Publications by authors named "Petr Toušek"

73 Publications

Prognostic impact of acute pulmonary triggers in patients with takotsubo syndrome: new insights from the International Takotsubo Registry.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Jun 13;8(3):1924-1932. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Cardiology, Charité, Campus Rudolf Virchow, Berlin, Germany.

Aims: Acute pulmonary disorders are known physical triggers of takotsubo syndrome (TTS). This study aimed to investigate prevalence of acute pulmonary triggers in patients with TTS and their impact on outcomes.

Methods And Results: Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry and screened for triggering factors and comorbidities. Patients were categorized into three groups (acute pulmonary trigger, chronic lung disease, and no lung disease) to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes. Of the 1670 included patients with TTS, 123 (7%) were identified with an acute pulmonary trigger, and 194 (12%) had a known history of chronic lung disease. The incidence of cardiogenic shock was highest in patients with an acute pulmonary trigger compared with those with chronic lung disease or without lung disease (17% vs. 10% vs. 9%, P = 0.017). In-hospital mortality was also higher in patients with an acute pulmonary trigger than in the other two groups, although not significantly (5.7% vs. 1.5% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.13). Survival analysis demonstrated that patients with an acute pulmonary trigger had the worst long-term outcome (P = 0.002). The presence of an acute pulmonary trigger was independently associated with worse long-term mortality (hazard ratio 2.12, 95% confidence interval 1.33-3.38; P = 0.002).

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that TTS is related to acute pulmonary triggers in 7% of all TTS patients, which accounts for 21% of patients with physical triggers. The presence of acute pulmonary trigger is associated with a severe in-hospital course and a worse long-term outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13165DOI Listing
June 2021

Modified Strategies for Invasive Management of Acute Coronary Syndrome during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 24;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Cardiology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, University Hospital Královské Vinohrady, 100 34 Prague, Czech Republic.

The COVID-19 pandemic presents several challenges for managing patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Modified treatment algorithms have been proposed for the pandemic. We assessed new algorithms proposed by The European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) on patients with ACS admitted to the hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 period group (CPG) consisted of patients admitted into a high-volume centre in Prague between 1 February 2020 and 30 May 2020 ( = 181). The reference group (RG) included patients who had been admitted between 1 October 2018 and 31 January 2020 ( = 834). The proportions of patients with different types of ACS admitted before and during the pandemic did not differ significantly: in all ACS patients, KILLIP III-IV class was present in 13.9% in RG and in 9.4% of patients in CPG ( = 0.082). In NSTE-ACS patients, the ejection fraction was lower in the CPG than in the RG (44.7% vs. 50.7%, respectively; < 0.001). The time from symptom onset to first medical contact did not differ between CPG and RG patients in the respective NSTE-ACS and STEMI groups. The time to early invasive treatment in NSTE-ACS patients and the time to reperfusion in STEMI patients were not significantly different between the RG and the CPG. In-hospital mortality did not differ between the groups in NSTE-ACS patients (odds ratio in the CPG 0.853, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.247 to 2.951; = 0.960) nor in STEMI patients (odds ratio in CPG 1.248, 95% CI 0.566 to 2.749; = 0.735). Modified treatment strategies for ACS during the COVID-19 pandemic did not cause treatment delays. Hospital mortality did not differ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795165PMC
December 2020

OCT findings of radiotherapy-induced coronary artery disease: ".

J Cardiol Cases 2020 Oct 16;22(4):149-151. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Cardiocenter, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, University Hospital Kralovske Vinohrady, Prague, Czech Republic.

Radiotherapy-induced coronary artery disease (RT-CAD) is a well-known late complication of anti-neoplastic treatment. Although definitive diagnosis requires standard coronary angiography, modern intracoronary imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), are able to provide detailed morphological characteristics of RT-CAD lesions. We report the case of a 42-year-old male with a previous history of treated Hodgkin's lymphoma who complained of typical chest pain on minimal exertion. Coronary angiography showed significant 2-vessel disease. Use of OCT documented the fibro-fatty nature of coronary lesions, showing a constrictive pattern, compatible with RT-CAD. The patient underwent successful revascularization of both lesions. < Radiotherapy-induced coronary artery disease is a possible complication of anti-neoplastic treatment, characterized by premature atherosclerosis and vessel fibrosis. Optical coherence tomography is a modern tool able to characterize coronary lesions and to provide useful information concerning treatment strategy, including stent size choice.>.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jccase.2020.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520526PMC
October 2020

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation - what do we know in 2020.

Vnitr Lek 2020 ;66(5):282-286

stenosis is the most common acquired valve disease in adults and the prevalence of this disease is increasing with the aging population. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) became fully established method for treating this disease. The aim of this review is to present the current view of the performance technique, to summarize the data on the outcome of patients from recently published randomized studies and registries and to simply describe patient care after the procedure.
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November 2020

Aspirin with or without Clopidogrel after Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Implantation.

N Engl J Med 2020 10 30;383(15):1447-1457. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

From the Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (J. Brouwer, V.J.N., J.P., D.R.P.P.C.P.Y., M.J.S., B.J.W.M.R., L.T., J.C.K., J.M.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam (R.D., J. Baan), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (R.S.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center (W.H., L.V., A.W.J.H.) and the Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (A.W.J.H., J.M.B.), Maastricht, the Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (G.K.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (F.K.), the Department of Cardiology, Haga Hospital, The Hague (C.E.S.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (P.H.), Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (F.W.F.T.), the Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen (A.W.J.H.), and the Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht (P.R.S.) - all in the Netherlands; the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven (C.L.F.D.), Cardiovascular Center Aalst, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Clinic (B.D.B.), and the Department of Cardiology, Algemeen Stedelijk Hospital Aalst (I.B.), Aalst, the Department of Cardiology, Sint-Jan Hospital, Brugge (J.A.S.V.D.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Hospital Oost-Limburg, Genk (B.F.), and the Department of Cardiology, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden (J.R.) - all in Belgium; the Department of Cardiology, Institut National de Chirurgie Cardiaque et de Cardiologie Interventionnelle, Luxembourg, Luxembourg (P.F.); and the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Královské Vinohrady and Third Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic (P.T.).

Background: The effect of single as compared with dual antiplatelet treatment on bleeding and thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) in patients who do not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation has not been well studied.

Methods: In a randomized, controlled trial, we assigned a subgroup of patients who were undergoing TAVI and did not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive aspirin alone or aspirin plus clopidogrel for 3 months. The two primary outcomes were all bleeding (including minor, major, and life-threatening or disabling bleeding) and non-procedure-related bleeding over a period of 12 months. Most bleeding at the TAVI puncture site was counted as non-procedure-related. The two secondary outcomes were a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-procedure-related bleeding, stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 1) and a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 2) at 1 year, with both outcomes tested sequentially for noninferiority (noninferiority margin, 7.5 percentage points) and superiority.

Results: A total of 331 patients were assigned to receive aspirin alone and 334 were assigned to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel. A bleeding event occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) receiving aspirin alone and in 89 (26.6%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.77; P = 0.001). Non-procedure-related bleeding occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) and 83 patients (24.9%), respectively (risk ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.83; P = 0.005). A secondary composite 1 event occurred in 76 patients (23.0%) receiving aspirin alone and in 104 (31.1%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (difference, -8.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -14.9 to -1.5; P<0.001; risk ratio, 0.74; 95% CI for superiority, 0.57 to 0.95; P = 0.04). A secondary composite 2 event occurred in 32 patients (9.7%) and 33 patients (9.9%), respectively (difference, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -4.7 to 4.3; P = 0.004; risk ratio, 0.98; 95% CI for superiority, 0.62 to 1.55; P = 0.93). A total of 44 patients (13.3%) and 32 (9.6%), respectively, received oral anticoagulation during the trial.

Conclusions: Among patients undergoing TAVI who did not have an indication for oral anticoagulation, the incidence of bleeding and the composite of bleeding or thromboembolic events at 1 year were significantly less frequent with aspirin than with aspirin plus clopidogrel administered for 3 months. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular TAVI EU Clinical Trials Register number, 2013-003125-28; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02247128.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2017815DOI Listing
October 2020

Intravascular haemolysis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with self-expandable prosthesis: incidence, severity, and impact on long-term mortality.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2020 Jul 15;22(Suppl F):F44-F50. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Cardiocenter, University Hospital Královské Vinohrady and 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Ruská 87, Prague 10 100 00, Czech Republic.

We aimed to determine the incidence, severity, and long-term impact of intravascular haemolysis after self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). We believe this should be evaluated before extending the indications of TAVI to younger low-risk patients. Prospective, academic, single centre study of 94 consecutive patients treated with supra-annular self-expandable TAVI prosthesis between April 2009 and January 2014. Haemolysis at 1-year post-TAVI was defined per the published criteria based on levels of haemoglobin, reticulocyte and schistocyte count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and haptoglobin. All patients had long-term clinical follow-up (6 years). The incidence of haemolysis at 1-year follow-up varied between 9% and 28%, based on different haemolysis definitions. Haemolysis was mild in all cases, no patient had markedly increased LDH levels. The presence of moderate/severe paravalvular aortic regurgitation was associated with haemolysis (7.7% vs. 23.1%,  = 0.044) and aortic valve area post-TAVI did not differ between groups with or without haemolysis (1.01 vs. 0.92 cm/m,  = 0.23) (definition including schistocyte count). The presence of haemolysis did not have any impact on patient prognosis after 6 years with log-rank test  = 0.80. Intravascular haemolysis after TAVI with self-expandable prosthesis is present in 9-28% of patients depending on the definition of haemolysis. The presence of haemolysis is associated with moderate/severe paravalvular aortic regurgitation but not with post-TAVI aortic valve area. Haemolysis is mild with no impact on prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suaa098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7361667PMC
July 2020

Left Atrial Appendage Closure Versus Direct Oral Anticoagulants in High-Risk Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 06;75(25):3122-3135

Cardiocenter, Department of Cardiology, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; Helmsley Electrophysiology Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background: Percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) is noninferior to vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for preventing atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke. However, direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have an improved safety profile over VKAs, and their effect on cardiovascular and neurological outcomes relative to LAAC is unknown.

Objectives: This study sought to compare DOACs with LAAC in high-risk patients with AF.

Methods: Left Atrial Appendage Closure vs. Novel Anticoagulation Agents in Atrial Fibrillation (PRAGUE-17) was a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial comparing LAAC with DOACs. Patients were eligible to be enrolled if they had nonvalvular AF; were indicated for oral anticoagulation (OAC); and had a history of bleeding requiring intervention or hospitalization, a history of a cardioembolic event while taking an OAC, and/or a CHADS-VASc of ≥3 and HAS-BLED of >2. Patients were randomized to receive LAAC or DOAC. The primary composite outcome was stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism, cardiovascular death, major or nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding, or procedure-/device-related complications. The primary analysis was by modified intention to treat.

Results: A high-risk patient cohort (CHADS-VASc: 4.7 ± 1.5) was randomized to receive LAAC (n = 201) or DOAC (n = 201). LAAC was successful in 181 of 201 (90.0%) patients. In the DOAC group, apixaban was most frequently used (192 of 201; 95.5%). At a median 19.9 months of follow-up, the annual rates of the primary outcome were 10.99% with LAAC and 13.42% with DOAC (subdistribution hazard ratio [sHR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53 to 1.31; p = 0.44; p = 0.004 for noninferiority). There were no differences between groups for the components of the composite endpoint: all-stroke/TIA (sHR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.40 to 2.51), clinically significant bleeding (sHR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.44 to 1.52), and cardiovascular death (sHR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.34 to 1.62). Major LAAC-related complications occurred in 9 (4.5%) patients.

Conclusions: Among patients at high risk for stroke and increased risk of bleeding, LAAC was noninferior to DOAC in preventing major AF-related cardiovascular, neurological, and bleeding events. (Left Atrial Appendage Closure vs. Novel Anticoagulation Agents in Atrial Fibrillation [PRAGUE-17]; NCT02426944).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.04.067DOI Listing
June 2020

Coexistence and outcome of coronary artery disease in Takotsubo syndrome.

Eur Heart J 2020 09;41(34):3255-3268

Department of Cardiology, Kantonsspital Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland.

Aims: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute heart failure syndrome, which shares many features with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although TTS was initially described with angiographically normal coronary arteries, smaller studies recently indicated a potential coexistence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in TTS patients. This study aimed to determine the coexistence, features, and prognostic role of CAD in a large cohort of patients with TTS.

Methods And Results: Coronary anatomy and CAD were studied in patients diagnosed with TTS. Inclusion criteria were compliance with the International Takotsubo Diagnostic Criteria for TTS, and availability of original coronary angiographies with ventriculography performed during the acute phase. Exclusion criteria were missing views, poor quality of angiography loops, and angiography without ventriculography. A total of 1016 TTS patients were studied. Of those, 23.0% had obstructive CAD, 41.2% had non-obstructive CAD, and 35.7% had angiographically normal coronary arteries. A total of 47 patients (4.6%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and 3 patients had acute and 8 had chronic coronary artery occlusion concomitant with TTS, respectively. The presence of CAD was associated with increased incidence of shock, ventilation, and death from any cause. After adjusting for confounders, the presence of obstructive CAD was associated with mortality at 30 days. Takotsubo syndrome patients with obstructive CAD were at comparable risk for shock and death and nearly at twice the risk for ventilation compared to an age- and sex-matched ACS cohort.

Conclusions: Coronary artery disease frequently coexists in TTS patients, presents with the whole spectrum of coronary pathology including acute coronary occlusion, and is associated with adverse outcome.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa210DOI Listing
September 2020

Age-Related Variations in Takotsubo Syndrome.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 04;75(16):1869-1877

Krankenhaus "Maria Hilf" Medizinische Klinik, Stadtlohn, Germany.

Background: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in post-menopausal women but is also found in younger patients.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate age-related differences in TTS.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with TTS and enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry between January 2011 and February 2017 were included in this analysis and were stratified by age (younger: ≤50 years, middle-age: 51 to 74 years, elderly: ≥75 years). Baseline characteristics, hospital course, as well as short- and long-term mortality were compared among groups.

Results: Of 2,098 TTS patients, 242 (11.5%) patients were ≤50 years of age, 1,194 (56.9%) were 51 to 74 years of age, and 662 (31.6%) were ≥75 years of age. Younger patients were more often men (12.4% vs. 10.9% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.002) and had an increased prevalence of acute neurological (16.3% vs. 8.4% vs. 8.8%; p = 0.001) or psychiatric disorders (14.1% vs. 10.3% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.001) compared with middle-aged and elderly TTS patients. Furthermore, younger patients had more often cardiogenic shock (15.3% vs. 9.1% vs. 8.1%; p = 0.004) and had a numerically higher in-hospital mortality (6.6% vs. 3.6% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.07). At multivariable analysis, younger (odds ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 3.01; p = 0.14) and older age (odds ratio: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 1.80; p = 0.75) were not independently associated with in-hospital mortality using the middle-aged group as a reference. There were no differences in 60-day mortality rates among groups.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of TTS patients are younger than 50 years of age. TTS is associated with severe complications requiring intensive care, particularly in younger patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.02.057DOI Listing
April 2020

Anticoagulation with or without Clopidogrel after Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Implantation.

N Engl J Med 2020 04 29;382(18):1696-1707. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

From the Department of Cardiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (V.J.N., J. Brouwer, J.P., D.R.P.P.C.P.Y., M.J.S., B.J.W.M.R., L.T., J.C.K., J.M.B.), the Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Location AMC, Amsterdam (R.D., J. Baan), the Department of Cardiology, Isala Hospital, Zwolle (R.S.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Maastricht University Medical Center and Cardiovascular Research Institute, Maastricht (W.H., L.V., A.W.J.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (G.K.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (F.K.), the Department of Cardiology, Haga Hospital, The Hague (C.E.S.), the Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen (P.H.), Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (F.W.F.T.), the Department of Cardiology, Zuyderland Medical Center, Heerlen (A.W.J.H.), and the Department of Cardiology, Division of Heart and Lungs, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht (P.R.S.) - all in the Netherlands; the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven (C.L.F.D.), the Department of Cardiology, Onze Lieve Vrouwe Hospital (B.D.B.), and the Department of Cardiology, Algemeen Stedelijk Hospital Aalst (I.B.), Aalst, the Department of Cardiology, Sint-Jan Hospital, Brugge (J.A.S.V.D.H.), the Department of Cardiology, Hospital Oost-Limburg, Genk (B.F.), and the Department of Cardiology, Imelda Hospital, Bonheiden (J.R.) - all in Belgium; the Department of Cardiology, Institut National de Chirurgie Cardiaque et de Cardiologie Interventionnelle, Luxembourg, Luxembourg (P.F.); and the Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Královské Vinohrady and Third Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic (P.T.).

Background: The roles of anticoagulation alone or with an antiplatelet agent after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) have not been well studied.

Methods: We performed a randomized trial of clopidogrel in patients undergoing TAVI who were receiving oral anticoagulation for appropriate indications. Patients were assigned before TAVI in a 1:1 ratio not to receive clopidogrel or to receive clopidogrel for 3 months. The two primary outcomes were all bleeding and non-procedure-related bleeding over a period of 12 months. Procedure-related bleeding was defined as Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 4 severe bleeding, and therefore most bleeding at the puncture site was counted as non-procedure-related. The two secondary outcomes were a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-procedure-related bleeding, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 12 months (secondary composite 1) and a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 2), both tested for noninferiority (noninferiority margin, 7.5 percentage points) and superiority.

Results: Bleeding occurred in 34 of the 157 patients (21.7%) receiving oral anticoagulation alone and in 54 of the 156 (34.6%) receiving oral anticoagulation plus clopidogrel (risk ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.90; P = 0.01); most bleeding events were at the TAVI access site. Non-procedure-related bleeding occurred in 34 patients (21.7%) and in 53 (34.0%), respectively (risk ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.92; P = 0.02). Most bleeding occurred in the first month and was minor. A secondary composite 1 event occurred in 49 patients (31.2%) receiving oral anticoagulation alone and in 71 (45.5%) receiving oral anticoagulation plus clopidogrel (difference, -14.3 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -25.0 to -3.6; risk ratio, 0.69; 95% CI for superiority, 0.51 to 0.92). A secondary composite 2 event occurred in 21 patients (13.4%) and in 27 (17.3%), respectively (difference, -3.9 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -11.9 to 4.0; risk ratio, 0.77; 95% CI for superiority, 0.46 to 1.31).

Conclusions: In patients undergoing TAVI who were receiving oral anticoagulation, the incidence of serious bleeding over a period of 1 month or 1 year was lower with oral anticoagulation alone than with oral anticoagulation plus clopidogrel. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular TAVI EU Clinical Trials Register number, 2013-003125-28; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02247128.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1915152DOI Listing
April 2020

Real-World Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Following Polymer-Free Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Implantations to Treat Coronary Artery Disease.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2020 06;34(3):335-344

Centre Hospitalier d'Avignon, Avignon, France.

Objectives: The objective of this post hoc analysis was to analyze real-world dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) regimens following polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stent (PF-SES) implantations in an unselected patient population.

Methods: Patient-level data from two all-comers observational studies (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02629575 and NCT02905214) were pooled and analyzed in terms of their primary endpoint. During the data verification process, we observed substantial deviations from DAPT guideline recommendations. To illuminate this gap between clinical practice and guideline recommendations, we conducted a post hoc analysis of DAPT regimens and clinical event rates for which we defined the net adverse event rate (NACE) consisting of target lesion revascularization (TLR, primary endpoint of all-comers observational studies) all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis (ST), and bleeding events. A logistic regression was utilized to determine predictors why ticagrelor was used in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients instead of the guideline-recommended clopidogrel.

Results: For stable CAD, the composite endpoint of clinical, bleeding, and stent thrombosis, i.e., NACE, between the clopidogrel and ticagrelor treatment groups was not different (5.4% vs. 5.1%, p = 0.745). Likewise, in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cohort, the NACE rates were not different between both DAPT strategies (9.2% vs. 9.3%, p = 0.927). There were also no differences in the accumulated rates for TLR, myocardial infarction ([MI], mortality, bleeding events, and stent thrombosis in elective and ACS patients. The main predictors for ticagrelor use in stable CAD patients were age < 65 years, smaller vessels, treatment of ostial and calcified lesions, and in-stent restenosis.

Conclusion: Within the framework of a post hoc analysis based on a real-world, large cohort study, there were no differences in the combined endpoint of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), bleeding and thrombotic events for clopidogrel and ticagrelor in stable CAD or ACS patients. Despite the recommendation for clopidogrel by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), real-world ticagrelor use was observed in subgroups of stable CAD patients that ought to be explored in future trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10557-020-06963-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Unrestricted use of polymer-free sirolimus eluting stents in routine clinical practice.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Feb;99(8):e19119

Städtische Kliniken Esslingen, Esslingen, Germany.

Stent designs with ultrathin struts may further increase the procedural success of challenging lesion subsets. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of ultrathin strut, polymer-free sirolimus eluting stent (PF-SES) implantations in a large scale, unselected patient population.Adult patients underwent percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with a thin-strut PF-SES. Data from two all-comers observational studies having the same protocol (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02629575 and NCT02905214) were pooled. The accumulated target lesion revascularization (TLR) rate at 9-12 months was the primary endpoint. All dual antiplatelet therapy strategies according to the applicable guidelines were permissible.In total, 7243 patients were prospectively enrolled for PCI with PF-SES in stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Major risk factors in the overall cohort were diabetes (37.3%), ST elevation myocardial infarction (18.1%) and non-ST myocardial infarction (24.6%). The follow-up rate was 88.6% in the overall population. The TLR rate in the overall cohort was 2.2% whereas definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST) occurred in 0.7%. In patients with in-stent restenosis lesions, the major adverse cardiac events rate was 6.4% whereas the corresponding rate for isolated left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease was highest with 6.7% followed by patients with culprit lesions in vein bypasses (VB, 7.1%). The mortality rate in patients treated in VB lesions was highest with 5.4%, followed by the isolated LMCA subgroup (3.4%) and ACS (2.6%).PCI with PF-SES in an unselected patient population, is associated with low clinical event and ST rates. Furthermore, PF-SES angioplasty in niche indications demonstrated favorable safety and efficacy outcomes with high procedural success rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034709PMC
February 2020

Bioresorbable scaffold implantation in STEMI patients: 5 years imaging subanalysis of PRAGUE-19 study.

J Transl Med 2020 01 30;18(1):33. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Cardiocenter, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Kralovské Vinohrady, Šrobárova 50, Prague 10, 100 34, Czech Republic.

Background: Bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) Absorb™ clinical use has been stopped due to higher rate of device thrombosis. Scaffold struts persist longer than 2 years in the vessel wall. Second generation devices are being developed. This study evaluates long-term invasive imaging in STEMI patients.

Methods: PRAGUE-19 study is an academic study enrolling consecutive STEMI patients with intention to implant Absorb™ BRS. A total of 83 STEMI patients between December 2012 and March 2014 fulfilled entry criteria. Coronary angiography and optical coherence tomography at 5 year follow-up was performed in 25 patients.

Results: Primary combined clinical endpoint (death, myocardial infarction or target vessel revascularization) occurred in 12.6% during the five-year follow-up with overall mortality 6.3%. Definite scaffold thrombosis occurred in 2 patients in the early phase after BRS implantation. Quantitative coronary angiography after 5 years demonstrated low late lumen loss of 0.11 ± 0.35 mm with binary restenosis rate of 0%. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated complete resorption of scaffold struts and mean lumen diameter of 3.25 ± 0.30 and 3.22 ± 0.49 (P = 0.73) at baseline and after 5 years, respectively. Three patients developed small coronary artery aneurysm in the treated segment.

Conclusion: Invasive imaging results 5 years after BRS implantation in STEMI showed complete resorption of scaffold struts and stable lumen vessel diameter. Trial registration ISRCTN43696201 (retrospectivelly registred, June 7th, 2019). https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN43696201.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02230-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6993315PMC
January 2020

Polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stent use in Europe and Asia: Ethnic differences in demographics and clinical outcomes.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(1):e0226606. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, South Korea.

Background: The objective of this study was to assess regional and ethnic differences in an unselected patient population treated with polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stents (PF-SES) in Asia and Europe.

Methods: Two all-comers observational studies based on the same protocol (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02629575 and NCT02905214) were combined for data analysis to assure sufficient statistical power. The primary endpoint was the accumulated target lesion revascularization (TLR) rate at 9-12 months.

Results: Of the total population of 7243 patients, 44.0% (3186) were recruited in the Mediterranean region and 32.0% (2317) in central Europe. The most prominent Asian region was South Korea (17.6%, 1274) followed by Malaysia (5.7%, 413). Major cardiovascular risk factors varied significantly across regions. The overall rates for accumulated TLR and MACE were low with 2.2% (140/6374) and 4.4% (279/6374), respectively. In ACS patients, there were no differences in terms of MACE, TLR, MI and accumulated mortality between the investigated regions. Moreover, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) regimens were substantially longer in Asian countries even in patients with stable coronary artery disease as compared to those in Europe.

Conclusions: PF-SES angioplasty is associated with low clinical event rates in all regions. Further reductions in clinical event rates seem to be associated with longer DAPT regimens.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226606PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957170PMC
April 2020

Takotsubo syndrome.

Vnitr Lek 2019 ;65(10):659-662

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is currently regarded as a special type of acute coronary syndrome. The syndrome can be trigerred by emotional stress factors and more often by some severe non-cardiac conditions. The long-term outcome of TTS patients is similar to those with myocardial infarction. The exact pathophysiological mechanism is not yet fully explained. Excessive amount of catecholamines released into bloodstream after stress attack plays a crucial role. The transient left ventricle dysfunction is probably caused by combination of several pathophysiological mechanism. There is little data concerning the treatment of TTS. It is important to focus on therapeutic strategies in order to eliminate risk of heart failure or TTS recurrence. The aim of the present review is to bring last known information about this disease.
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January 2020

Impact of aspirin on takotsubo syndrome: a propensity score-based analysis of the InterTAK Registry.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 02 20;22(2):330-337. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Heart Center University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of aspirin on prognosis in takotsubo syndrome (TTS).

Methods And Results: Patients from the International Takotsubo (InterTAK) Registry were categorized into two groups based on aspirin prescription at discharge. A comparison of clinical outcomes between groups was performed using an adjusted analysis with propensity score (PS) stratification; results from the unadjusted analysis were also reported to note the effect of the PS adjustment. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: a composite of death, myocardial infarction, TTS recurrence, stroke or transient ischaemic attack) were assessed at 30-day and 5-year follow-up. A total of 1533 TTS patients with known status regarding aspirin prescription at discharge were included. According to the adjusted analysis based on PS stratification, aspirin was not associated with a lower hazard of MACCE at 30-day [hazard ratio (HR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-3.04, P = 0.64] or 5-year follow-up (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.78-1.58, P = 0.58). These results were confirmed by sensitivity analyses performed with alternative PS-based methods, i.e. covariate adjustment and inverse probability of treatment weighting.

Conclusion: In the present study, no association was found between aspirin use in TTS patients and a reduced risk of MACCE at 30-day and 5-year follow-up. These findings should be confirmed in adequately powered randomized controlled trials. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1698DOI Listing
February 2020

Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds versus everolimus-eluting metallic stents in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 5-year results of the BVS-EXAMINATION study.

EuroIntervention 2020 03;15(16):1436-1443

Cardiovascular Institute, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Aims: The aim of this study was to compare five-year clinical outcomes between an everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) and an everolimus-eluting metallic stent (EES) in STEMI patients.

Methods And Results: This observational and retrospective study included 235 consecutive STEMI patients treated with BRS, compared with 235 STEMI patients treated with EES from the EXAMINATION trial, by applying propensity score matching. The primary endpoint was a device-oriented endpoint (DOCE), including cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction and target lesion revascularisation at five-year follow-up. Device thrombosis, according to the ARC criteria, was also evaluated. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis was also performed at five years in event-free BRS patients. The cumulative incidence of five-year DOCE was higher in the BRS group as compared to the EES group (13.2% vs 7.6%, HR 1.87, 95% CI: 0.94-3.44, p=0.071), mainly driven by a higher rate of TLR (7.6% vs 1.7%, HR 1.15, 95% CI: 0.44-2.30, p=0.004). The five-year definite BRS thrombosis rate was also higher as compared to EES (4.2% vs 1.2%, HR 3.49, 95% CI: 0.95-12.82, p=0.054). OCT analysis showed a high incidence of neoatherosclerosis in the BRS group.

Conclusions: The five-year event risk was higher with BRS versus EES in STEMI. This suggests that the probability of obtaining favourable results at very long-term follow-up is low. Whether better results will be obtained with new-generation BVS remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-19-00773DOI Listing
March 2020

Intraventricular Thrombus Formation and Embolism in Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights From the International Takotsubo Registry.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 01 26;40(1):279-287. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Service de cardiologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Switzerland (P. Meyer, J.D.A.).

Objective: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by acute left ventricular dysfunction, which can contribute to intraventricular thrombus and embolism. Still, prevalence and clinical impact of thrombus formation and embolic events on outcome of TTS patients remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate clinical features and outcomes of patients with and without intraventricular thrombus or embolism. Additionally, factors associated with thrombus formation or embolism, as well as predictors for mortality, were identified. Approach and Results: TTS patients enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry at 28 centers in Australia, Europe, and the United States were dichotomized according to the occurrence/absence of intraventricular thrombus or embolism. Patients with intraventricular thrombus or embolism were defined as the ThrombEmb group. Of 1676 TTS patients, 56 (3.3%) patients developed intraventricular thrombus and/or embolism following TTS diagnosis (median time interval, 2.0 days [range, 0-38 days]). Patients in the ThrombEmb group had a different clinical profile including lower left ventricular ejection fraction, higher prevalence of the apical type, elevated levels of troponin and inflammatory markers, and higher prevalence of vascular disease. In a Firth bias-reduced penalized-likelihood logistic regression model apical type, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%, previous vascular disease, and a white blood cell count on admission >10×10 cells/μL emerged as independent predictors for thrombus formation or embolism.

Conclusions: Intraventricular thrombus or embolism occur in 3.3% of patients in the acute phase of TTS. A simple risk score including clinical parameters associated with intraventricular thrombus formation or embolism identifies patients at increased risk.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.119.313491DOI Listing
January 2020

Clinical Predictors and Prognostic Impact of Recovery of Wall Motion Abnormalities in Takotsubo Syndrome: Results From the International Takotsubo Registry.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 11 1;8(21):e011194. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Department of Cardiology Kantonsspital Lucerne Lucerne Switzerland.

Background Left ventricular (LV) recovery in takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs over a wide-ranging interval, varying from hours to weeks. We sought to investigate the clinical predictors and prognostic impact of recovery time for TTS patients. Methods and Results TTS patients from the International Takotsubo Registry were included in this study. Cut-off for early LV recovery was determined to be 10 days after the acute event. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the absence of early recovery. In-hospital outcomes and 1-year mortality were compared for patients with versus without early recovery. We analyzed 406 patients with comprehensive and serial imaging data regarding time to recovery. Of these, 191 (47.0%) had early LV recovery and 215 (53.0%) demonstrated late LV improvement. Patients without early recovery were more often male (12.6% versus 5.2%; =0.011) and presented more frequently with typical TTS (76.3% versus 67.0%, =0.040). Cardiac and inflammatory markers were higher in patients without early recovery than in those with early recovery. Patients without early recovery showed unfavorable 1-year outcome compared with patients with early recovery (=0.003). On multiple logistic regression, male sex, LV ejection fraction <45%, and acute neurologic disorders were associated with the absence of early recovery. Conclusions TTS patients without early LV recovery have different clinical characteristics and less favorable 1-year outcome compared with patients with early recovery. The factors associated with the absence of early recovery included male sex, reduced LV ejection fraction, and acute neurologic events. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.011194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6898832PMC
November 2019

Clinical Features and Outcomes of Patients With Malignancy and Takotsubo Syndrome: Observations From the International Takotsubo Registry.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 08 17;8(15):e010881. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Clinic for Cardiology and Pneumology Georg August University Goettingen Goettingen Germany.

Background Clinical characteristics and outcomes of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) patients with malignancy have not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore differences in clinical characteristics and to investigate short- and long-term outcomes in TTS patients with or without malignancy. Methods and Results TTS patients were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. The TTS cohort was divided into patients with and without malignancy to investigate differences in clinical characteristics and to assess short- and long-term mortality. A subanalysis was performed comparing long-term mortality between a subset of TTS patients with or without malignancy and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without malignancy. Malignancy was observed in 16.6% of 1604 TTS patients. Patients with malignancy were older and more likely to have physical triggers, but less likely to have emotional triggers compared with those without malignancy. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with malignancy (P<0.001), while short-term outcome was comparable (P=0.17). In a subanalysis, long-term mortality was comparable between TTS patients with malignancies and ACS patients with malignancies (P=0.13). Malignancy emerged as an independent predictor of long-term mortality. Conclusions A substantial number of TTS patients show an association with malignancy. History of malignancy might increase the risk for TTS, and therefore, appropriate screening for malignancy should be considered in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6761645PMC
August 2019

Cardiac arrest in takotsubo syndrome: results from the InterTAK Registry.

Eur Heart J 2019 07;40(26):2142-2151

Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, University of Leipzig-Heart Center, Leipzig, Germany.

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS).

Methods And Results: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission.

Conclusions: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612368PMC
July 2019

Immune-inflammatory response after bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation in patients with acute myocardial infarction with ST elevation in a long-term perspective.

Heart Vessels 2019 Apr 12;34(4):557-563. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Cardiocenter, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Královské Vinohrady, Ruská 87, Prague 10, Czech Republic.

A higher rate of bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) thrombosis has been observed after device implantation compared to implantation of permanent metallic stents in recently published studies. The mechanism of BVS thrombosis is currently under debate. To assess whether the immune-inflammatory response after BVS implantation is a potential trigger of BVS thrombosis. The PRAGUE-19 study was an academic study that enrolled consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with the intention to implant a BVS. A laboratory sub-study included 49 patients with an implanted BVS (of which 38 underwent the complete 2-year follow-up) and 52 patients having an implanted permanent metallic stent as the control group (of which 30 underwent the complete 2-year follow-up). Samples for inflammatory markers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)] were taken before BVS or stent implantation, on days 1 and 2 after device implantation and at 1 month and 2 years for a clinical control. The primary combined clinical endpoint of the sub-study (death, reinfarction or target vessel revascularization) occurred in 4.08% of the BVS group and 7.69% of the control group (p = 0.442) during the 2-year follow-up period, with overall mortality of 2.04% in the BVS group and 1.92% in the control group (p = 0.966). Definite BVS thrombosis occurred in one patient in the subacute phase; there was no late or very late thrombosis. Two definite stent thromboses were observed in the control group: one in the subacute phase and the other in the late phase. Baseline inflammatory marker levels did not differ between the groups. Lower levels of IL-6 and hs-CRP were observed in the BVS group compared to the control group (12.02 ± 5.94 vs. 15.21 ± 5.33 pg/ml; p < 0.01; 3952.9 ± 1704.75 ng/ml vs. 4507.49 ± 1190.01 ng/ml; p = 0.037, respectively) on days 1 and 2 (12.01 ± 6.31 vs. 13.85 ± 6.01 pg/ml; p = 0.089; 4447.92 ± 1325.31 ng/ml vs. 4637.03 ± 1290.99 ng/ml; p = 0.255, respectively). No differences in IL-6 or hs-CRP were observed after 1 month or 2 years in the clinical control. Levels of TNF-α did not differ between the groups in the early period after BVS or metallic stent implantation, nor during follow-up. The immune-inflammatory response is lower during the early phase after BVS implantation compared to that after metallic stent implantation, but the responses did not differ in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-018-1281-7DOI Listing
April 2019

Long-Term Prognosis of Patients With Takotsubo Syndrome.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 08;72(8):874-882

Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany.

Background: Prognosis of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) remains controversial due to scarcity of available data. Additionally, the effect of the triggering factors remains elusive.

Objectives: This study compared prognosis between TTS and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and investigated short- and long-term outcomes in TTS based on different triggers.

Methods: Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. Long-term mortality of patients with TTS was compared to an age- and sex-matched cohort of patients with ACS. In addition, short- and long-term outcomes were compared between different groups according to triggering conditions.

Results: Overall, TTS patients had a comparable long-term mortality risk with ACS patients. Of 1,613 TTS patients, an emotional trigger was detected in 485 patients (30%). Of 630 patients (39%) related to physical triggers, 98 patients (6%) had acute neurologic disorders, while in the other 532 patients (33%), physical activities, medical conditions, or procedures were the triggering conditions. The remaining 498 patients (31%) had no identifiable trigger. TTS patients related to physical stress showed higher mortality rates than ACS patients during long-term follow-up, whereas patients related to emotional stress had better outcomes compared with ACS patients.

Conclusions: Overall, TTS patients had long-term outcomes comparable to age- and sex-matched ACS patients. Also, we demonstrated that TTS can either be benign or a life-threating condition depending on the inciting stress factor. We propose a new classification based on triggers, which can serve as a clinical tool to predict short- and long-term outcomes of TTS. (International Takotsubo Registry [InterTAK Registry]; NCT01947621).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.06.016DOI Listing
August 2018

Relationship between TRAIL and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Patients with ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated with Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Biomed Res Int 2018 9;2018:3709084. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Cardiocenter, Department of Cardiology, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Kralovske Vinohrady, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Apoptosis plays an important role in the myocardial injury after acute myocardial infarction and in the subsequent development of heart failure.

Aim: To clarify serum kinetics of apoptotic markers TRAIL and sFas and their relation to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI).

Methods: In 101 patients with STEMI treated with pPCI, levels of TRAIL and sFas were measured in series of serum samples obtained during hospitalization and one month after STEMI. LVEF was assessed at admission and at one month. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, i.e., death, re-MI, and hospitalization for heart failure and stroke) were analysed during a two-year followup.

Results: Serum level of TRAIL significantly decreased one day after pPCI (50.5pg/mL) compared to admission (56.7pg/mL), subsequently increased on day 2 after pPCI (58.8pg/mL), and reached its highest level at one month (70.3pg/mL). TRAIL levels on days 1 and 2 showed a significant inverse correlation with troponin and a significant positive correlation with LVEF at baseline. Moreover, TRAIL correlated significantly with LVEF one month after STEMI (day 1: r=0.402, p<0.001; day 2: r=0.542, p<0.001). On the contrary, sFas level was significantly lowest at admission (5073pg/mL), increased one day after pPCI (6370pg/mL), and decreased on day 2 (5548pg/mL). Significantly highest sFas level was marked at one month (7024pg/mL). sFas failed to correlate with LVEF at baseline or at one month. Both TRAIL and sFas showed no ability to predict improvement of LVEF one month after STEMI or a 2-year MACE (represented by 3.29%).

Conclusion: In STEMI treated with pPCI, TRAIL reaches its lowest serum concentration after reperfusion. Low TRAIL level is associated with worse LVEF in the acute phase of STEMI as well as one month after STEMI. Higher TRAIL level appears to be beneficial and thus TRAIL seems to represent a protective mediator of post-AMI injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3709084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6077671PMC
January 2019

Optical coherence tomography in STEMI with bioresorbable scaffold: possible cause of coronary flow impairment? A sub-study from the Prague 19 trial.

Heart Vessels 2018 Nov 18;33(11):1282-1287. Epub 2018 May 18.

Cardiocenter, Third Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital Kralovske Vinohrady, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

This study assessed the Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) impact on the coronary flow in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) after bioresorbable scaffold implantation. Only few data about OCT use in STEMI are available and coronary flow before and after OCT is not well studied yet. 54 patients with OCT performed at the end of procedure from the Prague 19 trial were selected and coronary flow was evaluated as TIMI frame count (TFC) before and just after OCT. Significant increase in TIMI frame count after OCT [from 9.5 (6.75-12.25) to 11.5 (8-15.25) frames; p = 0.001] and high verapamil administration (18%) was reported. OCT at the end of primary percutaneous coronary intervention with bioresorbable scaffold is a feasible procedure. However, it seems to be associated with flow deterioration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00380-018-1184-7DOI Listing
November 2018

Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: One More Angiographic Evidence of Microvascular Dysfunction.

Biomed Res Int 2018 14;2018:5281485. Epub 2018 Mar 14.

Cardiocenter, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and University Hospital Kralovske Vinohrady, 10000 Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) aetiology has not been completely understood yet. One proposed pathogenic mechanism was coronary microvascular dysfunction (MVD). This study compared coronary flow and myocardial perfusion in patients with TC, microvascular angina (MVA), and a control group (CG).

Methods: Out of 42 consecutive patients presented to our centre with TC from 2013 to 2017; we retrospectively selected 27 patients. We compared them with a sex- and age-matched group of 27 MVA cases and 27 patients with normal coronary arteries (CG). The flow was evaluated in the three coronary arteries as TIMI flow and TIMI frame count (TFC). Myocardial perfusion was studied with Blush-Score and Quantitative Blush Evaluator (QuBE).

Results: TFC, in TC, revealed flow impairment in the three arteries compared to the CG (left anterior descending artery (LAD): 22 ± 8, 15 ± 4; = 0.001) (right coronary artery: 12 ± 4, 10 ± 3; = 0,025) (left circumflex: 14 ± 4, CG 11 ± 3; = 0,006). QuBE showed myocardial perfusion impairment in the LAD territory in TC comparing with both the CG (8,9 (7,2-11,5) versus 11,4 (10-15,7); = 0,008) and the MVA group (8,9 (7,2-11,5) versus 13,5 (10-16); = 0,006).

Conclusions: Our study confirmed that coronary flow is impaired in TC, reflecting a MVD. Myocardial perfusion defect was detected only in the LAD area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/5281485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5872669PMC
September 2018

Use of Amplatzer occluders for treatment of aorto-pulmonary fistulas - case and review of the literature.

Expert Rev Med Devices 2017 Nov 12;14(11):845-847. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

a Cardiocenter , University Hospital Královské Vinohrady and Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University , Prague , Czech Republic.

Introduction: the use of amplatzer occluder family in daily clinical practice has already overcome on-label indications, with growing clinical experience and the technological evolution of devices. Areas covered: We present the case of a patient with a very rare complication following proximal aortic surgery treated using a unique strategy. A huge pseudoaneurysm around an ascending aortic prosthesis ruptured into the right pulmonary artery. A hybrid treatment strategy consisting of percutaneous closure of the fistula followed by cardiosurgery was chosen due to the patient's poor haemodynamic condition. We also review current clinical experience of endovascular treatment of aortopulmonary fistulas by searching case reports in PubMed. Expert commentary: Closure of the APF using an Amplatzer occluder via the antegrade venous approach is feasible, and may improve the haemodynamic conditions and decrease the risk of subsequent cardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17434440.2017.1389636DOI Listing
November 2017

Incidence, treatment strategies and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome with and without ongoing myocardial ischaemia: results from the CZECH-3 registry.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2019 Dec 21;8(8):687-694. Epub 2017 Jul 21.

Cardiocenter, University Hospital Kralovske Vinohrady and Third Faculty of Medicine, Czech Republic.

Background: Patients with acute coronary syndrome with signs of ongoing myocardial ischaemia at first medical contact should be indicated for immediate invasive treatment.

Aim: To assess the incidence, treatment strategies and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in a large unselected cohort of patients with respect to the signs of ongoing myocardial ischaemia.

Methods: The CZECH-3 registry included 1754 consecutive patients admitted for suspected acute coronary syndrome to 43 hospitals during a 2-month period in the autumn of 2015. Acute coronary syndrome with ongoing myocardial ischaemia was defined by the presence of persistent/recurrent chest pain/dyspnoea and at least one of the following: persistent ST-segment elevation or depression, bundle branch block, haemodynamic or electric instability due to suspected ischaemia. Major adverse cardiac events (death, reinfarction, stroke, unexpected revascularisation, stent thrombosis) and severe bleeding according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium criteria were evaluated at 30 days.

Results: Acute coronary syndrome was ruled out during the hospital stay in 434 (24.7%) patients. Out of 1280 patients with confirmed acute coronary syndrome, 732 (57%) had clinical signs of ongoing myocardial ischaemia at first medical contact. Coronary angiography was performed in 94.7% of patients with confirmed acute coronary syndrome with ongoing myocardial ischaemia and 89% of patients with confirmed acute coronary syndrome without ongoing myocardial ischaemia (<0.001). The major adverse cardiac event rate was 9.8% for patients with confirmed acute coronary syndrome with ongoing myocardial ischaemia and 5.5% for patients without ongoing myocardial ischaemia (=0.005), the 30-day severe bleeding rate was 1.6% and 1.5% (=1.0). Patients with ongoing myocardial ischaemia admitted to regional hospitals had higher major adverse cardiac event rates compared with patients admitted directly to cardiocentres with percutaneous coronary intervention capability (13.3% vs. 8.2%, =0.034).

Conclusions: Ongoing myocardial ischaemia was present in more than half of patients hospitalised with acute coronary syndrome. These very high-risk patients may benefit from direct admission to percutaneous coronary intervention-capable centres.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872617720929DOI Listing
December 2019