Publications by authors named "Petra E Petersen"

5 Publications

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Genotyping of Salmon Gill Poxvirus Reveals One Main Predominant Lineage in Europe, Featuring Fjord- and Fish Farm-Specific Sub-Lineages.

Front Microbiol 2020 29;11:1071. Epub 2020 May 29.

Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway.

Salmon gill poxvirus (SGPV) can cause serious gill disease in Atlantic salmon ( L.) and represents a significant problem to aquaculture industries in Northern Europe. Here, a single-tube multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) genotyping assay, targeting eight VNTR loci, was developed for studying the epizootiology of SGPV. Through MLVA typing of SGPV positive samples from 180 farmed and wild Atlantic salmon in Northern Europe, the first molecular population study of this virus was undertaken. Comparison of resulting MLVA profiles by cluster analysis revealed considerable micro-diversity, while only a limited degree of specific clustering by country of origin could be observed, and no clustering relating to the severity of disease outbreaks. Phylogenetic analysis, based on genomic data from six SGPV specimens (three Norwegian, one Scottish, one Faroese and one Canadian), complemented and corroborated MLVA by pointing to a marked transatlantic divide in the species, with one main, relatively conserved, SGPV lineage as predominant in Europe. Within certain fjord systems and individual freshwater salmon smolt farms in Norway, however, discrete MLVA clustering patterns that prevailed over time were observed, likely reflecting local predominance of specific SGPV sub-lineages. MLVA typing was also used to refute two suspected instances of vertical SGPV transmission from salmon broodstock to offspring, and to confirm a failed disinfection attempt in one farm. These novel insights into the previously undocumented population structure of SGPV provide important clues, e.g., regarding the mechanisms underlying spread and recurrence of the virus amongst wild and farmed salmon populations, but so far no indications of more or less virulent SGPV sub-lineages have been found. The MLVA scheme represents a highly sensitive genotyping tool particularly well suited for illuminating SGPV infection routes, and adds to the relatively low number of MLVA protocols that have so far been published for viral species. Typing is reasonably inexpensive, with a moderate technological requirement, and may be completed within a single working day. Resulting MLVA profiles can be readily shared and compared across laboratories, facilitating rapid placement of samples in an international ezpizootiological context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.01071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272583PMC
May 2020

Characterization of ranaviruses isolated from lumpfish L. in the North Atlantic area: proposal for a new ranavirus species (European North Atlantic Ranavirus).

J Gen Virol 2020 02 20;101(2):198-207. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Technical University of Denmark, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Aquatic Animal Health Unit, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

The commercial production of lumpfish L. is expanding with the increased demand for their use as cleaner fish, to control sea-lice numbers, at marine Atlantic salmon L. aquaculture sites throughout Northern Europe. A new ranavirus has been isolated from lumpfish at multiple locations in the North Atlantic area. First isolated in 2014 in the Faroe Islands, the virus has subsequently been found in lumpfish from Iceland in 2015 and from Scotland and Ireland in 2016. The Icelandic lumpfish ranavirus has been characterized by immunofluorescent antibody test, optimal growth conditions and transmission electron microscopy. Partial sequences of the major capsid protein gene from 12 isolates showed 99.79-100% nt identity between the lumpfish ranaviruses. Complete genome sequencing from three of the isolates and phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated 26 iridovirus core genes suggest these lumpfish ranavirus isolates form a distinct clade with ranaviruses from cod L. and turbot L. isolated in Denmark in 1979 and 1999, respectively. These data suggest that these viruses should be grouped together as a new ranavirus species, European North Atlantic Ranavirus, which encompasses ranaviruses isolated from marine fishes in European North Atlantic waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.001377DOI Listing
February 2020

First field evidence of the evolution from a non-virulent HPR0 to a virulent HPR-deleted infectious salmon anaemia virus.

J Gen Virol 2017 Apr;98(4):595-606

Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway.

The putatively non-virulent subtype of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV), ISAV-HPR0, is proposed to act as a progenitor and reservoir for all virulent ISAVs and thus represent a potential risk factor for the emergence of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) disease. Here, we provide the first evidence of genetic and functional evolution from an ISAV-HPR0 variant (FO/07/12) to a low-virulent ISAV virus (FO/121/14) in a Faroese Atlantic salmon marine farm. The FO/121/14 virus infection was not associated with specific clinical signs of ISA and was confined to a single net-pen, while various ISAV-HPR0 subtypes were found circulating in most epidemiologically linked marine and freshwater farms. Sequence analysis of all eight segments revealed that the FO/121/14 virus was identical, apart from a substitution in the fusion (F) gene (Q266L) and a deletion in the haemagglutinin-esterase (HE) gene, to the FO/07/12 variant from a freshwater farm, which supplied smolts exclusively to the FO/121/14-positive net-pen. An immersion challenge with the FO/121/14 virus induced a systemic infection in Atlantic salmon associated with a low mortality and mild clinical signs confirming its low pathogenicity. Our results demonstrate that mutations in the F protein and deletions in the highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the HE protein represent a minimum requirement for ISAV to gain virulence and to switch cell tropism from a localized epithelial infection to a systemic endotheliotropic infection. This documents that ISAV-HPR0 represents a reservoir and risk factor for the emergence of ISA disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jgv.0.000741DOI Listing
April 2017

Differential Survival among Batches of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua L.) from Fertilisation through to Post-Metamorphosis.

PLoS One 2016 30;11(6):e0158091. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Institute of Aquaculture, School of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland.

Aquaculture production of cod has decreased from over 20,000 tonnes in 2009 to less than 2,000 tonnes in 2014 and the industry faces many challenges, one of which is high and unpredictably variable mortality rates in the early life stages. Hence, full-cycle farming with hatchery produced juveniles is still considered unprofitable compared to fisheries and on-growing of wild cod. In the present study, potential batch differences in progeny survival of wild-caught, hatchery-spawned Faroe Bank cod (Gadus morhua L.) were investigated at two defined periods during early life history; i) the embryo stage (60 day degrees post fertilisation) and ii) the fry stage (110 days post hatch), post metamorphosis. The fry stage experiment was conducted in three replicates (N = 300 per replicate), and a panel of three polymorphic microsatellite markers was used for parental analysis. Mean survival rate at the embryo stage was 69% (± 20% SD). Survival was positively associated with egg diameter (P < 0.01), explaining 90% of the variation in egg survival rates. The data were too scarce to conclude either way concerning a possible correlation between survival rates between the two periods (P < 0.10). Offspring from three batches (from a total of eight) dominated in the fry stage, contributing over 90% of the progeny, and results were consistent over all three replicate tanks. The skewed batch representation observed may be of relevance to the effective management of selective breeding programmes for cod.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0158091PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4928819PMC
July 2017

Polymorphism, selection and tandem duplication of transferrin genes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)--conserved synteny between fish monolobal and tetrapod bilobal transferrin loci.

BMC Genet 2011 May 25;12:51. Epub 2011 May 25.

Nofima Marin, P, O, Box 5010, N-1430 Ås, Norway.

Background: The two homologous iron-binding lobes of transferrins are thought to have evolved by gene duplication of an ancestral monolobal form, but any conserved synteny between bilobal and monolobal transferrin loci remains unexplored. The important role played by transferrin in the resistance to invading pathogens makes this polymorphic gene a highly valuable candidate for studying adaptive divergence among local populations.

Results: The Atlantic cod genome was shown to harbour two tandem duplicated serum transferrin genes (Tf1, Tf2), a melanotransferrin gene (MTf), and a monolobal transferrin gene (Omp). Whereas Tf1 and Tf2 were differentially expressed in liver and brain, the Omp transcript was restricted to the otoliths. Fish, chicken and mammals showed highly conserved syntenic regions in which monolobal and bilobal transferrins reside, but contrasting with tetrapods, the fish transferrin genes are positioned on three different linkage groups. Sequence alignment of cod Tf1 cDNAs from Northeast (NE) and Northwest (NW) Atlantic populations revealed 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) causing the replacement of 16 amino acids, including eight surface residues revealed by the modelled 3D-structures, that might influence the binding of pathogens for removal of iron. SNP analysis of a total of 375 individuals from 14 trans-Atlantic populations showed that the Tf1-NE variant was almost fixed in the Baltic cod and predominated in the other NE Atlantic populations, whereas the NW Atlantic populations were more heterozygous and showed high frequencies of the Tf-NW SNP alleles.

Conclusions: The highly conserved synteny between fish and tetrapod transferrin loci infers that the fusion of tandem duplicated Omp-like genes gave rise to the modern transferrins. The multiple nonsynonymous substitutions in cod Tf1 with putative structural effects, together with highly divergent allele frequencies among different cod populations, strongly suggest evidence for positive selection and local adaptation in trans-Atlantic cod populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-12-51DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3125230PMC
May 2011