Publications by authors named "Peter Y Chuang"

48 Publications

Gene expression profiles of glomerular endothelial cells support their role in the glomerulopathy of diabetic mice.

Kidney Int 2018 08 31;94(2):326-345. Epub 2018 May 31.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Endothelial dysfunction promotes the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), which is considered to be an early event in disease progression. However, the molecular changes associated with glomerular endothelial cell (GEC) injury in early DN are not well defined. Most gene expression studies have relied on the indirect assessment of GEC injury from isolated glomeruli or renal cortices. Here, we present transcriptomic analysis of isolated GECs, using streptozotocin-induced diabetic wildtype (STZ-WT) and diabetic eNOS-null (STZ-eNOS) mice as models of mild and advanced DN, respectively. GECs of both models in comparison to their respective nondiabetic controls showed significant alterations in the regulation of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and proliferation. The extent of these changes was greater in STZ-eNOS than in STZ-WT GECs. Additionally, genes in STZ-eNOS GECs indicated further dysregulation in angiogenesis and epigenetic regulation. Moreover, a biphasic change in the number of GECs, characterized by an initial increase and subsequent decrease over time, was observed only in STZ-eNOS mice. This is consistent with an early compensatory angiogenic process followed by increased apoptosis, leading to an overall decrease in GEC survival in DN progression. From the genes altered in angiogenesis in STZ-eNOS GECs, we identified potential candidate genes, Lrg1 and Gpr56, whose function may augment diabetes-induced angiogenesis. Thus, our results support a role for GEC in DN by providing direct evidence for alterations of GEC gene expression and molecular pathways. Candidate genes of specific pathways, such as Lrg1 and Gpr56, can be further explored for potential therapeutic targeting to mitigate the initiation and progression of DN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.02.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054896PMC
August 2018

Protein S Protects against Podocyte Injury in Diabetic Nephropathy.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2018 05 6;29(5):1397-1410. Epub 2018 Mar 6.

Renal Section, James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York;

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of ESRD in the United States, but the molecular mechanisms mediating the early stages of DN are unclear. To assess global changes that occur in early diabetic kidneys and to identify proteins potentially involved in pathogenic pathways in DN progression, we performed proteomic analysis of diabetic and nondiabetic rat glomeruli. Protein S (PS) among the highly upregulated proteins in the diabetic glomeruli. PS exerts multiple biologic effects through the Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) receptors. Because increased activation of Axl by the PS homolog Gas6 has been implicated in DN progression, we further examined the role of PS in DN. In human kidneys, glomerular PS expression was elevated in early DN but suppressed in advanced DN. However, plasma PS concentrations did not differ between patients with DN and healthy controls. A prominent increase of PS expression also colocalized with the expression of podocyte markers in early diabetic kidneys. In cultured podocytes, high-glucose treatment elevated PS expression, and PS knockdown further enhanced the high-glucose-induced apoptosis. Conversely, PS overexpression in cultured podocytes dampened the high-glucose- and TNF--induced expression of proinflammatory mediators. Tyro3 receptor was upregulated in response to high glucose and mediated the anti-inflammatory response of PS. Podocyte-specific PS loss resulted in accelerated DN in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, whereas the transient induction of PS expression in glomerular cells attenuated albuminuria and podocyte loss in diabetic OVE26 mice. Our results support a protective role of PS against glomerular injury in DN progression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2017030234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5967770PMC
May 2018

Increased podocyte Sirtuin-1 function attenuates diabetic kidney injury.

Kidney Int 2018 06 22;93(6):1330-1343. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Podocyte injury and loss contribute to the progression of glomerular diseases, including diabetic kidney disease. We previously found that the glomerular expression of Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is reduced in human diabetic glomeruli and that the podocyte-specific loss of SIRT1 aggravated albuminuria and worsened kidney disease progression in diabetic mice. SIRT1 encodes an NAD-dependent deacetylase that modifies the activity of key transcriptional regulators affected in diabetic kidneys, including NF-κB, STAT3, p53, FOXO4, and PGC1-α. However, whether the increased glomerular SIRT1 activity is sufficient to ameliorate the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease has not been explored. We addressed this by inducible podocyte-specific SIRT1 overexpression in diabetic OVE26 mice. The induction of SIRT1 overexpression in podocytes for six weeks in OVE26 mice with established albuminuria attenuated the progression of diabetic glomerulopathy. To further validate the therapeutic potential of increased SIRT1 activity against diabetic kidney disease, we developed a new, potent and selective SIRT1 agonist, BF175. In cultured podocytes BF175 increased SIRT1-mediated activation of PGC1-α and protected against high glucose-mediated mitochondrial injury. In vivo, administration of BF175 for six weeks in OVE26 mice resulted in a marked reduction in albuminuria and in glomerular injury in a manner similar to podocyte-specific SIRT1 overexpression. Both podocyte-specific SIRT1 overexpression and BT175 treatment attenuated diabetes-induced podocyte loss and reduced oxidative stress in glomeruli of OVE26 mice. Thus, increased SIRT1 activity protects against diabetes-induced podocyte injury and effectively mitigates the progression of diabetic kidney disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2017.12.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5967974PMC
June 2018

Transcriptomic analysis uncovers novel synergistic mechanisms in combination therapy for lupus nephritis.

Kidney Int 2018 02;93(2):416-429

National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

A recent clinical study showed that combination therapy consisting of mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus and steroids was shown to be more effective in achieving complete remission in patients with severe forms of lupus nephritis than conventional therapy consisting of intravenous cyclophosphamide and steroids. To explore the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of increased efficacy of the combination therapy regimen, we employed a mouse model of lupus nephritis, MRL/lpr mice, and treated them with monotherapies of prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil, or tacrolimus, or with their combination. Consistent with previous clinical findings, combination therapy markedly improved renal outcome compared to the monotherapies in mice with lupus nephritis. Transcriptomic analysis of their kidneys revealed distinct molecular pathways that were differentially regulated in combination therapy versus monotherapies. Combination therapy not only provided additive immunosuppressive effects, but also induced gene expression and molecular pathways to confer enhanced renoprotection. Specifically, combination therapy inhibited TLR7 expression in the kidneys of mice with lupus nephritis; combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil led to better stabilization of the podocyte actin cytoskeleton through the reciprocal regulation of RhoA and Rac1 activities. Combination therapy strongly suppressed the IL-6/Stat3 pathway. These findings were further validated in renal biopsy samples from patients with lupus nephritis before and after treatments with mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus or combination therapy. Thus, our study further supports the earlier clinical finding and further provides insights into the molecular basis for increased efficacy of combination therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2017.08.031DOI Listing
February 2018

Retinoic acid improves nephrotoxic serum-induced glomerulonephritis through activation of podocyte retinoic acid receptor α.

Kidney Int 2017 12 27;92(6):1444-1457. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA; Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; Renal Section, James J Peters VAMC, Bronx, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Proliferation of glomerular epithelial cells, including podocytes, is a key histologic feature of crescentic glomerulonephritis. We previously found that retinoic acid (RA) inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation of podocytes by activating RA receptor-α (RARα) in a murine model of HIV-associated nephropathy. Here, we examined whether RA would similarly protect podocytes against nephrotoxic serum-induced crescentic glomerulonephritis and whether this effect was mediated by podocyte RARα. RA treatment markedly improved renal function and reduced the number of crescentic lesions in nephritic wild-type mice, while this protection was largely lost in mice with podocyte-specific ablation of Rara (Pod-Rara knockout). At a cellular level, RA significantly restored the expression of podocyte differentiation markers in nephritic wild-type mice, but not in nephritic Pod-Rara knockout mice. Furthermore, RA suppressed the expression of cell injury, proliferation, and parietal epithelial cell markers in nephritic wild-type mice, all of which were significantly dampened in nephritic Pod-Rara knockout mice. Interestingly, RA treatment led to the coexpression of podocyte and parietal epithelial cell markers in a small subset of glomerular cells in nephritic mice, suggesting that RA may induce transdifferentiation of parietal epithelial cells toward a podocyte phenotype. In vitro, RA directly inhibited the proliferation of parietal epithelial cells and enhanced the expression of podocyte markers. In vivo lineage tracing of labeled parietal epithelial cells confirmed that RA increased the number of parietal epithelial cells expressing podocyte markers in nephritic glomeruli. Thus, RA attenuates crescentic glomerulonephritis primarily through RARα-mediated protection of podocytes and in part through the inhibition of parietal epithelial cell proliferation and induction of their transdifferentiation into podocytes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2017.04.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696080PMC
December 2017

Reduction in podocyte SIRT1 accelerates kidney injury in aging mice.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2017 09 14;313(3):F621-F628. Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Both the incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease are increasing in the elderly population. Although aging is known to induce kidney injury, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), a longevity gene, is known to protect kidney cell injury from various cellular stresses. In previous studies, we showed that the podocyte-specific loss of Sirt1 aggravates diabetic kidney injury. However, the role of Sirt1 in aging-induced podocyte injury is not known. Therefore, in this study we sought to determine the effects of podocyte-specific reduction of Sirt1 in age-induced kidney injury. We employed the inducible podocyte-specific Sirt1 knockdown mice that express shRNA against Sirt1 (Pod-Sirt1) and control mice that express shRNA for luciferase (Pod-Luci). We found that reduction of podocyte Sirt1 led to aggravated aging-induced glomerulosclerosis and albuminuria. In addition, urinary level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative stress, was markedly increased in aged Pod-Sirt1 mice compared with aged Pod-Luci mice. Although podocyte-specific markers decreased in aged mice compared with the young controls, the decrease was further exacerbated in aged Pod-Sirt1 compared with Pod-Luci mice. Interestingly, expression of cellular senescence markers was significantly higher in the glomeruli of Pod-Sirt1 mice than Pod-Luci mice, suggesting that cellular senescence may contribute to podocyte loss in aging kidneys. Finally, we confirmed that Pod-Sirt1 glomeruli were associated with reduced activation of the transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α coactivador-1 (PGC1α)/PPARγ, forkhead box O (FOXO)3, FOXO4, and p65 NF-κB, through SIRT1-mediated deacetylation. Together, our data suggest that SIRT1 may be a potential therapeutic target to treat patients with aging-related kidney disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00255.2017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5625108PMC
September 2017

Knockdown of RTN1A attenuates ER stress and kidney injury in albumin overload-induced nephropathy.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2016 Mar 6;310(5):F409-15. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; and.

Our previous studies have suggested a critical role of reticulon (RTN)1A in mediating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in kidney cells of animal models and humans with kidney diseases. A large body of evidence suggests that proteinuria itself can cause tubular cell injury leading to the progression of kidney disease. In the present study, we determined whether RTN1A mediates proteinuria-induced tubular cell injury through increased ER stress. We found that incubation of HK2 cells with human serum albumin induced the expression of RTN1A and ER stress markers, whereas knockdown of RTN1A expression attenuated human serum albumin-induced ER stress and tubular cell apoptosis in vitro. In vivo, we found that tubular cell-specific RTN1 knockdown resulted in a significant attenuation of tubular cell ER stress, apoptosis, and renal fibrosis in a model of albumin overload nephropathy. Based on these findings, we conclude that RTN1A is a key mediator for proteinuria-induced tubular cell toxicity and renal fibrosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00485.2015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4773829PMC
March 2016

RTN1 mediates progression of kidney disease by inducing ER stress.

Nat Commun 2015 Jul 31;6:7841. Epub 2015 Jul 31.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York 10029, USA.

Identification of new biomarkers and drug targets for chronic kidney disease (CKD) is required for the development of more effective therapy. Here we report an association between expression of reticulon 1 (RTN1) and severity of CKD. An isoform-specific increase in the expression of RTN1A is detected in the diseased kidneys from mice and humans, and correlates inversely with renal function in patients with diabetic nephropathy. RTN1 overexpression in renal cells induces ER stress and apoptosis, whereas RTN1 knockdown attenuates tunicamycin-induced and hyperglycaemia-induced ER stress and apoptosis. RTN1A interacts with PERK through its N-terminal and C-terminal domains, and mutation of these domains prevents this effect on ER stress. Knockdown of Rtn1a expression in vivo attenuates ER stress and renal fibrosis in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction, and also attenuates ER stress, proteinuria, glomerular hypertrophy and mesangial expansion in diabetic mice. Together, these data indicate that RTN1A contributes to progression of kidney disease by inducing ER stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms8841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4532799PMC
July 2015

Krüppel-like factor 6 regulates mitochondrial function in the kidney.

J Clin Invest 2015 Mar 17;125(3):1347-61. Epub 2015 Feb 17.

Maintenance of mitochondrial structure and function is critical for preventing podocyte apoptosis and eventual glomerulosclerosis in the kidney; however, the transcription factors that regulate mitochondrial function in podocyte injury remain to be identified. Here, we identified Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6), a zinc finger domain transcription factor, as an essential regulator of mitochondrial function in podocyte apoptosis. We observed that podocyte-specific deletion of Klf6 increased the susceptibility of a resistant mouse strain to adriamycin-induced (ADR-induced) focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). KLF6 expression was induced early in response to ADR in mice and cultured human podocytes, and prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways in these podocytes. Promoter analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that putative KLF6 transcriptional binding sites are present in the promoter of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase assembly gene (SCO2), which is critical for preventing cytochrome c release and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Additionally, KLF6 expression was reduced in podocytes from HIV-1 transgenic mice as well as in renal biopsies from patients with HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) and FSGS. Together, these findings indicate that KLF6-dependent regulation of the cytochrome c oxidase assembly gene is critical for maintaining mitochondrial function and preventing podocyte apoptosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI77084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4362257PMC
March 2015

Nephrin Preserves Podocyte Viability and Glomerular Structure and Function in Adult Kidneys.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2015 Oct 2;26(10):2361-77. Epub 2015 Feb 2.

Department of Medicine/Nephrology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Renal Section, James J Peter Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

Nephrin is required during kidney development for the maturation of podocytes and formation of the slit diaphragm junctional complex. Because nephrin expression is downregulated in acquired glomerular diseases, nephrin deficiency is considered a pathologic feature of glomerular injury. However, whether nephrin deficiency exacerbates glomerular injury in glomerular diseases has not been experimentally confirmed. Here, we generated mice with inducible RNA interference-mediated nephrin knockdown. Short-term nephrin knockdown (6 weeks), starting after the completion of kidney development at 5 weeks of age, did not affect glomerular structure or function. In contrast, mice with long-term nephrin knockdown (20 weeks) developed mild proteinuria, foot process effacement, filtration slit narrowing, mesangial hypercellularity and sclerosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, subendothelial zone widening, and podocyte apoptosis. When subjected to an acquired glomerular insult induced by unilateral nephrectomy or doxorubicin, mice with short-term nephrin knockdown developed more severe glomerular injury compared with mice without nephrin knockdown. Additionally, nephrin-knockdown mice developed more exaggerated glomerular enlargement when subjected to unilateral nephrectomy and more podocyte apoptosis and depletion after doxorubicin challenge. AKT phosphorylation, which is a slit diaphragm-mediated and nephrin-dependent pathway in the podocyte, was markedly reduced in mice with long-term or short-term nephrin knockdown challenged with uninephrectomy or doxorubicin. Taken together, our data establish that under the basal condition and in acquired glomerular diseases, nephrin is required to maintain slit diaphragm integrity and slit diaphragm-mediated signaling to preserve glomerular function and podocyte viability in adult mice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2014040405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4587684PMC
October 2015

BAMBI elimination enhances alternative TGF-β signaling and glomerular dysfunction in diabetic mice.

Diabetes 2015 Jun 9;64(6):2220-33. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

BMP, activin, membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) acts as a pseudo-receptor for the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β type I receptor family and a negative modulator of TGF-β kinase signaling, and BAMBI(-/-) mice show mild endothelial dysfunction. Because diabetic glomerular disease is associated with TGF-β overexpression and microvascular alterations, we examined the effect of diabetes on glomerular BAMBI mRNA levels. In isolated glomeruli from biopsies of patients with diabetic nephropathy and in glomeruli from mice with type 2 diabetes, BAMBI was downregulated. We then examined the effects of BAMBI deletion on streptozotocin-induced diabetic glomerulopathy in mice. BAMBI(-/-) mice developed more albuminuria, with a widening of foot processes, than BAMBI(+/+) mice, along with increased activation of alternative TGF-β pathways such as extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK)1/2 and Smad1/5 in glomeruli and cortices of BAMBI(-/-) mice. Vegfr2 and Angpt1, genes controlling glomerular endothelial stability, were downmodulated in glomeruli from BAMBI(-/-) mice with diabetes. Incubation of glomeruli from nondiabetic BAMBI(+/+) or BAMBI(-/-) mice with TGF-β resulted in the downregulation of Vegfr2 and Angpt1, effects that were more pronounced in BAMBI(-/-) mice and were prevented by a MEK inhibitor. The downregulation of Vegfr2 in diabetes was localized to glomerular endothelial cells using a histone yellow reporter under the Vegfr2 promoter. Thus, BAMBI modulates the effects of diabetes on glomerular permselectivity in association with altered ERK1/2 and Smad1/5 signaling. Future therapeutic interventions with inhibitors of alternative TGF-β signaling may therefore be of interest in diabetic nephropathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db14-1397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4439561PMC
June 2015

Intronic locus determines SHROOM3 expression and potentiates renal allograft fibrosis.

J Clin Invest 2015 Jan 1;125(1):208-21. Epub 2014 Dec 1.

Fibrosis underlies the loss of renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in kidney transplant recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN). Here, we studied the effect of an intronic SNP in SHROOM3, which has previously been linked to CKD, on the development of CAN in a prospective cohort of renal allograft recipients. The presence of the rs17319721 allele at the SHROOM3 locus in the donor correlated with increased SHROOM3 expression in the allograft. In vitro, we determined that the sequence containing the risk allele at rs17319721 is a transcription factor 7-like 2-dependent (TCF7L2-dependent) enhancer element that functions to increase SHROOM3 transcription. In renal tubular cells, TGF-β1 administration upregulated SHROOM3 expression in a β-catenin/TCF7L2-mediated manner, while SHROOM3 in turn facilitated canonical TGF-β1 signaling and increased α1 collagen (COL1A1) expression. Inducible and tubular cell-specific knockdown of Shroom3 markedly abrogated interstitial fibrosis in mice with unilateral ureteric obstruction. Moreover, SHROOM3 expression in allografts at 3 months after transplant and the presence of the SHROOM3 risk allele in the donor correlated with increased allograft fibrosis and with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate at 12 months after transplant. Our findings suggest that rs17319721 functions as a cis-acting expression quantitative trait locus of SHROOM3 that facilitates TGF-β1 signaling and contributes to allograft injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI76902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382250PMC
January 2015

Glomerular endothelial cell injury and cross talk in diabetic kidney disease.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2015 Feb 19;308(4):F287-97. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

Division of Nephrology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains a leading cause of new-onset end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and yet, at present, the treatment is still very limited. A better understanding of the pathogenesis of DKD is therefore necessary to develop more effective therapies. Increasing evidence suggests that glomerular endothelial cell (GEC) injury plays a major role in the development and progression of DKD. Alteration of the glomerular endothelial cell surface layer, including its major component, glycocalyx, is a leading cause of microalbuminuria observed in early DKD. Many studies suggest a presence of cross talk between glomerular cells, such as between GEC and mesangial cells or GEC and podocytes. PDGFB/PDGFRβ is a major mediator for GEC and mesangial cell cross talk, while vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietins, and endothelin-1 are the major mediators for GEC and podocyte communication. In DKD, GEC injury may lead to podocyte damage, while podocyte loss further exacerbates GEC injury, forming a vicious cycle. Therefore, GEC injury may predispose to albuminuria in diabetes either directly or indirectly by communication with neighboring podocytes and mesangial cells via secreted mediators. Identification of novel mediators of glomerular cell cross talk, such as microRNAs, will lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of DKD. Targeting these mediators may be a novel approach to develop more effective therapy for DKD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00533.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4329492PMC
February 2015

Reduced Krüppel-like factor 2 expression may aggravate the endothelial injury of diabetic nephropathy.

Kidney Int 2015 Feb 3;87(2):382-95. Epub 2014 Sep 3.

1] Department of Medicine/Nephrology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA [2] Renal Section, James J Peters VAMC, Bronx, New York, USA.

Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a shear stress-inducible transcription factor, has endoprotective effects. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, we found that glomerular Klf2 expression was reduced in comparison with nondiabetic rats. However, normalization of hyperglycemia by insulin treatment increased Klf2 expression to a level higher than that of nondiabetic rats. Consistent with this, we found that Klf2 expression was suppressed by high glucose but increased by insulin in cultured endothelial cells. To determine the role of KLF2 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy, we used endothelial cell-specific Klf2 heterozygous knockout mice and found that diabetic knockout mice developed more kidney/glomerular hypertrophy and proteinuria than diabetic wild-type mice. Glomerular expression of Vegfa, Flk1, and angiopoietin 2 increased, but expression of Flt1, Tie2, and angiopoietin 1 decreased, in diabetic knockout mice compared with diabetic wild-type mice. Glomerular expression of ZO-1, glycocalyx, and eNOS was also decreased in diabetic knockout compared with diabetic wild-type mice. These data suggest knockdown of Klf2 expression in the endothelial cells induced more endothelial cell injury. Interestingly, podocyte injury was also more prominent in diabetic knockout compared with diabetic wild-type mice, indicating a cross talk between these two cell types. Thus, KLF2 may play a role in glomerular endothelial cell injury in early diabetic nephropathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2014.286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4312548PMC
February 2015

In vivo RNA interference models of inducible and reversible Sirt1 knockdown in kidney cells.

Am J Pathol 2014 Jul;184(7):1940-56

Division of Nephrology, the Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Renal Section, James J. Peter Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, New York.

The silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 gene (Sirt1) encodes an NAD-dependent deacetylase that modifies the activity of well-known transcriptional regulators affected in kidney diseases. Sirt1 is expressed in the kidney podocyte, but its function in the podocyte is not clear. Genetically engineered mice with inducible and reversible Sirt1 knockdown in widespread, podocyte-specific, or tubular-specific patterns were generated. We found that mice with 80% knockdown of renal Sirt1 expression have normal glomerular function under the basal condition. When challenged with doxorubicin (Adriamycin), these mice develop marked albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis, mitochondrial injury, and impaired autophagy of damaged mitochondria. Reversal of Sirt1 knockdown during the early phase of Adriamycin-induced nephropathy prevented the progression of glomerular injury and reduced the accumulation of dysmorphic mitochondria in podocytes but did not reverse the progression of albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis. Sirt1 knockdown mice with diabetes mellitus, which is known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction in the kidney, developed more albuminuria and mitochondrial dysfunction compared with diabetic mice without Sirt1 knockdown. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that our RNA interference-mediated Sirt1 knockdown models are valid and versatile tools for characterizing the function of Sirt1 in the kidney; Sirt1 plays a role in homeostatic maintenance of podocytes under the condition of mitochondrial stress/injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.03.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4076473PMC
July 2014

Temporal profile of the renal transcriptome of HIV-1 transgenic mice during disease progression.

PLoS One 2014 25;9(3):e93019. Epub 2014 Mar 25.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, United States of America.

Profiling of temporal changes of gene expression in the same kidney over the course of renal disease progression is challenging because repeat renal biopsies are rarely indicated in clinical practice. Here, we profiled the temporal change in renal transcriptome of HIV-1 transgenic mice (Tg26), an animal model for human HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), and their littermates at three different time points (4, 8, and 12 weeks of age) representing early, middle, and late stages of renal disease by serial kidney biopsy. We analyzed both static levels of gene expression at three stages of disease and dynamic changes in gene expression between different stages. Analysis of static and dynamic changes in gene expression revealed that up-regulated genes at the early and middle stages are mostly involved in immune response and inflammation, whereas down-regulated genes mostly related to fatty acid and retinoid metabolisms. We validated the expression of a selected panel of genes that are up-regulated at the early stage (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL11, Ubd, Anxa1, and Spon1) by real-time PCR. Among these up-regulated genes, Spon1, which is a previously identified candidate gene for hypertension, was found to be up-regulated in kidney of human with diabetic nephropathy. Immunostaining of human biopsy samples demonstrated that protein expression of Spon1 was also markedly increased in kidneys of patients with both early and late HIVAN and diabetic nephropathy. Our studies suggest that analysis of both static and dynamic changes of gene expression profiles in disease progression avails another layer of information that could be utilized to gain a more comprehensive understanding of disease progression and identify potential biomarkers and drug targets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0093019PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3965528PMC
November 2014

Induction of retinol dehydrogenase 9 expression in podocytes attenuates kidney injury.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2014 Sep 20;25(9):1933-41. Epub 2014 Mar 20.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Renal Section, James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Bronx, New York

The intracellular concentration of retinoic acid is determined by two sequential oxidation reactions that convert retinol to retinoic acid. We recently demonstrated that retinoic acid synthesis is significantly impaired in glomeruli of HIV-1 transgenic mice (Tg26), a murine model of HIV-associated nephropathy. This impaired retinoic acid synthesis correlates with reduced renal expression of retinol dehydrogenase 9, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of retinoic acid synthesis by converting retinol to retinal. Because retinoic acid has renal protective effects and can induce podocyte differentiation, we hypothesized that restoration of retinoic acid synthesis could slow the progression of renal disease. Herein, we demonstrate that overexpression of retinol dehydrogenase 9 in cultured podocytes induces the expression of podocyte differentiation markers. Furthermore, we confirm that podocyte-specific overexpression of retinol dehydrogenase 9 in mice with established kidney disease due to either HIV-associated nephropathy or adriamycin-induced nephropathy decreases proteinuria, attenuates kidney injury, and restores podocyte differentiation markers. Our data suggest that restoration of retinoic acid synthesis could be a new approach to treat kidney disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2013111150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4147989PMC
September 2014

cAMP signaling prevents podocyte apoptosis via activation of protein kinase A and mitochondrial fusion.

PLoS One 2014 18;9(3):e92003. Epub 2014 Mar 18.

Renal Division and Molecular Cell Lab for Kidney Disease, Renji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China.

Our previous in vitro studies suggested that cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling prevents adriamycin (ADR) and puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced apoptosis in podocytes. As cAMP is an important second messenger and plays a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation and cytoskeleton formation via protein kinase A (PKA) or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) pathways, we sought to determine the role of PKA or Epac signaling in cAMP-mediated protection of podocytes. In the ADR nephrosis model, we found that forskolin, a selective activator of adenylate cyclase, attenuated albuminuria and improved the expression of podocyte marker WT-1. When podocytes were treated with pCPT-cAMP (a selective cAMP/PKA activator), PKA activation was increased in a time-dependent manner and prevented PAN-induced podocyte loss and caspase 3 activation, as well as a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. We found that PAN and ADR resulted in a decrease in Mfn1 expression and mitochondrial fission in podocytes. pCPT-cAMP restored Mfn1 expression in puromycin or ADR-treated podocytes and induced Drp1 phosphorylation, as well as mitochondrial fusion. Treating podocytes with arachidonic acid resulted in mitochondrial fission, podocyte loss and cleaved caspase 3 production. Arachidonic acid abolished the protective effects of pCPT-cAMP on PAN-treated podocytes. Mdivi, a mitochondrial division inhibitor, prevented PAN-induced cleaved caspase 3 production in podocytes. We conclude that activation of cAMP alleviated murine podocyte caused by ADR. PKA signaling resulted in mitochondrial fusion in podocytes, which at least partially mediated the effects of cAMP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0092003PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3958405PMC
December 2014

Podocyte-specific RAP1GAP expression contributes to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-associated glomerular injury.

J Clin Invest 2014 Apr 18;124(4):1757-69. Epub 2014 Mar 18.

Injury to the specialized epithelial cells of the glomerulus (podocytes) underlies the pathogenesis of all forms of proteinuric kidney disease; however, the specific genetic changes that mediate podocyte dysfunction after injury are not fully understood. Here, we performed a large-scale insertional mutagenic screen of injury-resistant podocytes isolated from mice and found that increased expression of the gene Rap1gap, encoding a RAP1 activation inhibitor, ameliorated podocyte injury resistance. Furthermore, injured podocytes in murine models of disease and kidney biopsies from glomerulosclerosis patients exhibited increased RAP1GAP, resulting in diminished glomerular RAP1 activation. In mouse models, podocyte-specific inactivation of Rap1a and Rap1b induced massive glomerulosclerosis and premature death. Podocyte-specific Rap1a and Rap1b haploinsufficiency also resulted in severe podocyte damage, including features of podocyte detachment. Over-expression of RAP1GAP in cultured podocytes induced loss of activated β1 integrin, which was similarly observed in kidney biopsies from patients. Furthermore, preventing elevation of RAP1GAP levels in injured podocytes maintained β1 integrin-mediated adhesion and prevented cellular detachment. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased podocyte expression of RAP1GAP contributes directly to podocyte dysfunction by a mechanism that involves loss of RAP1-mediated activation of β1 integrin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI67846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3973092PMC
April 2014

Role of transcription factor acetylation in diabetic kidney disease.

Diabetes 2014 Jul 7;63(7):2440-53. Epub 2014 Mar 7.

Department of Medicine/Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NYRenal Section, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY

Nuclear factor (NF)-κB and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) play a critical role in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) regulates transcriptional activation of target genes through protein deacetylation. Here, we determined the roles of Sirt1 and the effect of NF-κB (p65) and STAT3 acetylation in DN. We found that acetylation of p65 and STAT3 was increased in both mouse and human diabetic kidneys. In human podocytes, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) induced p65 and STAT3 acetylation and overexpression of acetylation-incompetent mutants of p65 and STAT3 abrogated AGE-induced expression of NF-κB and STAT3 target genes. Inhibition of AGE formation in db/db mice by pyridoxamine treatment attenuated proteinuria and podocyte injury, restored SIRT1 expression, and reduced p65 and STAT3 acetylation. Diabetic db/db mice with conditional deletion of SIRT1 in podocytes developed more proteinuria, kidney injury, and acetylation of p65 and STAT3 compared with db/db mice without SIRT1 deletion. Treatment of db/db mice with a bromodomain and extraterminal (BET)-specific bromodomain inhibitor (MS417) which blocks acetylation-mediated association of p65 and STAT3 with BET proteins, attenuated proteinuria, and kidney injury. Our findings strongly support a critical role for p65 and STAT3 acetylation in DN. Targeting protein acetylation could be a potential new therapy for DN.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-1810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4066331PMC
July 2014

Diabetic nephropathy in a nonobese mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2014 May 5;306(9):F1008-17. Epub 2014 Mar 5.

Dept. of Medicine/Nephrology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, One Gustave L Levy Place, Box 1243, New York, NY.

A large body of research has contributed to our understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetic nephropathy. Yet, many questions remain regarding the progression of a disease that accounts for nearly half the patients entering dialysis yearly. Several murine models of diabetic nephropathy secondary to Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) do exist, and some are more representative than others, but all have limitations. In this study, we aimed to identify a new mouse model of diabetic nephropathy secondary to T2DM in a previously described T2DM model, the MKR (MCK-KR-hIGF-IR) mouse. In this mouse model, T2DM develops as a result of functional inactivation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in the skeletal muscle. These mice are lean, with marked insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia and thus are representative of nonobese human T2DM. We show that the MKR mice, when under stress (high-fat diet or unilateral nephrectomy), develop progressive diabetic nephropathy with marked albuminuria and meet the histopathological criteria as defined by the Animal Models of Diabetic Complications Consortium. Finally, these MKR mice are fertile and are on a common background strain, making it a novel model to study the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00597.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4010680PMC
May 2014

Interconnected network motifs control podocyte morphology and kidney function.

Sci Signal 2014 Feb 4;7(311):ra12. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

1Department of Pharmacology and Systems Therapeutics, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Podocytes are kidney cells with specialized morphology that is required for glomerular filtration. Diseases, such as diabetes, or drug exposure that causes disruption of the podocyte foot process morphology results in kidney pathophysiology. Proteomic analysis of glomeruli isolated from rats with puromycin-induced kidney disease and control rats indicated that protein kinase A (PKA), which is activated by adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP), is a key regulator of podocyte morphology and function. In podocytes, cAMP signaling activates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) to enhance expression of the gene encoding a differentiation marker, synaptopodin, a protein that associates with actin and promotes its bundling. We constructed and experimentally verified a β-adrenergic receptor-driven network with multiple feedback and feedforward motifs that controls CREB activity. To determine how the motifs interacted to regulate gene expression, we mapped multicompartment dynamical models, including information about protein subcellular localization, onto the network topology using Petri net formalisms. These computational analyses indicated that the juxtaposition of multiple feedback and feedforward motifs enabled the prolonged CREB activation necessary for synaptopodin expression and actin bundling. Drug-induced modulation of these motifs in diseased rats led to recovery of normal morphology and physiological function in vivo. Thus, analysis of regulatory motifs using network dynamics can provide insights into pathophysiology that enable predictions for drug intervention strategies to treat kidney disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.2004621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4220789PMC
February 2014

Shenqi particle: a novel therapy for idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

Am J Kidney Dis 2013 Dec;62(6):1027-9

Icahn School of Medicine, Mount Sinai, New York.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.08.005DOI Listing
December 2013

Nitro-oleic acid is a novel anti-oxidative therapy for diabetic kidney disease.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2013 Dec 18;305(11):F1542-3. Epub 2013 Sep 18.

Div. of Nephrology, Box 1243, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, One Gustave L Levy Place, New York, NY 10029.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00489.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3882365PMC
December 2013

Therapeutic use of traditional Chinese herbal medications for chronic kidney diseases.

Kidney Int 2013 Dec 17;84(6):1108-18. Epub 2013 Jul 17.

Department of Nephrology, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Traditional Chinese herbal medications (TCHMs) are frequently used in conjunction with western pharmacotherapy for treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) in China and many other Asian countries. The practice of traditional Chinese medicine is guided by cumulative empiric experience. Recent in vitro and animal studies have confirmed the biological activity and therapeutic effects of several TCHMs in CKD. However, the level of evidence supporting TCHMs is limited to small, nonrandomized trials. Due to variations in the prescription pattern of TCHMs and the need for frequent dosage adjustment, which are inherent to the practice of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been challenging to design and implement large randomized clinical trials of TCHMs. Several TCHMs are associated with significant adverse effects, including nephrotoxicity. However, reporting of adverse effects associated with TCHMs has been inadequate. To fully realize the therapeutic use of TCHMs in CKD, we need molecular studies to identify active ingredients of TCHMs and their mechanism of action, rigorous pharmacologic studies to determine the safety and meet regulatory standards required for clinical therapeutic agents, and well-designed clinical trials to provide evidence-based support of their safety and efficacy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2013.276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3812398PMC
December 2013

The primary glomerulonephritides: a systems biology approach.

Nat Rev Nephrol 2013 Sep 16;9(9):500-12. Epub 2013 Jul 16.

Research Institute of Nephrology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, 305 East Zhongshan Road, China.

Our understanding of the pathogenesis of most primary glomerular diseases, including IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, is limited. Advances in molecular technology now permit genome-wide, high-throughput characterization of genes and gene products from biological samples. Comprehensive examinations of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome (collectively known as omics analyses), have been applied to the study of IgA nephropathy, membranous nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in both animal models and human patients. However, most omics studies of primary glomerular diseases, with the exception of large genomic studies, have been limited by inadequate sample sizes and the lack of kidney-specific data sets derived from kidney biopsy samples. Collaborative efforts to develop a standardized approach for prospective recruitment of patients, scheduled monitoring of clinical outcomes, and protocols for sampling of kidney tissues will be instrumental in uncovering the mechanisms that drive these diseases. Integration of molecular data sets with the results of clinical and histopathological studies will ultimately enable these diseases to be characterized in a comprehensive and systematic manner, and is expected to improve the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrneph.2013.129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4222245PMC
September 2013

Podocyte-specific deletion of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 attenuates nephrotoxic serum-induced glomerulonephritis.

Kidney Int 2013 Nov 10;84(5):950-61. Epub 2013 Jul 10.

1] Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA [2] Division of Nephrology, Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 correlates with proliferation of extracapillary glomerular epithelial cells and the extent of renal injury in glomerulonephritis. To delineate the role of STAT3 in glomerular epithelial cell proliferation, we examined the development of nephrotoxic serum-induced glomerulonephritis in mice with and without podocyte-restricted STAT3 deletion. Mice with STAT3 deletion in podocytes developed less crescents and loss of renal function compared with those without STAT3 deletion. Proliferation of glomerular cells, loss of podocyte markers, and recruitment of parietal epithelial cells were found in nephritic mice without STAT3 deletion, but mitigated in nephritic mice with podocyte STAT3 deletion. Glomerular expression of pro-inflammatory STAT3 target genes was significantly reduced in nephritic mice with, compared with those without, podocyte STAT3 deletion. However, the extent of glomerular immune complex deposition was not different. Podocytes with STAT3 deletion were resistant to interleukin-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory STAT3 target gene expression. Thus, podocyte STAT3 activation is critical for the development of crescentic glomerulonephritis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2013.197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3797218PMC
November 2013

Regulation of pathogenic Th17 cell differentiation by IL-10 in the development of glomerulonephritis.

Am J Pathol 2013 Aug 5;183(2):402-12. Epub 2013 Jun 5.

Immunology Institute, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029-6574, USA.

Although it is clear that T helper (Th)17 cells play a pathologic role in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, the contribution and regulation of pathogenic Th17 cells in the development of glomerulonephritis are still not fully understood. Herein, we show that IL-10-deficient mice exhibit exacerbation of glomerulonephritis after induction with anti-glomerular basement membrane globulin, with enhanced pathogenic Th17 immune responses. We further demonstrate that Rag1(-/-) mice reconstituted with IL-10(-/-) CD4(+) T cells develop more severe glomerulonephritis after induction of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, with more infiltration of inflammatory cells into the kidneys. Finally, IL-17 and interferon γ double-positive cells were significantly increased in IL-10(-/-) CD4(+) T-cell cultures under pathogenic Th17 conditions compared with wild-type cell cultures. These findings suggest that T-cell-derived IL-10 plays a critical suppressive role in the control of pathogenic Th17 cell differentiation and highlights the importance of IL-10 as protection against glomerulonephritis development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3730759PMC
August 2013

Capturing the in vivo molecular signature of the podocyte.

Kidney Int 2013 Jun;83(6):986-8

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.

The podocyte has an essential role in glomerular function. When cultured ex vivo, podocytes do not recapitulate their in vivo phenotype. Several technical barriers have prevented isolation of podocytes from animals with sufficient yield and purity to allow genome-wide assessment of their molecular fingerprint. Boerries et al. overcame some of these barriers and characterized the transcriptome and proteome of freshly isolated podocytes. These data sets and isolation protocol are valuable resources for the podocyte research community.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2013.65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3710726PMC
June 2013