Publications by authors named "Petra C E Hissink Muller"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reliable detection of subtypes of nailfold capillary haemorrhages in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

Clin Exp Rheumatol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Ghent University, and Department of Rheumatology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Objectives: In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), it is necessary to obtain biomarkers that predict cardiovascular complications due to premature atherosclerosis, which is related to endothelial dysfunction. Nailfold capillary abnormalities might be a biomarker for endothelial dysfunction. In adults and children with SLE, nailfold capillary haemorrhages have shown to be significantly correlated with disease activity. Recently, different subtypes of capillary haemorrhages have been described in childhood-onset SLE (cSLE). The aim of the current study was to assess the inter- and intra-rater reliability of observations of different subtypes of haemorrhages in cSLE patients.

Methods: Five raters blindly evaluated 140 capillaroscopy images from 35 cSLE-patients (diagnosed according to the 2012 SLICC criteria). The images were assessed qualitatively (present or absent) and quantitatively (total number) on four different subtypes of haemorrhages: 1) punctate extravasations, 2) perivascular haemorrhage, 3) large confluent haemorrhage and 4) non-definable. As subgroups 1) and 2) were interpreted as a continuous spectrum, a post-hoc analysis with "merged" (mean) kappa/ICC was additionally calculated as one sub-group.

Results: Qualitative assessment showed a kappa 0.65 (95% CI: 0.60-0.70) for "punctate extravasations and perivascular haemorrhages merged" and a kappa 0.78 (95% CI: 0.72-0.83) for large confluent haemorrhages. For the quantitative assessment, ICC was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.76-0.87) for the "merged groups" and ICC 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91-0.95) for large confluent haemorrhages.

Conclusions: Our study shows that different subtypes of capillary haemorrhages in cSLE-patients could be reliably reproduced by different raters. This confirms our recent observation of perivascular extravasations as a subgroup of capillary haemorrhage in cSLE that might reflect endothelial dysregulation.
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June 2021

Update on the treatment of nonsystemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis including treatment-to-target: is (drug-free) inactive disease already possible?

Curr Opin Rheumatol 2020 09;32(5):403-413

Department of Paediatrics/Paediatric Rheumatology, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Purpose Of Review: This review concerns the outcome for nonsystemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) with emphasis on treatment-to-target (T2T) and treatment strategies aiming at inactive disease by giving an overview of recent articles.

Recent Findings: More efficacious therapies and treatment strategies/T2T with inactive disease as target, have improved the outcome for JIA significantly. Recent studies regarding treatment strategies have shown 47-68% inactive disease after 1 year. Moreover, probability of attaining inactive disease at least once in the first year seems even higher in recent cohort-studies, reaching 80%, although these studies included relatively high numbers of oligoarticular JIA patients. However, 26-76% of patients flare upon therapy withdrawal and prediction of flares is still difficult.

Summary: Remission can be achieved and sustained in (some) JIA patients, regardless of initial treatment. Cornerstone principles in the management of nonsystemic JIA treatment are early start of DMARD therapy, striving for inactive disease and T2T by close and repeated monitoring of disease activity. T2T and tight control appear to be more important than a specific drug in JIA. Next to inactive disease, it is important that patients/parents are involved in personal targets, like reduction of pain and fatigue. Future studies should focus on predictors (based on imaging-methods or biomarkers) for sustained drug-free remission and flare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BOR.0000000000000727DOI Listing
September 2020

Endothelial and Inflammation Biomarker Profiles at Diagnosis Reflecting Clinical Heterogeneity and Serving as a Prognostic Tool for Treatment Response in Two Independent Cohorts of Patients With Juvenile Dermatomyositis.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2020 07 29;72(7):1214-1226. Epub 2020 May 29.

University Medical Center Utrecht and Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) is a heterogeneous systemic immune-mediated vasculopathy. This study was undertaken to 1) identify inflammation/endothelial dysfunction-related biomarker profiles reflecting disease severity at diagnosis, and 2) establish whether such biomarker profiles could be used for predicting the response to treatment in patients with juvenile DM.

Methods: In total, 39 biomarkers related to activation of endothelial cells, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were measured using multiplex technology in serum samples from treatment-naive patients with juvenile DM from 2 independent cohorts (n = 30 and n = 29). Data were analyzed by unsupervised hierarchical clustering, nonparametric tests with correction for multiple comparisons, and Kaplan-Meier tests with Cox proportional hazards models for analysis of treatment duration. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSAs) were measured in the patients' serum using line blot assays.

Results: Severe vasculopathy in patients with juvenile DM was associated with low serum levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Spearman's rho [r ] = 0.465, P = 0.0111) and high serum levels of endoglin (r = -0.67, P < 0.0001). In the discovery cohort, unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis of the biomarker profiles yielded 2 distinct patient clusters, of which the smaller cluster (cluster 1; n = 8) exhibited high serum levels of CXCL13, CCL19, galectin-9, CXCL10, tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (TNFRII), and galectin-1 (false discovery rate <0.0001), and this cluster had greater severity of muscle disease and global disease activity (each P < 0.05 versus cluster 2). In the validation cohort, correlations between the serum levels of galectin-9, CXCL10, TNFRII, and galectin-1 and the severity of global disease activity were confirmed (r = 0.40-0.52, P < 0.05). Stratification of patients according to the 4 confirmed biomarkers identified a cluster of patients with severe symptoms (comprising 64.7% of patients) who were considered at high risk of requiring more intensive treatment in the first 3 months after diagnosis (P = 0.0437 versus other cluster). Moreover, high serum levels of galectin-9, CXCL10, and TNFRII were predictive of a longer total treatment duration (P < 0.05). The biomarker-based clusters were not evidently correlated with patients' MSA serotypes.

Conclusion: Results of this study confirm the heterogeneity of new-onset juvenile DM based on serum biomarker profiles. Patients with high serum levels of galectin-9, CXCL10, TNFRII, and galectin-1 may respond suboptimally to conventional treatment, and may therefore benefit from more intensive monitoring and/or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7329617PMC
July 2020

Pharmacological conditioning for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a potential solution to reduce methotrexate intolerance.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2020 Feb 7;18(1):12. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Health, Medical and Neuropsychology unit, Leiden University, Leiden, P.O. Box 9500, The Netherlands.

Background: Methotrexate (MTX) therapy has proven to be a successful and safe treatment for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Despite the high efficacy rates of MTX, treatment outcomes are often complicated by burdensome gastro-intestinal side effects. Intolerance rates for MTX in children are high (approximately 50%) and thus far no conclusive effective treatment strategies to control for side effects have been found. To address this need, this article proposes an innovative research approach based on pharmacological conditioning, to reduce MTX intolerance.

Presentation Of The Hypothesis: A collaboration between medical psychologists, pediatric rheumatologists, pharmacologists and patient groups was set up to develop an innovative research design that may be implemented to study potential improved control of side effects in JIA, by making use of the psychobiological principles of pharmacological conditioning. In pharmacological conditioning designs, learned positive associations from drug therapies (conditioning effects) are integrated in regular treatment regimens to maximize treatment outcomes. Medication regimens with immunosuppressant drugs that made use of pharmacological conditioning principles have been shown to lead to optimized therapeutic effects with reduced drug dosing, which might ultimately cause a reduction in side effects.

Testing The Hypothesis: This research design is tailored to serve the needs of the JIA patient group. We developed a research design in collaboration with an interdisciplinary research group consisting of patient representatives, pediatric rheumatologists, pharmacologists, and medical psychologists.

Implications Of The Hypothesis: Based on previous experimental and clinical findings of pharmacological conditioning with immune responses, we propose that the JIA patient group is particularly suited to benefit from a pharmacological conditioning design. Moreover, findings from this study may potentially also be promising for other patient groups that endure long-lasting drug therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12969-020-0407-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7006148PMC
February 2020

MRP8/14 and neutrophil elastase for predicting treatment response and occurrence of flare in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2020 09;59(9):2392-2401

Department of Paediatric Immunology, Rheumatology and Infectious Disease, Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.

Objective: To study two neutrophil activation markers, myeloid-related protein (MRP) 8/14 and neutrophil elastase (NE), for their ability to predict treatment response and flare in patients with JIA.

Methods: Using samples from two cohorts (I and II), we determined MRP8/14 and NE levels of 32 (I) and 81 (II) patients with new-onset, DMARD-naïve arthritis and compared patients who responded to treatment (defined as fulfilling ≥ adjusted ACRpedi50 response and/or inactive disease) with non-responders (defined as fulfilling < adjusted ACRpedi50 response and/or active disease) at 6 and 12 months. Secondly, we compared biomarker levels of 54 (I) and 34 (II) patients with clinically inactive disease who did or did not suffer from a flare of arthritis after 6 or 12 months. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were carried out to study the predictive value of MRP8/14 and NE for treatment response and flare.

Results: For both cohorts, baseline MRP8/14 and NE levels for patients who did or did not respond to treatment were not different. Also, MRP8/14 and NE levels were not different in patients who did or did not flare. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of MRP8/14 and NE demonstrated areas under the curve <0.7 in both cohorts.

Conclusion: In our cohorts, MRP8/14 and NE could not predict treatment response. Also, when patients had inactive disease, neither marker could predict flares.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kez590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7449815PMC
September 2020

Galectin-9 and CXCL10 as Biomarkers for Disease Activity in Juvenile Dermatomyositis: A Longitudinal Cohort Study and Multicohort Validation.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2019 08 12;71(8):1377-1390. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Objective evaluation of disease activity is challenging in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) due to a lack of reliable biomarkers, but it is crucial to avoid both under- and overtreatment of patients. Recently, we identified 2 proteins, galectin-9 and CXCL10, whose levels are highly correlated with the extent of juvenile DM disease activity. This study was undertaken to validate galectin-9 and CXCL10 as biomarkers for disease activity in juvenile DM, and to assess their disease specificity and potency in predicting the occurrence of flares.

Methods: Levels of galectin-9 and CXCL10 were measured by multiplex immunoassay in serum samples from 125 unique patients with juvenile DM in 3 international cross-sectional cohorts and a local longitudinal cohort. The disease specificity of both proteins was examined in 50 adult patients with DM or nonspecific myositis (NSM) and 61 patients with other systemic autoimmune diseases.

Results: Both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, galectin-9 and CXCL10 outperformed the currently used laboratory marker, creatine kinase (CK), in distinguishing between juvenile DM patients with active disease and those in remission (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.86-0.90 for galectin-9 and CXCL10; AUC 0.66-0.68 for CK). The sensitivity and specificity for active disease in juvenile DM was 0.84 and 0.92, respectively, for galectin-9 and 0.87 and 1.00, respectively, for CXCL10. In 10 patients with juvenile DM who experienced a flare and were prospectively followed up, continuously elevated or rising biomarker levels suggested an imminent flare up to several months before the onset of symptoms, even in the absence of elevated CK levels. Galectin-9 and CXCL10 distinguished between active disease and remission in adult patients with DM or NSM (P = 0.0126 for galectin-9 and P < 0.0001 for CXCL10) and were suited for measurement in minimally invasive dried blood spots (healthy controls versus juvenile DM, P = 0.0040 for galectin-9 and P < 0.0001 for CXCL10).

Conclusion: In this study, galectin-9 and CXCL10 were validated as sensitive and reliable biomarkers for disease activity in juvenile DM. Implementation of these biomarkers into clinical practice as tools to monitor disease activity and guide treatment might facilitate personalized treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.40881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6973145PMC
August 2019

Participation in a single-blinded pediatric therapeutic strategy study for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: are parents and patient-participants in equipoise?

BMC Med Ethics 2018 12 20;19(1):96. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Medical Ethics and Health Law, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Genuine uncertainty on superiority of one intervention over the other is called equipoise. Physician-investigators in randomized controlled trials (RCT) need equipoise at least in studies with more than minimal risks. Ideally, this equipoise is also present in patient-participants. In pediatrics, data on equipoise are lacking. We hypothesize that 1) lack of equipoise at enrolment among parents may reduce recruitment; 2) lack of equipoise during participation may reduce retention in patients assigned to a less favoured treatment-strategy.

Methods: We compared preferences of parents/patients at enrolment, documented by a questionnaire (phase 1), with preferences developed during follow-up by an interview-study (phase 2) to investigate equipoise of child-participants and parents in the BeSt-for-Kids-study (NTR 1574). This trial in new-onset Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis-patients consists of three strategies. One strategy comprises initial treatment with a biological disease-modifying-antirheumatic-drug (DMARD), currently not standard-of-care. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 parents and 7 patients, median 11 months after enrolment.

Results: Initially most parents and children were not in equipoise. Parents/patients who refused participation, regularly declined due to specific preferences. Many participating families preferred the biological-first-strategy. They participated to have a chance for this initial treatment, and would even consider stopping trial-participation when not randomized for it. Their conviction of superiority of the biological-first strategy was based on knowledge from internet and close relations. According to four parents, the physician-investigator preferred the biological-first-strategy, but the majority (n = 19) stated that she had no preferred strategy. In phase 2, preferences tended to change to the treatment actually received.

Conclusions: Lack of equipoise during enrolment did not reduce study recruitment, mainly due to the fact that preferred treatment was only available within the study. Still, when developing a trial it is important to evaluate whether the physicians' research question is in line with preferences of the patient-group. By exploring so-called 'informed patient-group'-equipoise, successful recruitment may be enhanced and bias avoided. In our study, lack of equipoise during trial-participation did not reduce retention in those assigned to a less favoured option. We observed a change for preference towards treatment actually received, possibly explained by comparable outcomes in all three arms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-018-0336-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302476PMC
December 2018

Dutch juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients, carers and clinicians create a research agenda together following the James Lind Alliance method: a study protocol.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2018 Sep 15;16(1):57. Epub 2018 Sep 15.

Pediatric Rheumatology and Immunology, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Background: Research on Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) should support patients, caregivers/parents (carers) and clinicians to make important decisions in the consulting room and eventually to improve the lives of patients with JIA. Thus far these end-users of JIA-research have rarely been involved in the prioritisation of future research.

Main Body: Dutch organisations of patients, carers and clinicians will collaboratively develop a research agenda for JIA, following the James Lind Alliance (JLA) methodology. In a 'Priority Setting Partnership' (PSP), they will gradually establish a top 10 list of the most important unanswered research questions for JIA. In this process the input from clinicians, patients and their carers will be equally valued. Additionally, focus groups will be organised to involve young people with JIA. The involvement of all contributors will be monitored and evaluated. In this manner, the project will contribute to the growing body of literature on how to involve young people in agenda setting in a meaningful way.

Conclusion: A JIA research agenda established through the JLA method and thus co-created by patients, carers and clinicians will inform researchers and research funders about the most important research questions for JIA. This will lead to research that really matters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12969-018-0276-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6139167PMC
September 2018

Identification of an Amino Acid Motif in HLA-DRβ1 That Distinguishes Uveitis in Patients With Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 07 29;70(7):1155-1165. Epub 2018 May 29.

University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objective: Uveitis is a visually debilitating disorder that affects up to 30% of children with the most common forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The disease mechanisms predisposing only a subgroup of children to uveitis are unknown. This study was undertaken to identify genetic susceptibility loci for uveitis in JIA, using a genome-wide association study in 522 children with JIA.

Methods: Two cohorts of JIA patients with ophthalmologic follow-up data were genotyped. Data were then imputed using a genome-wide imputation reference panel, and an HLA-specific reference panel was used for imputing amino acids and HLA types in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). After imputation, genome-wide and MHC-specific analyses were performed, and a reverse immunology approach was utilized to model antigen presentation at 13 common HLA-DRβ1 alleles.

Results: Presence of the amino acid serine at position 11 (serine 11) in HLA-DRβ1 was associated with an increased risk of uveitis in JIA patients (odds ratio [OR] 2.60, P = 5.43 × 10 ) and was specific to girls (P = 7.61 × 10 versus P = 0.18). Serine 11 resides in the YST motif in the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DRβ1; all 3 amino acids in this motif are in perfect linkage disequilibrium and show identical association with disease. Quantitative prediction of binding affinity revealed that HLA-DRβ1 alleles with the YST motif could be distinguished on the basis of discernable peptide-binding preferences.

Conclusion: These findings highlight a genetically distinct, sexually dimorphic feature of JIA with uveitis as compared to JIA without uveitis. The association could be indicative of the potential involvement of antigen presentation by HLA-DRβ1 in the development of uveitis in JIA. The results of this study may advance our progress toward improved treatments for, and possible prevention of, the sight-threatening complications of uveitis in children with JIA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.40484DOI Listing
July 2018

Low complement levels in paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus and the risk of bacteraemia.

BMJ Case Rep 2013 Aug 21;2013. Epub 2013 Aug 21.

Department of Paediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

This report describes an 11-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with long-standing low levels of complement proteins. A disease period with lupus nephritis (class IIIa) was complicated by Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia and osteomyelitis. She was treated with high-dose immunosuppressants and 6 weeks of high-dose intravenous antibiotics. The clinician should be aware of bacteraemia in SLE with secondary complement deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2013-010378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3762216PMC
August 2013

A child with a necrotic finger.

BMJ Case Rep 2013 Jan 30;2013. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

Department of Paediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2012-007493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3604429PMC
January 2013