenetic clonal heterogeneity has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we reassessed this association. The study cohort consisted of all patients with an abnormal karyotype randomized in the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-10 and AML-12 trials. Abnormal karyotypes were classified as no subclones present (cytogenetic abnormality in a single clone), defined subclones present (presence of one to three subclones), and composite karyotypes (CP) (clonal heterogeneity not allowing enumeration of individual subclones). The main endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Among 1291 patients with an abnormal karyotype, 1026 had no subclones, 226 at least 1 subclone, and 39 a CP. Patients with defined subclones had an OS similar to those with no subclones (hazard ratio (HR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.26), but CP patients had a shorter OS (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.11-2.26). However, in a multivariate Cox model stratified by protocol and adjusted for age, cytogenetic risk group, secondary versus primary AML, and performance status, clonal heterogeneity lost its prognostic importance (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.91-1.32 for defined subclones versus no subclones; HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.67-1.38 for CP versus no subclones). Also, the impact of having a donor on DFS was similar in the three clonal subgroups. In summary, in patients with cytogenetic abnormality, presence of subclones had no impact on OS. The dismal outcome in patients with a CP was explained by the known predictors of poor prognosis.

Trial Registration: AML-10: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00002549, retrospectively registered July 19, 2004; AML12: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00004128, registered January 27, 2003.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-018-3396-4DOI Listing
October 2018

Clinical characteristics and outcomes according to age in lenalidomide-treated patients with RBC transfusion-dependent lower-risk MDS and del(5q).

J Hematol Oncol 2017 06 26;10(1):131. Epub 2017 Jun 26.

H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.

Background: Particularly since the advent of lenalidomide, lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients with del(5q) have been the focus of many studies; however, the impact of age on disease characteristics and response to lenalidomide has not been analyzed.

Methods: We assessed the effect of age on clinical characteristics and outcomes in 286 lenalidomide-treated MDS patients with del(5q) from two multicenter trials.

Results: A total of 33.9, 34.3, and 31.8% patients were aged <65 years, ≥65 to <75 years, and ≥75 years, respectively. Age <65 years was associated with less favorable International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk and additional cytopenias at baseline versus older age groups, significantly lower cytogenetic response rates (p = 0.022 vs. ≥65 to <75 years; p = 0.047 vs. ≥75 years), and higher rates of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression (Gray's test, p = 0.013). Lenalidomide was equally well tolerated across age groups, producing consistently high rates of red blood cell transfusion independence ≥26 weeks.

Conclusions: Baseline disease characteristics and AML progression appear to be more severe in younger lower-risk MDS patients with del(5q), whereas older age does not seem to compromise the response to lenalidomide.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00065156 and NCT00179621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-017-0491-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5485496PMC
June 2017

Romiplostim monotherapy in thrombocytopenic patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: long-term safety and efficacy.

Br J Haematol 2017 09 14;178(6):906-913. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA.

Romiplostim can improve platelet counts in about 50% of patients with low- or intermediate 1-risk (lower risk) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and thrombocytopenia, but its long-term toxicity and efficacy are not known. This open-label extension study evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy of romiplostim in 60 patients with lower risk MDS and platelet counts ≤50 × 10 /l. The primary endpoint was adverse event (AE) incidence. Secondary endpoints were efficacy parameters, including bleeding events and platelet response. Median (range) treatment time in the extension study and the median observation times thereafter were 25 (2-181) and 57 (11-209) weeks, respectively. Treatment-related AEs and serious AEs were reported in 14/60 (23%) and 4/60 (7%) patients, respectively. Progression to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) occurred in two patients after 44 and 46 weeks. Patients (n = 34, 57%) with a platelet response were further evaluated for length of response. Median (range) response duration was 33 (7-174) weeks; 28/34 (82%) patients had a continuous response. Five of 34 patients (15%) had grade ≥3 bleeding events; three when the platelet count was >50 × 10 /l. There were no new safety concerns and the rate of progression to AML was low; response to romiplostim was maintained for most patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5600084PMC
September 2017

Clinical benefit of eculizumab in patients with no transfusion history in the International Paroxysmal Nocturnal Haemoglobinuria Registry.

Intern Med J 2017 Sep;47(9):1026-1034

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Eculizumab reduces intravascular haemolysis and improves disease symptoms in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH).

Aims: To characterise, in a real-world setting, the effect of eculizumab in patients with haemolytic PNH (lactase dehydrogenase (LDH) ≥ 1.5 upper limit of normal) and no history of red blood cell transfusion, including those with high disease activity (HDA).

Methods: Three populations from the International PNH Registry were studied: (i) non-transfused, untreated; (ii) non-transfused, eculizumab-treated and (iii) transfused, eculizumab-treated (≥1 transfusions in 6 months prior to eculizumab initiation). Using multivariate linear regression, the primary outcome was mean absolute change from baseline to 6 months in LDH (U/L) in non-transfused patients who were treated with eculizumab versus those who remained untreated. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in functional assessment of chronic illness therapy (FACIT)-Fatigue and European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ)-C30 Fatigue scores from baseline to last available assessment.

Results: The study population included (i) 144 non-transfused, untreated patients; (ii) 45 non-transfused, eculizumab-treated patients and (iii) 105 transfused, eculizumab-treated patients. Of these, 136/144, 43/45 and 99/105 had HDA respectively. Compared with untreated patients, non-transfused, treated patients had greater absolute reduction in LDH (-1318.8 vs -39.4; P < 0.001) and greater percentage reduction in LDH (-69.9 vs -1.6%; P < 0.001). Clinically meaningful improvements in FACIT-Fatigue (73.7 vs 24.6%, respectively) and in EORTC-QLQ-C30 (84.2 vs 33.3%, respectively) were observed. Non-transfused, treated patients with HDA had significantly reduced LDH levels (P < 0.001) and clinically meaningful improvements in FACIT-Fatigue (P = 0.003) and EORTC-QLQ-C30 (P = 0.020) versus untreated patients.

Conclusion: Significant LDH reduction and clinically meaningful improvement in fatigue were observed in patients with PNH and HDA treated with eculizumab versus untreated patients, irrespective of transfusion history.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imj.13523DOI Listing
September 2017

Clinical course and disease burden in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria by hemolytic status.

Blood Cells Mol Dis 2017 06 27;65:29-34. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Disease characteristics of patients enrolled in the International PNH Registry were assessed during two follow-up periods based on hemolytic status while untreated with eculizumab: Non-hemolytic cohort: follow-up time defined as time from disease start until last reported untreated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) value <1.5×upper limit normal (ULN); Hemolytic cohort: follow-up time defined as time from LDH ≥1.5×ULN at or post-disease start, to most recent untreated follow-up. A total of 1012 patients met criteria for the Non-hemolytic cohort and 1565 patients for the Hemolytic cohort; median (min, max) years of follow-up were 2.2 (0.0, 54.2) and 1.2 (0.0, 37.2) years, respectively. Annual rate of thrombotic events (TEs) was lower in the Non-hemolytic than Hemolytic cohort (0.01 events/person-year vs. 0.03 events/person-year; p<0.001). Mortality was lower in the Non-hemolytic cohort than the Hemolytic cohort (0.1% (1 death) vs. 1.8% (22 deaths); p<0.001). While elevated risks for TEs were observed in patients with hemolysis, many TEs were also observed in patients without hemolysis. As thrombosis is the leading cause of mortality in patients with PNH, this real-world analysis highlights the importance of awareness and monitoring for TEs in patients with PNH regardless of hemolytic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcmd.2017.03.013DOI Listing
June 2017

Clonal evolution in myelodysplastic syndromes.

Nat Commun 2017 04 21;8:15099. Epub 2017 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Hematology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 8, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Cancer development is a dynamic process during which the successive accumulation of mutations results in cells with increasingly malignant characteristics. Here, we show the clonal evolution pattern in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients receiving supportive care, with or without lenalidomide (follow-up 2.5-11 years). Whole-exome and targeted deep sequencing at multiple time points during the disease course reveals that both linear and branched evolutionary patterns occur with and without disease-modifying treatment. The application of disease-modifying therapy may create an evolutionary bottleneck after which more complex MDS, but also unrelated clones of haematopoietic cells, may emerge. In addition, subclones that acquired an additional mutation associated with treatment resistance (TP53) or disease progression (NRAS, KRAS) may be detected months before clinical changes become apparent. Monitoring the genetic landscape during the disease may help to guide treatment decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms15099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5530598PMC
April 2017

Genomic array as compared to karyotyping in myelodysplastic syndromes in a prospective clinical trial.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2017 07 31;56(7):524-534. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Karyotyping is considered as the gold standard in the genetic subclassification of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Oligo/SNP-based genomic array profiling is a high-resolution tool that also enables genome wide analysis. We compared karyotyping with oligo/SNP-based array profiling in 104 MDS patients from the HOVON-89 study. Oligo/SNP-array identified all cytogenetically defined genomic lesions, except for subclones in two cases and balanced translocations in three cases. Conversely, oligo/SNP-based genomic array profiling had a higher success rate, showing 55 abnormal cases, while an abnormal karyotype was found in only 35 patients. In nine patients whose karyotyping was unsuccessful because of insufficient metaphases or failure, oligo/SNP-based array analysis was successful. Based on cytogenetic visible abnormalities as identified by oligo/SNP-based genomic array prognostic scores based on IPSS/-R were assigned. These prognostic scores were identical to the IPSS/-R scores as obtained with karyotyping in 95%-96% of the patients. In addition to the detection of cytogenetically defined lesions, oligo/SNP-based genomic profiling identified focal copy number abnormalities or regions of copy neutral loss of heterozygosity that were out of the scope of karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of interest, in 26 patients we demonstrated such cytogenetic invisible abnormalities. These abnormalities often involved regions that are recurrently affected in hematological malignancies, and may therefore be of clinical relevance. Our findings indicate that oligo/SNP-based genomic array can be used to identify the vast majority of recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities in MDS. Furthermore, oligo/SNP-based array profiling yields additional genetic abnormalities that may be of clinical importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22455DOI Listing
July 2017

Implementation of erythroid lineage analysis by flow cytometry in diagnostic models for myelodysplastic syndromes.

Haematologica 2017 02 22;102(2):320-326. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Department of Hematology, VU University Medical Center, Cancer Center Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Flow cytometric analysis is a recommended tool in the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes. Current flow cytometric approaches evaluate the (im)mature myelo-/monocytic lineage with a median sensitivity and specificity of ~71% and ~93%, respectively. We hypothesized that the addition of erythroid lineage analysis could increase the sensitivity of flow cytometry. Hereto, we validated the analysis of erythroid lineage parameters recommended by the International/European LeukemiaNet Working Group for Flow Cytometry in Myelodysplastic Syndromes, and incorporated this evaluation in currently applied flow cytometric models. One hundred and sixty-seven bone marrow aspirates were analyzed; 106 patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, and 61 cytopenic controls. There was a strong correlation between presence of erythroid aberrancies assessed by flow cytometry and the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes when validating the previously described erythroid evaluation. Furthermore, addition of erythroid aberrancies to two different flow cytometric models led to an increased sensitivity in detecting myelodysplastic syndromes: from 74% to 86% for the addition to the diagnostic score designed by Ogata and colleagues, and from 69% to 80% for the addition to the integrated flow cytometric score for myelodysplastic syndromes, designed by our group. In both models the specificity was unaffected. The high sensitivity and specificity of flow cytometry in the detection of myelodysplastic syndromes illustrates the important value of flow cytometry in a standardized diagnostic approach. The trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl as NTR1825; EudraCT n.: 2008-002195-10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2016.147843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5286939PMC
February 2017

Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin Versus Best Supportive Care in Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia Unsuitable for Intensive Chemotherapy: Results of the Randomized Phase III EORTC-GIMEMA AML-19 Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2016 Mar 25;34(9):972-9. Epub 2016 Jan 25.

Sergio Amadori, Adriano Venditti, and Maria Teresa Voso, Tor Vergata University; Luciana Annino, San Giovanni Addolorata Hospital; Paolo De Fabritiis, St Eugenio Hospital; Giuliana Alimena and Marco Mancini, Sapienza University; Francesca Paoloni, Marco Vignetti, and Paola Fazi, GIMEMA Foundation, Roma; Franco Aversa, University Hospital, Parma; Gainluca Gaidano, University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara; Maurizio Musso, La Maddalena Clinic, Palermo; Carla Mazzone, Annunziata Hospital, Cosenza; Domenico Magro, Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital, Catanzaro; Safaa Mahmoud Ramadan, European Institute of Oncology, Milano, Italy; Stefan Suciu and Liv Meert, EORTC Headquarters, Brussels; Dominik Selleslag, AZ St Jan, Brugge; Anne Hagemeijer, KULeuven, Leuven; Frédéric Baron, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Liège, Belgium; Petra Muus and Theo de Witte, Radboudumc, Nijmegen; and Roel Willemze, University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To compare single-agent gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) with best supportive care (BSC) including hydroxyurea as first-line therapy in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia unsuitable for intensive chemotherapy.

Patients And Methods: In this trial, patients at least 61 years old were centrally randomized (1:1) to receive either a single induction course of GO (6 mg/m(2) on day 1 and 3 mg/m(2) on day 8) or BSC. Patients who did not progress after GO induction could receive up to eight monthly infusions of the immunoconjugate at 2 mg/m(2). Randomization was stratified by age, WHO performance score, CD33 expression status, and center. The primary end point was overall survival (OS) by intention-to-treat analysis.

Results: A total of 237 patients were randomly assigned (118 to GO and 119 to BSC). The median OS was 4.9 months (95% CI, 4.2 to 6.8 months) in the GO group and 3.6 months (95% CI, 2.6 to 4.2 months) in the BSC group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.90; P = .005); the 1-year OS rate was 24.3% with GO and 9.7% with BSC. The OS benefit with GO was consistent across most subgroups, and was especially apparent in patients with high CD33 expression status, in those with favorable/intermediate cytogenetic risk profile, and in women. Overall, complete remission (CR [complete remission] + CRi [CR with incomplete recovery of peripheral blood counts]) occurred in 30 of 111 (27%) GO recipients. The rates of serious adverse events (AEs) were similar in the two groups, and no excess mortality from AEs was observed with GO.

Conclusion: First-line monotherapy with low-dose GO, as compared with BSC, significantly improved OS in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia who were ineligible for intensive chemotherapy. No unexpected AEs were identified and toxicity was manageable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.64.0060DOI Listing
March 2016

Decitabine improves progression-free survival in older high-risk MDS patients with multiple autosomal monosomies: results of a subgroup analysis of the randomized phase III study 06011 of the EORTC Leukemia Cooperative Group and German MDS Study Group.

Ann Hematol 2016 Jan 23;95(2):191-9. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

Department of Hematology, Haga Hospital, The Hague, The Netherlands.

In a study of elderly AML patients treated with the hypomethylating agent decitabine (DAC), we noted a surprisingly favorable outcome in the (usually very unfavorable) subgroup with two or more autosomal monosomies (MK2+) within a complex karyotype (Lübbert et al., Haematologica 97:393-401, 2012). We now analyzed 206 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients (88 % of 233 patients randomized in the EORTC/GMDSSG phase III trial 06011, 61 of them with RAEBt, i.e. AML by WHO) with cytogenetics informative for MK status.. Endpoints are the following: complete/partial (CR/PR) and overall response rate (ORR) and progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Cytogenetic subgroups are the following: 63 cytogenetically normal (CN) patients, 143 with cytogenetic abnormalities, 73 of them MK-negative (MK-), and 70 MK-positive (MK+). These MK+ patients could be divided into 17 with a single autosomal monosomy (MK1) and 53 with at least two monosomies (MK2+). ORR with DAC in CN patients: 36.1 %, in MK- patients: 16.7 %, in MK+ patients: 43.6 % (MK1: 44.4 %, MK2+ 43.3 %). PFS was prolonged by DAC compared to best supportive care (BSC) in the CN (hazard ratio (HR) 0.55, 99 % confidence interval (CI), 0.26; 1.15, p = 0.03) and MK2+ (HR 0.50; 99 % CI, 0.23; 1.06, p = 0.016) but not in the MK-, MK+, and MK1 subgroups. OS was not improved by DAC in any subgroup. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time in a randomized phase III trial that high-risk MDS patients with complex karyotypes harboring two or more autosomal monosomies attain encouraging responses and have improved PFS with DAC treatment compared to BSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-015-2547-0DOI Listing
January 2016

Idarubicin and cytarabine in combination with gemtuzumab ozogamicin (IAGO) for untreated patients with high-risk MDS or AML evolved from MDS: a phase II study from the EORTC and GIMEMA Leukemia Groups (protocol 06013).

Ann Hematol 2015 Dec 26;94(12):1981-9. Epub 2015 Sep 26.

University of Liege, Liege, Belgium.

The primary objective of this trial was to assess the feasibility, toxicity profile, and antitumor activity of gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) combined with a chemotherapy remission-induction regimen in adults with untreated high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (HR-MDS) or secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). In this phase II trial, 30 patients with median age of 58 years received 1 day of GO as a 1-h infusion at the dose level of 5 mg/m(2) on day 7 of the remission-induction course further consisting of a continuous infusion of cytarabine 100 mg/m(2)/day for 10 days and idarubicin 12 mg/m(2)/day on days 1, 3, and 5. A consolidation course, consisting of intermediate-dose cytarabine (A) and idarubicin (I) followed by hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was planned for patients in complete remission (CR). The primary endpoints were response rate (CR/CRi) and severe toxicity rate. The secondary endpoint(s) were survival and progression-free survival (PFS) from start of treatment. Thirteen patients (43 %) achieved CR (eight patients) or CR with incomplete hematopoietic recovery (CRi) (five patients). In patients who achieved CR or CRi, the median time to recovery of neutrophils to 0.5 × 10(9)/l and of platelets to >50 × 10(9)/l was 29 and 30 days, respectively. Grade 3 to 4 severe toxicities occurred in nine patients. The most prominent was liver toxicity, as shown by elevated bilirubin levels in 16 patients and one case of nonfatal veno-occlusive disease (VOD). All 13 patients with CR/CRi received consolidation therapy, which was followed by allogeneic HSCT in five patients and autologous HSCT in three patients. According to the statistical design of the study, the idarubicin and cytarabine in combination with gemtuzumab ozogamicin (IAGO) regimen did not show sufficient activity to warrant further exploration of this regimen in adult patients with HR-MDS or sAML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-015-2486-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604495PMC
December 2015

Decitabine versus best supportive care in older patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEBt) - results of a subgroup analysis of the randomized phase III study 06011 of the EORTC Leukemia Cooperative Group and German MDS Study Group (GMDSSG).

Ann Hematol 2015 Dec 24;94(12):2003-13. Epub 2015 Sep 24.

Department of Medicine I, Medical Center-University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

In the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/GMDSSG phase III trial 06011, we compared decitabine (15 mg/m(2) every 8 h for 3 days) with best supportive care (BSC) in patients ≥60 years with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) by French-American-British (FAB) criteria. Here, we reinvestigate trial 06011 for the activity and efficacy specifically in patients with refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEBt). Response rates in the decitabine arm (N = 40) were as follows: complete or partial remission, 15 %; hematologic improvement, 15 %; resistant disease, 30 %. RAEBt patients in the decitabine arm had longer progression-free survival (PFS; hazard ratio (HR) 0.30, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.18-0.51; median, 6.2 vs 2.8 months) and overall survival (OS; HR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.42-1.11; median, 8.0 vs 6.0 months) than in the BSC arm (N = 35). Censoring at allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the OS difference between the treatment groups increased, particularly among patients aged 60-74 years (HR 0.48, 95 % CI 0.26-0.89). After regrouping the study cohort according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (i.e., ≥20 % blasts) in the decitabine arm (N = 27) also had longer PFS than in the BSC arm (N = 23) (HR 0.46, 95 % CI 0.26-0.83; median, 6.2 vs 2.8 months). In conclusion, 3-day decitabine displays clinical activity and efficacy in MDS and/or AML with 5-30 % blood or 20-30 % marrow blasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-015-2489-6DOI Listing
December 2015

Eculizumab in Pregnant Patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria.

N Engl J Med 2015 Sep;373(11):1032-9

From Department of Haematology, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds (R.J.K., A.H.), and Haematological Medicine, Kings College Hospital, London (A.K.) - both in the United Kingdom; University of Ulm and German Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service Baden-Württemberg-Hessen, Institute for Clinical Transfusion Medicine and Immunogenetics Ulm, Ulm (B.H., H.S.), and Department of Hematology, University Hospital of Essen, Essen (A.R.) - both in Germany; PNH Subcommittee of the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Leiden (B.H., A.K., A.M.R., L.T., H.S., R.P.L.), and Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (P.M.) - both in the Netherlands; Department of Clinical Haematology, the Royal Melbourne Hospital and University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia (J.S.); Department of Hematology, University Hospital, Rennes (S.G.), Clinical Immunology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Lille, Lille (L.T.), and Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Service d'Hématologie-Greffe, Hôpital Saint-Louis, University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Centre de Référence Aplasie Médullaire-HPN, and Filière de Santé Maladie Rare Immuno-Hématologique (MARIH), Paris (R.P.L.) - all in France; Jane Anne Nohl Division of Hematology, Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles (I.C.W.); Department of Hematology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (E.A.); Hematology, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II, University of Naples, Naples, Italy (A.M.R.); Hematology and Thromboembolism, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada (C.J.P.); and ICON Clinical Research, San Francisco (M.P.T.).

Background: Eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against complement protein C5 that inhibits terminal complement activation, has been shown to prevent complications of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and improve quality of life and overall survival, but data on the use of eculizumab in women during pregnancy are scarce.

Methods: We designed a questionnaire to solicit data on pregnancies in women with PNH and sent it to the members of the International PNH Interest Group and to the physicians participating in the International PNH Registry. We assessed the safety and efficacy of eculizumab in pregnant patients with PNH by examining the birth and developmental records of the children born and adverse events in the mothers.

Results: Of the 94 questionnaires that were sent out, 75 were returned, representing a response rate of 80%. Data on 75 pregnancies in 61 women with PNH were evaluated. There were no maternal deaths and three fetal deaths (4%). Six miscarriages (8%) occurred during the first trimester. Requirements for transfusion of red cells increased during pregnancy, from a mean of 0.14 units per month in the 6 months before pregnancy to 0.92 units per month during pregnancy. Platelet transfusions were given in 16 pregnancies. In 54% of pregnancies that progressed past the first trimester, the dose or the frequency of use of eculizumab had to be increased. Low-molecular-weight heparin was used in 88% of the pregnancies. Ten hemorrhagic events and 2 thrombotic events were documented; both thrombotic events occurred during the postpartum period. A total of 22 births (29%) were premature. Twenty cord-blood samples were examined for the presence of eculizumab; the drug was detected in 7 of the samples. A total of 25 babies were breast-fed, and in 10 of these cases, breast milk was examined for the presence of eculizumab; the drug was not detected in any of the 10 breast-milk samples.

Conclusions: Eculizumab provided benefit for women with PNH during pregnancy, as evidenced by a high rate of fetal survival and a low rate of maternal complications. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01374360.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1502950DOI Listing
September 2015

Efficacy and safety of eculizumab in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome from 2-year extensions of phase 2 studies.

Kidney Int 2015 May 4;87(5):1061-73. Epub 2015 Feb 4.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Robert-Debré, Paris, France.

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, possibly life-threatening disease characterized by platelet activation, hemolysis and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) leading to renal and other end-organ damage. We originally conducted two phase 2 studies (26 weeks and 1 year) evaluating eculizumab, a terminal complement inhibitor, in patients with progressing TMA (trial 1) and those with long duration of aHUS and chronic kidney disease (trial 2). The current analysis assessed outcomes after 2 years (median eculizumab exposure 100 and 114 weeks, respectively). At all scheduled time points, eculizumab inhibited terminal complement activity. In trial 1 with 17 patients, the platelet count was significantly improved from baseline, and hematologic normalization was achieved in 13 patients at week 26, and in 15 patients at both 1 and 2 years. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was significantly improved compared with baseline and year 1. In trial 2 with 20 patients, TMA event-free status was achieved by 16 patients at week 26, 17 patients at year 1, and 19 patients at year 2. Criteria for hematologic normalization were met by 18 patients at each time point. Improvement of 15 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) or more in eGFR was achieved by 1 patient at week 26, 3 patients at 1 year, and 8 patients at 2 years. The mean change in eGFR was not significant compared with baseline, week 26, or year 1. Eculizumab was well tolerated, with no new safety concerns or meningococcal infections. Thus, a 2-year analysis found that the earlier clinical benefits achieved by eculizumab treatment of aHUS were maintained at 2 years of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2014.423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4424817PMC
May 2015

Specific scoring systems to predict survival of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after intensive antileukemic treatment based on results of the EORTC-GIMEMA AML-10 and intergroup CRIANT studies.

Ann Hematol 2015 Jan 7;94(1):23-34. Epub 2014 Aug 7.

Department of Tumor Immunology, Nijmegen Center of Life Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, PO Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

High-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients have usually a less favorable outcome after intensive treatment compared with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. This may reflect different disease-related and patient-related factors. The purpose of this analysis is to identify disease-specific prognostic factors and to develop prognostic scores for both patient groups. A total of 692 patients in the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-10 study and 289 patients in the CRIANT study received identical remission-induction and consolidation treatment. Estimated 5-year survival rate was 34 % in the AML-10 versus 27 % in the CRIANT study, and estimated disease-free survival was 40 % versus 28 %, respectively. In multivariate analysis, cytogenetic characteristics, white blood count, and age appeared prognostic for survival in both studies. French-American-British (FAB) subtype and performance status were prognostic in the AML-10 study only, whereas number of cytopenias and duration of antecedent hematologic disorder >6 months were prognostic in the CRIANT study only. The prognostic scores distinguish three groups with a 5-year survival rate of 54, 38, and 19 % in the AML-10 study versus 69, 37, and 5 % in the CRIANT study. The prognostic value of these scores has been validated on two external series. The new scoring systems form a practical tool to predict the outcome of individual MDS and AML patients treated with intensive antileukemic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-014-2177-yDOI Listing
January 2015

Clinical and biological impact of TET2 mutations and expression in younger adult AML patients treated within the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-12 clinical trial.

Ann Hematol 2014 Aug 29;93(8):1401-12. Epub 2014 Mar 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Laboratory of Hematology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein zuid 8, 6525 GA, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

We assessed the prognostic impact of TET2 mutations and mRNA expression in a prospective cohort of 357 adult AML patients < 60 years of age enrolled in the European Organization For Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell' Adulto (GIMEMA) AML-12 06991 clinical trial. In addition the co-occurrence with other genetic defects and the functional consequences of TET2 mutations were investigated. TET2 mutations occurred in 7.6 % of the patients and were an independent marker of poor prognosis (p = 0.024). TET2 and IDH1/2 mutations strongly associated with aberrations in the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A. Functional studies confirmed previous work that neither nonsense truncations, nor missense TET2 mutations, induced 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation. In addition, we now show that mutant TET2 forms did not act in a dominant negative manner when co-expressed with the wild-type protein. Finally, as loss-of-function TET2 mutations predicted poor outcome, we questioned whether low TET2 mRNA expression in cases of AML without TET2 mutations would affect overall survival. Notably, also AML patients with low TET2 mRNA expression levels showed inferior overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-014-2055-7DOI Listing
August 2014

Outcomes in RBC transfusion-dependent patients with Low-/Intermediate-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes with isolated deletion 5q treated with lenalidomide: a subset analysis from the MDS-004 study.

Eur J Haematol 2014 Nov 9;93(5):429-38. Epub 2014 Jun 9.

Marien Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany.

Objective: A subset analysis of the randomised, phase 3, MDS-004 study to evaluate outcomes in patients with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS)-defined Low-/Intermediate (Int)-1-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with isolated del(5q).

Methods: Patients received lenalidomide 10 mg/d (days 1-21; n = 47) or 5 mg/d (days 1-28; n = 43) on 28-d cycles or placebo (n = 45). From the placebo and lenalidomide 5 mg groups, 84% and 58% of patients, respectively, crossed over to lenalidomide 5 or 10 mg at 16 wk, respectively.

Results: Rates of red blood cell-transfusion independence (RBC-TI) ≥182 d were higher in the lenalidomide 10 mg (57.4%; P < 0.0001) and 5 mg (37.2%; P = 0.0001) groups vs. placebo (2.2%). Cytogenetic response rates (major + minor responses) were 56.8% (P < 0.0001), 23.1% (P = 0.0299) and 0%, respectively. Two-year cumulative risk of acute myeloid leukaemia progression was 12.6%, 17.4% and 16.7% in the lenalidomide 10 mg, 5 mg, and placebo groups, respectively. In a 6-month landmark analysis, overall survival was longer in lenalidomide-treated patients with RBC-TI ≥182 d vs. non-responders (P = 0.0072). The most common grade 3-4 adverse event was myelosuppression.

Conclusions: These data support the clinical benefits and acceptable safety profile of lenalidomide in transfusion-dependent patients with IPSS-defined Low-/Int-1-risk MDS with isolated del(5q).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4232868PMC
November 2014