Publications by authors named "Peter Winzer"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Experimental demonstration of a 4,294,967,296-QAM-based Y-00 quantum stream cipher template carrying 160-Gb/s 16-QAM signals.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(4):5658-5664

We demonstrate a 4,294,967,296-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) based Y-00 quantum stream cipher system carrying a 160-Gb/s 16-QAM signal transmitted over 320-km SSMF. The ultra-dense QAM cipher template is realized by an integrated two-segment silicon photonics I/Q modulator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.405390DOI Listing
February 2021

Transmission of 30-GBd polarization-multiplexed probabilistically shaped 4096-QAM over 50.9-km SSMF.

Opt Express 2019 Oct;27(21):29916-29923

We demonstrate the transmission of a 30-GBd polarization-multiplexed probabilistically shaped 4096-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal over 50.9-km standard signal-mode fiber (SSMF), with a net single-carrier bit rate of 484.4 Gb/s carrying 16.1 information bits per symbol (a potential spectral efficiency of 15.9 bits/s/Hz when taking into account a 0.01 spectral roll-off). The signal is generated from 28-nm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) digital-to-analog converters (DACs) with 8-bit nominal resolution and is received by an intradyne coherent receiver with a laser that has a linewidth of ∼1 kHz.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.27.029916DOI Listing
October 2019

Integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators operating at CMOS-compatible voltages.

Nature 2018 10 24;562(7725):101-104. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Electro-optic modulators translate high-speed electronic signals into the optical domain and are critical components in modern telecommunication networks and microwave-photonic systems. They are also expected to be building blocks for emerging applications such as quantum photonics and non-reciprocal optics. All of these applications require chip-scale electro-optic modulators that operate at voltages compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, have ultra-high electro-optic bandwidths and feature very low optical losses. Integrated modulator platforms based on materials such as silicon, indium phosphide or polymers have not yet been able to meet these requirements simultaneously because of the intrinsic limitations of the materials used. On the other hand, lithium niobate electro-optic modulators, the workhorse of the optoelectronic industry for decades, have been challenging to integrate on-chip because of difficulties in microstructuring lithium niobate. The current generation of lithium niobate modulators are bulky, expensive, limited in bandwidth and require high drive voltages, and thus are unable to reach the full potential of the material. Here we overcome these limitations and demonstrate monolithically integrated lithium niobate electro-optic modulators that feature a CMOS-compatible drive voltage, support data rates up to 210 gigabits per second and show an on-chip optical loss of less than 0.5 decibels. We achieve this by engineering the microwave and photonic circuits to achieve high electro-optical efficiencies, ultra-low optical losses and group-velocity matching simultaneously. Our scalable modulator devices could provide cost-effective, low-power and ultra-high-speed solutions for next-generation optical communication networks and microwave photonic systems. Furthermore, our approach could lead to large-scale ultra-low-loss photonic circuits that are reconfigurable on a picosecond timescale, enabling a wide range of quantum and classical applications including feed-forward photonic quantum computation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0551-yDOI Listing
October 2018

Fiber-optic transmission and networking: the previous 20 and the next 20 years [Invited].

Opt Express 2018 Sep;26(18):24190-24239

Celebrating the 20 anniversary of Optics Express, this paper reviews the evolution of optical fiber communication systems, and through a look at the previous 20 years attempts to extrapolate fiber-optic technology needs and potential solution paths over the coming 20 years. Well aware that 20-year extrapolations are inherently associated with great uncertainties, we still hope that taking a significantly longer-term view than most texts in this field will provide the reader with a broader perspective and will encourage the much needed out-of-the-box thinking to solve the very significant technology scaling problems ahead of us. Focusing on the optical transport and switching layer, we cover aspects of large-scale spatial multiplexing, massive opto-electronic arrays and holistic optics-electronics-DSP integration, as well as optical node architectures for switching and multiplexing of spatial and spectral superchannels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.024190DOI Listing
September 2018

On line rates, information rates, and spectral efficiencies in probabilistically shaped QAM systems.

Opt Express 2018 Apr;26(8):9784-9791

We carefully revisit the definitions of line rates, information rates, and spectral efficiencies in probabilistically shaped optical transmission systems. Generally accepted definitions for uniform quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) systems are extended to more generally apply to systems with probabilistically shaped QAM, as well as to systems using pilot symbols of different QAM order than the information symbols. Based on the proper definitions, we correct erroneous claims in a recently reported work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.009784DOI Listing
April 2018

Probabilistically shaped PDM 4096-QAM transmission over up to 200 km of fiber using standard intradyne detection.

Opt Express 2018 Feb;26(4):4522-4530

We demonstrate transmission of a probabilistically shaped polarization-division multiplexed 3-GBd 4096-QAM signal over up to 200 km of backward Raman amplified Corning® Vascade® EX2000 fiber. The 3-GBd signal with a root-raised-cosine roll-off of 0.01 has the potential to generate a spectral efficiency of 19.77 bit/s/Hz over 50 km of fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.26.004522DOI Listing
February 2018

Modeling and performance metrics of MIMO-SDM systems with different amplification schemes in the presence of mode-dependent loss.

Opt Express 2015 Feb;23(3):2203-19

Mode-dependent loss (MDL) is a major factor limiting the achievable information rate in multiple-input multiple-output space-division multiplexed systems. In this paper we show that its impact on system performance, which we quantify in terms of the capacity reduction relative to a reference MDL-free system, may depend strongly on the operation of the inline optical amplifiers. This dependency is particularly strong in low mode-count systems. In addition, we discuss ways in which the signal-to-noise ratio of the MDL-free reference system can be defined and quantify the differences in the predicted capacity loss. Finally, we stress the importance of correctly accounting for the effect of MDL on the accumulation of amplification noise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.23.002203DOI Listing
February 2015

LCoS-based mode shaper for few-mode fiber.

Opt Express 2013 Jul;21(15):18097-110

Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, 791 Holmdel-Keyport Rd, Holmdel, NJ 07733, USA.

Spatial light modulation can be used to address specific fiber modes, as required in mode-division multiplexed systems. We theoretically compare phase-only spatial light modulation to a combination of amplitude and phase spatial light modulation in terms of insertion loss and crosstalk for a fiber supporting 11 LP modes. We experimentally demonstrate selective mode excitation using a Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator configured to as phase and amplitude modulator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.018097DOI Listing
July 2013

960-km SSMF transmission of 105.7-Gb/s PDM 3-PAM using directly modulated VCSELs and coherent detection.

Opt Express 2013 May;21(9):11585-9

Bell Labs, Alcatel Lucent, 791 Holmdel-Keyport Road, Holmdel, NJ 07733, USA.

We generate a 105.7-Gb/s signal by directly modulating a 1.5-µm VCSEL with a 33.35-Gbaud 3-level signal and polarization multiplexing. By using digital coherent detection, we successfully transmit the 105.7-Gb/s line rate (88.10 Gb/s net bit rate) signal over 960-km standard single-mode-fiber (SSMF) at a 20% hard-decision forward-error correction (FEC) threshold, which is at bit-error ratio (BER) of 1.5 x 10(-2)
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.011585DOI Listing
May 2013

Random coupling between groups of degenerate fiber modes in mode multiplexed transmission.

Opt Express 2013 Apr;21(8):9484-90

Dept. of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy.

We study random coupling induced crosstalk between groups of degenerate modes in spatially multiplexed optical transmission. Our analysis shows that the average crosstalk is primarily determined by the wavenumber mismatch, by the correlation length of the random perturbations, and by the coherence length of the degenerate modes, whereas the effect of a deterministic group velocity difference is negligible. The standard deviation of the crosstalk is shown to be comparable to its average value, implying that crosstalk measurements are inherently noisy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.21.009484DOI Listing
April 2013

Stokes-space analysis of modal dispersion in fibers with multiple mode transmission.

Opt Express 2012 May;20(11):11718-33

Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of L'Aquila, 67100 L'Aquila, Italy.

Modal dispersion (MD) in a multimode fiber may be considered as a generalized form of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) in single mode fibers. Using this analogy, we extend the formalism developed for PMD to characterize MD in fibers with multiple spatial modes. We introduce a MD vector defined in a D-dimensional extended Stokes space whose square length is the sum of the square group delays of the generalized principal states. For strong mode coupling, the MD vector undertakes a D-dimensional isotropic random walk, so that the distribution of its length is a chi distribution with D degrees of freedom. We also characterize the largest differential group delay, that is the difference between the delays of the fastest and the slowest principal states, and show that it too is very well approximated by a chi distribution, although in general with a smaller number of degrees of freedom. Finally, we study the spectral properties of MD in terms of the frequency autocorrelation functions of the MD vector, of the square modulus of the MD vector, and of the largest differential group delay. The analytical results are supported by extensive numerical simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.011718DOI Listing
May 2012

Analysis of soft-decision FEC on non-AWGN channels.

Opt Express 2012 Mar;20(7):7915-28

Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, 1649 Sangam-Dong, Mapo-Gu, Seoul 121-904, South Korea.

Soft-decision forward error correction (SD-FEC) schemes are typically designed for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. In a fiber-optic communication system, noise may be neither circularly symmetric nor Gaussian, thus violating an important assumption underlying SD-FEC design. This paper quantifies the impact of non-AWGN noise on SD-FEC performance for such optical channels. We use a conditionally bivariate Gaussian noise model (CBGN) to analyze the impact of correlations among the signal's two quadrature components, and assess the effect of CBGN on SD-FEC performance using the density evolution of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. On a CBGN channel generating severely elliptic noise clouds, it is shown that more than 3 dB of coding gain are attainable by utilizing correlation information. Our analyses also give insights into potential improvements of the detection performance for fiber-optic transmission systems assisted by SD-FEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.007915DOI Listing
March 2012

Colorless coherent receiver using 3x3 coupler hybrids and single-ended detection.

Opt Express 2012 Jan;20(2):1164-71

Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, Holmdel, NJ 07733, USA.

We demonstrate a single-ended colorless coherent receiver using symmetric 3x3 couplers for optical hybrids. We show that the receiver can achieve colorless reception of fifty-five 112-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keyed (PDM-QPSK) channels with less than 1-dB penalty in the back-to-back operation. The receiver also works well in a long-haul wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) transmission system over 2560-km TrueWave® REACH fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.20.001164DOI Listing
January 2012

6×56-Gb/s mode-division multiplexed transmission over 33-km few-mode fiber enabled by 6×6 MIMO equalization.

Opt Express 2011 Aug;19(17):16697-707

Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, 791 Holmdel Rd., Holmdel, New Jersey 07733, USA.

Mode-division multiplexing over 33-km few-mode fiber is investigated. It is shown that 6×6 MIMO processing can be used to almost completely compensate for crosstalk and intersymbol interference due to mode coupling in a system that transmits uncorrelated 28-GBaud QPSK signals on the six spatial and polarization modes supported by a novel few-mode fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.016697DOI Listing
August 2011

MIMO capacities and outage probabilities in spatially multiplexed optical transport systems.

Opt Express 2011 Aug;19(17):16680-96

Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, 791 Holmdel-Keyport Rd., Holmdel, New Jersey 07733, USA.

With wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) rapidly nearing its scalability limits, space-division multiplexing (SDM) seems the only option to further scale the capacity of optical transport networks. In order for SDM systems to continue the WDM trend of reducing energy and cost per bit with system capacity, integration will be key to SDM. Since integration is likely to introduce non-negligible crosstalk between multiple parallel transmission paths, multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) signal processing techniques will have to be used. In this paper, we discuss MIMO capacities in optical SDM systems, including related outage considerations which are an important part in the design of such systems. In order to achieve the low-outage standards required for optical transport networks, SDM transponders should be capable of individually addressing, and preferably MIMO processing all modes supported by the optical SDM waveguide. We then discuss the effect of distributed optical noise in MIMO SDM systems and focus on the impact of mode-dependent loss (MDL) on system capacity and system outage. Through extensive numerical simulations, we extract scaling rules for mode-average and mode-dependent loss and show that MIMO SDM systems composed of up to 128 segments and supporting up to 128 modes can tolerate up to 1 dB of per-segment MDL at 90% of the system's full capacity at an outage probability of 10(-4).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.19.016680DOI Listing
August 2011

Capacity limits of information transport in fiber-optic networks.

Phys Rev Lett 2008 Oct 13;101(16):163901. Epub 2008 Oct 13.

Bell Labs, Alcatel-Lucent, 791 Holmdel-Keyport Road, Holmdel, NJ 07733, USA.

The instantaneous optical Kerr effect in optical fibers is a nonlinear phenomenon that can impose limits on the ability of fiber-optic communication systems to transport information. We present here a conservative estimate of the "fiber channel" capacity in an optically routed network. We show that the fiber capacity per unit bandwidth for a given distance significantly exceeds current record experimental demonstrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.163901DOI Listing
October 2008

Minimum length of a single-mode fiber spatial filter.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2002 Dec;19(12):2445-8

Institut für Nachrichtentechnik und Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universität Wien, Gusshausstrasse 25/389, A-1040 Vienna, Austria.

Using the concept of leaky modes, we derive the minimum length of a single-mode fiber required to act as a spatial-mode filter of given quality. The degree of filter action is defined by the ratio of power carried by the fundamental mode to that carried by the leaky modes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/josaa.19.002445DOI Listing
December 2002

Alignment tolerances for plane-wave to single-mode fiber coupling and their mitigation by use of pigtailed collimators.

Appl Opt 2002 Feb;41(4):637-43

Institut für Nachrichtentechnik und Hochfrequenztechnik, Vienna University of Technology, Austria.

We discuss the efficiency with which coherent plane waves can be coupled to single-mode fibers in the presence of deterministic or stochastic misalignments of the fiber relative to the focal point of a lens. We point out how the alignment demands can be relaxed by means of graded-index-lens fiber-pigtailed collimators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/ao.41.000637DOI Listing
February 2002