Publications by authors named "Peter Vuust"

98 Publications

Prediction Under Uncertainty: Dissociating Sensory from Cognitive Expectations in Highly Uncertain Musical Contexts.

Brain Res 2021 Sep 21:147664. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University & The Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus/Aalborg, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; Department of Education, Psychology and Communication, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Piazza Umberto I, 70121 Bari, Italy.

Predictive models in the brain rely on the continuous extraction of regularities from the environment. These models are thought to be updated by novel information, as reflected in prediction error responses such as the mismatch negativity (MMN). However, although in real life individuals often face situations in which uncertainty prevails, it remains unclear whether and how predictive models emerge in high-uncertainty contexts. Recent research suggests that uncertainty affects the magnitude of MMN responses in the context of music listening. However, musical predictions are typically studied with MMN stimulation paradigms based on Western tonal music, which are characterized by relatively high predictability. Hence, we developed an MMN paradigm to investigate how the high uncertainty of atonal music modulates predictive processes as indexed by the MMN and behavior. Using MEG in a group of 20 subjects without musical training, we demonstrate that the magnetic MMN in response to pitch, intensity, timbre, and location deviants is evoked in both tonal and atonal melodies, with no significant differences between conditions. In contrast, in a separate behavioral experiment involving 39 non-musicians, participants detected pitch deviants more accurately and rated confidence higher in the tonal than in the atonal musical context. These results indicate that contextual tonal uncertainty modulates processing stages in which conscious awareness is involved, although deviants robustly elicit low-level pre-attentive responses such as the MMN. The achievement of robust MMN responses, despite high tonal uncertainty, is relevant for future studies comparing groups of listeners' MMN responses to increasingly ecological music stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2021.147664DOI Listing
September 2021

Network Analysis of Human Brain Connectivity Reveals Neural Fingerprints of a Compositionality Bias in Signaling Systems.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Language Acquisition and Language Processing Lab, Department of Language and Literature, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 7941 Trondheim, Norway.

Compositionality is a hallmark of human language and other symbolic systems: a finite set of meaningful elements can be systematically combined to convey an open-ended array of ideas. Compositionality is not uniformly distributed over expressions in a language or over individuals' communicative behavior: at both levels, variation is observed. Here, we investigate the neural bases of interindividual variability by probing the relationship between intrinsic characteristics of brain networks and compositional behavior. We first collected functional resting-state and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data from a large participant sample (N = 51). Subsequently, participants took part in two signaling games. They were instructed to learn and reproduce an auditory symbolic system of signals (tone sequences) associated with affective meanings (human faces expressing emotions). Signal-meaning mappings were artificial and had to be learned via repeated signaling interactions. We identified a temporoparietal network in which connection length was related to the degree of compositionality introduced in a signaling system by each player. Graph-theoretic analysis of resting-state functional connectivity revealed that, within that network, compositional behavior was associated with integration measures in 2 semantic hubs: the left posterior cingulate cortex and the left angular gyrus. Our findings link individual variability in compositional biases to variation in the anatomy of semantic networks and in the functional topology of their constituent units.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhab307DOI Listing
September 2021

Musicianship and melodic predictability enhance neural gain in auditory cortex during pitch deviance detection.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus University & Royal Academy of Music Aarhus/Aalborg, Aarhus, Denmark.

When listening to music, pitch deviations are more salient and elicit stronger prediction error responses when the melodic context is predictable and when the listener is a musician. Yet, the neuronal dynamics and changes in connectivity underlying such effects remain unclear. Here, we employed dynamic causal modeling (DCM) to investigate whether the magnetic mismatch negativity response (MMNm)-and its modulation by context predictability and musical expertise-are associated with enhanced neural gain of auditory areas, as a plausible mechanism for encoding precision-weighted prediction errors. Using Bayesian model comparison, we asked whether models with intrinsic connections within primary auditory cortex (A1) and superior temporal gyrus (STG)-typically related to gain control-or extrinsic connections between A1 and STG-typically related to propagation of prediction and error signals-better explained magnetoencephalography responses. We found that, compared to regular sounds, out-of-tune pitch deviations were associated with lower intrinsic (inhibitory) connectivity in A1 and STG, and lower backward (inhibitory) connectivity from STG to A1, consistent with disinhibition and enhanced neural gain in these auditory areas. More predictable melodies were associated with disinhibition in right A1, while musicianship was associated with disinhibition in left A1 and reduced connectivity from STG to left A1. These results indicate that musicianship and melodic predictability, as well as pitch deviations themselves, enhance neural gain in auditory cortex during deviance detection. Our findings are consistent with predictive processing theories suggesting that precise and informative error signals are selected by the brain for subsequent hierarchical processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25638DOI Listing
August 2021

Rare long-range cortical connections enhance human information processing.

Curr Biol 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Centre for Eudaimonia and Human Flourishing, Linacre College, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark. Electronic address:

What are the key topological features of connectivity critically relevant for generating the dynamics underlying efficient cortical function? A candidate feature that has recently emerged is that the connectivity of the mammalian cortex follows an exponential distance rule, which includes a small proportion of long-range high-weight anatomical exceptions to this rule. Whole-brain modeling of large-scale human neuroimaging data in 1,003 participants offers the unique opportunity to create two models, with and without long-range exceptions, and explicitly study their functional consequences. We found that rare long-range exceptions are crucial for significantly improving information processing. Furthermore, modeling in a simplified ring architecture shows that this improvement is greatly enhanced by the turbulent regime found in empirical neuroimaging data. Overall, the results provide strong empirical evidence for the immense functional benefits of long-range exceptions combined with turbulence for information processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2021.07.064DOI Listing
August 2021

A metastable attractor model of self-other integration (MEAMSO) in rhythmic synchronization.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 10 23;376(1835):20200332. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and the Royal Academy of Music Aarhus/Aalborg, Aarhus, Denmark.

Human interaction is often accompanied by synchronized bodily rhythms. Such synchronization may emerge spontaneously as when a crowd's applause turns into a steady beat, be encouraged as in nursery rhymes, or be intentional as in the case of playing music together. The latter has been extensively studied using joint finger-tapping paradigms as a simplified version of rhythmic interpersonal synchronization. A key finding is that synchronization in such cases is multifaceted, with synchronized behaviour resting upon different synchronization strategies such as mutual adaptation, leading-following and leading-leading. However, there are multiple open questions regarding the mechanism behind these strategies and how they develop dynamically over time. Here, we propose a metastable attractor model of self-other integration (MEAMSO). This model conceptualizes dyadic rhythmic interpersonal synchronization as a process of integrating and segregating signals of self and other. Perceived sounds are continuously evaluated as either being attributed to -produced or -produced actions. The model entails a metastable system with two particular attractor states: one where an individual maintains two separate predictive models for - and -produced actions, and the other where these two predictive models integrate into one. The MEAMSO explains the three known synchronization strategies and makes testable predictions about the dynamics of interpersonal synchronization both in behaviour and the brain. This article is part of the theme issue 'Synchrony and rhythm interaction: from the brain to behavioural ecology'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0332DOI Listing
October 2021

Beat perception in polyrhythms: Time is structured in binary units.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(8):e0252174. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University & The Royal Academy of Music Aarhus/Aalborg, Aarhus C, Denmark.

In everyday life, we group and subdivide time to understand the sensory environment surrounding us. Organizing time in units, such as diurnal rhythms, phrases, and beat patterns, is fundamental to behavior, speech, and music. When listening to music, our perceptual system extracts and nests rhythmic regularities to create a hierarchical metrical structure that enables us to predict the timing of the next events. Foot tapping and head bobbing to musical rhythms are observable evidence of this process. In the special case of polyrhythms, at least two metrical structures compete to become the reference for these temporal regularities, rendering several possible beats with which we can synchronize our movements. While there is general agreement that tempo, pitch, and loudness influence beat perception in polyrhythms, we focused on the yet neglected influence of beat subdivisions, i.e., the least common denominator of a polyrhythm ratio. In three online experiments, 300 participants listened to a range of polyrhythms and tapped their index fingers in time with the perceived beat. The polyrhythms consisted of two simultaneously presented isochronous pulse trains with different ratios (2:3, 2:5, 3:4, 3:5, 4:5, 5:6) and different tempi. For ratios 2:3 and 3:4, we additionally manipulated the pitch of the pulse trains. Results showed a highly robust influence of subdivision grouping on beat perception. This was manifested as a propensity towards beats that are subdivided into two or four equally spaced units, as opposed to beats with three or more complex groupings of subdivisions. Additionally, lower pitched pulse trains were more often perceived as the beat. Our findings suggest that subdivisions, not beats, are the basic unit of beat perception, and that the principle underlying the binary grouping of subdivisions reflects a propensity towards simplicity. This preference for simple grouping is widely applicable to human perception and cognition of time.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252174PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8378699PMC
August 2021

Predictive Uncertainty Underlies Auditory Boundary Perception.

Psychol Sci 2021 Sep 19;32(9):1416-1425. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus University.

Anticipating the future is essential for efficient perception and action planning. Yet the role of anticipation in event segmentation is understudied because empirical research has focused on retrospective cues such as surprise. We address this concern in the context of perception of musical-phrase boundaries. A computational model of cognitive sequence processing was used to control the information-dynamic properties of tone sequences. In an implicit, self-paced listening task ( = 38), undergraduates dwelled longer on tones generating high entropy (i.e., high uncertainty) than on those generating low entropy (i.e., low uncertainty). Similarly, sequences that ended on tones generating high entropy were rated as sounding more complete ( = 31 undergraduates). These entropy effects were independent of both the surprise (i.e., information content) and phrase position of target tones in the original musical stimuli. Our results indicate that events generating high entropy prospectively contribute to segmentation processes in auditory sequence perception, independently of the properties of the subsequent event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797621997349DOI Listing
September 2021

White matter variability in auditory callosal pathways contributes to variation in the cultural transmission of auditory symbolic systems.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Jul 29;226(6):1943-1959. Epub 2021 May 29.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and The Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus/Aalborg, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

The cultural transmission of spoken language and music relies on human capacities for encoding and recalling auditory patterns. In this experiment, we show that interindividual differences in this ability are associated with variation in the organization of cross-callosal white matter pathways. First, high-angular resolution diffusion MRI (dMRI) data were analyzed in a large participant sample (N = 51). Subsequently, these participants underwent a behavioral test that models in the laboratory the cultural transmission of auditory symbolic systems: the signaling game. Cross-callosal and intrahemispheric (arcuate fasciculus) pathways were reconstructed and analyzed using conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as a more advanced dMRI technique: fixel-based analysis (FBA). The DTI metric of fractional anisotropy (FA) in auditory callosal pathways predicted-weeks after scanning-the fidelity of transmission of an artificial tone system. The ability to coherently transmit auditory signals in one signaling game, irrespective of the signals learned during the previous game, was predicted by morphological properties of the fiber bundles in the most anterior portions of the corpus callosum. The current study is the first application of dMRI in the field of cultural transmission, and the first to connect individual characteristics of callosal pathways to core behaviors in the transmission of auditory symbolic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00429-021-02302-yDOI Listing
July 2021

Audiovisual structural connectivity in musicians and non-musicians: a cortical thickness and diffusion tensor imaging study.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 22;11(1):4324. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University & The Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus/Aalborg, Universitetsbyen 3, Building 1710, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Our sensory systems provide complementary information about the multimodal objects and events that are the target of perception in everyday life. Professional musicians' specialization in the auditory domain is reflected in the morphology of their brains, which has distinctive characteristics, particularly in areas related to auditory and audio-motor activity. Here, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with a behavioral measure of visually induced gain in pitch discrimination, and we used measures of cortical thickness (CT) correlations to assess how auditory specialization and musical expertise are reflected in the structural architecture of white and grey matter relevant to audiovisual processing. Across all participants (n = 45), we found a correlation (p < 0.001) between reliance on visual cues in pitch discrimination and the fractional anisotropy (FA) in the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), a structure connecting visual and auditory brain areas. Group analyses also revealed greater cortical thickness correlation between visual and auditory areas in non-musicians (n = 28) compared to musicians (n = 17), possibly reflecting musicians' auditory specialization (FDR < 10%). Our results corroborate and expand current knowledge of functional specialization with a specific focus on audition, and highlight the fact that perception is essentially multimodal while uni-sensory processing is a specialized task.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83135-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900203PMC
February 2021

Putting Cells in Motion: Advantages of Endogenous Boosting of BDNF Production.

Cells 2021 01 18;10(1). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Unit of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine, University of Naples Federico II, via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Motor exercise, such as sport or musical activities, helps with a plethora of diseases by modulating brain functions in neocortical and subcortical regions, resulting in behavioural changes related to mood regulation, well-being, memory, and even cognitive preservation in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Although evidence is accumulating on the systemic neural mechanisms mediating these brain effects, the specific mechanisms by which exercise acts upon the cellular level are still under investigation. This is particularly the case for music training, a much less studied instance of motor exercise than sport. With regards to sport, consistent neurobiological research has focused on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an essential player in the central nervous system. BDNF stimulates the growth and differentiation of neurons and synapses. It thrives in the hippocampus, the cortex, and the basal forebrain, which are the areas vital for memory, learning, and higher cognitive functions. Animal models and neurocognitive experiments on human athletes converge in demonstrating that physical exercise reliably boosts BDNF levels. In this review, we highlight comparable early findings obtained with animal models and elderly humans exposed to musical stimulation, showing how perceptual exposure to music might affect BDNF release, similar to what has been observed for sport. We subsequently propose a novel hypothesis that relates the neuroplastic changes in the human brains after musical training to genetically- and exercise-driven BDNF levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10010183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831493PMC
January 2021

Extracting human cortical responses to sound onsets and acoustic feature changes in real music, and their relation to event rate.

Brain Res 2021 03 6;1754:147248. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University & The Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus/Aalborg, Denmark; Department of Education, Psychology, Communication, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy. Electronic address:

Evoked cortical responses (ERs) have mainly been studied in controlled experiments using simplified stimuli. Though, an outstanding question is how the human cortex responds to the complex stimuli encountered in realistic situations. Few electroencephalography (EEG) studies have used Music Information Retrieval (MIR) tools to extract cortical P1/N1/P2 to acoustical changes in real music. However, less than ten events per music piece could be detected leading to ERs due to limitations in automatic detection of sound onsets. Also, the factors influencing a successful extraction of the ERs have not been identified. Finally, previous studies did not localize the sources of the cortical generators. This study is based on an EEG/MEG dataset from 48 healthy normal hearing participants listening to three real music pieces. Acoustic features were computed from the audio signal of the music with the MIR Toolbox. To overcome limits in automatic methods, sound onsets were also manually detected. The chance of obtaining detectable ERs based on ten randomly picked onset points was less than 1:10,000. For the first time, we show that naturalistic P1/N1/P2 ERs can be reliably measured across 100 manually identified sound onsets, substantially improving the signal-to-noise level compared to <10 trials. More ERs were measurable in musical sections with slow event rates (0.2 Hz-2.5 Hz) than with fast event rates (>2.5 Hz). Furthermore, during monophonic sections of the music only P1/P2 were measurable, and during polyphonic sections only N1. Finally, MEG source analysis revealed that naturalistic P2 is located in core areas of the auditory cortex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147248DOI Listing
March 2021

Heterogeneity in Danish lung choirs and their singing leaders: delivery, approach, and experiences: a survey-based study.

BMJ Open 2020 11 30;10(11):e041700. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Pulmonary Research Unit Region Zealand (PLUZ), Department of Respiratory Medicine, Naestved and Slagelse Hospital, Naestved and Slagelse, Denmark.

Objectives: Singing is considered a beneficial leisure time intervention for people with respiratory diseases, and lung choirs have gained increasing attention. However, there is no available guideline on preferred methodology, and hence, outcomes, delivery, and benefits are unclear. The present study investigated for the first time ever emerged delivery, approach, and experiences in Danish lung choirs and their singing leaders, hypothesising the array to be heterogeneous, without disease-specific approach, and a challenging field to navigate for the singing leaders.

Setting: An online survey comprising 25 questions was performed individually, May 2017, in Denmark.

Participants: Current singing leaders of Danish lung choirs, identified by hand searches on the internet. In total, 33 singing leaders in formal and informal settings were identified and 20 (67%) responded.

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: Distribution in content, delivery, and approach; level of disease-specific knowledge and modification; experience of challenges and benefits. Quantitative variables were counted, and an inductive content analysis approach was used for the qualitative study component.

Results: The lung choirs were heterogeneous concerning setting, duration, and content. The approach was traditional without disease-specific content or physical activity. Most singing leaders held various academic degrees in music, but lacked skills in lung diseases. However, they experienced lung choirs as a highly meaningful activity, and reported that participants benefited both musically, psychosocially, and physically. Singing leaders were enthusiastic regarding potentials in the 'arts-and-health' cross-field and experienced an expansion of their role and overall purpose, professionally as well as personally. However, they also experienced insecurity, inadequacy, and isolation, and requested methodological guidelines, formal support, and peer network.

Conclusion: Danish lung choirs are led without any disease-specific guideline or methodological approach. Further studies are needed to develop and distribute a preferred methodological approach.

Trial Registration Number: This study is linked to clinical trial number NCT03280355 and was performed prior to data collection and results of the clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7705518PMC
November 2020

Perceptual learning of tone patterns changes the effective connectivity between Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 03 4;42(4):941-952. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and The Royal Academy of Music Aarhus/Aalborg, Aarhus, Denmark.

Learning of complex auditory sequences such as music can be thought of as optimizing an internal model of regularities through unpredicted events (or "prediction errors"). We used dynamic causal modeling (DCM) and parametric empirical Bayes on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to identify modulation of effective brain connectivity that takes place during perceptual learning of complex tone patterns. Our approach differs from previous studies in two aspects. First, we used a complex oddball paradigm based on tone patterns as opposed to simple deviant tones. Second, the use of fMRI allowed us to identify cortical regions with high spatial accuracy. These regions served as empirical regions-of-interest for the analysis of effective connectivity. Deviant patterns induced an increased blood oxygenation level-dependent response, compared to standards, in early auditory (Heschl's gyrus [HG]) and association auditory areas (planum temporale [PT]) bilaterally. Within this network, we found a left-lateralized increase in feedforward connectivity from HG to PT during deviant responses and an increase in excitation within left HG. In contrast to previous findings, we did not find frontal activity, nor did we find modulations of backward connections in response to oddball sounds. Our results suggest that complex auditory prediction errors are encoded by changes in feedforward and intrinsic connections, confined to superior temporal gyrus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856650PMC
March 2021

Cultural Familiarity and Individual Musical Taste Differently Affect Social Bonding when Moving to Music.

Sci Rep 2020 06 22;10(1):10015. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University & The Royal Academy of Music Aarhus/Aalborg, Aarhus, Denmark.

Social bonds are essential for our health and well-being. Music provides a unique and implicit context for social bonding by introducing temporal and affective frameworks, which facilitate movement synchronization and increase affiliation. How these frameworks are modulated by cultural familiarity and individual musical preferences remain open questions. In three experiments, we operationalized the affective aspects of social interactions as ratings of interpersonal closeness between two walking stick-figures in a video. These figures represented a virtual self and a virtual other person. The temporal aspects of social interactions were manipulated by movement synchrony: while the virtual self always moved in time with the beat of instrumental music, the virtual other moved either synchronously or asynchronously. When the context-providing music was more enjoyed, social closeness increased strongly with a synchronized virtual other, but only weakly with an asynchronized virtual other. When the music was more familiar, social closeness was higher independent of movement synchrony. We conclude that the social context provided by music can strengthen interpersonal closeness by increasing temporal and affective self-other overlaps. Individual musical preferences might be more relevant for the influence of movement synchrony on social bonding than musical familiarity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66529-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308378PMC
June 2020

Inter-subject Similarity of Brain Activity in Expert Musicians After Multimodal Learning: A Behavioral and Neuroimaging Study on Learning to Play a Piano Sonata.

Neuroscience 2020 08 20;441:102-116. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Center for Music in the Brain (MIB), Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University & The Royal Academy of Music Aarhus/Aalborg, Aarhus, Denmark; Department of Education, Psychology, Communication, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy. Electronic address:

Human behavior is inherently multimodal and relies on sensorimotor integration. This is evident when pianists exhibit activity in motor and premotor cortices, as part of a dorsal pathway, while listening to a familiar piece of music, or when naïve participants learn to play simple patterns on the piano. Here we investigated the interaction between multimodal learning and dorsal-stream activity over the course of four weeks in ten skilled pianists by adopting a naturalistic data-driven analysis approach. We presented the pianists with audio-only, video-only and audiovisual recordings of a piano sonata during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after they had learned to play the sonata by heart for a total of four weeks. We followed the learning process and its outcome with questionnaires administered to the pianists, one piano instructor following their training, and seven external expert judges. The similarity of the pianists' brain activity during stimulus presentations was examined before and after learning by means of inter-subject correlation (ISC) analysis. After learning, an increased ISC was found in the pianists while watching the audiovisual performance, particularly in motor and premotor regions of the dorsal stream. While these brain structures have previously been associated with learning simple audio-motor sequences, our findings are the first to suggest their involvement in learning a complex and demanding audiovisual-motor task. Moreover, the most motivated learners and the best performers of the sonata showed ISC in the dorsal stream and in the reward brain network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2020.06.015DOI Listing
August 2020

Applying stochastic spike train theory for high-accuracy human MEG/EEG.

J Neurosci Methods 2020 07 25;340:108743. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus/Aalborg, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; BioMag Laboratory, HUS Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00100 Helsinki, Finland; Department of Education, Psychology, Communication, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.

Background: The accuracy of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in measuring neural evoked responses (ERs) is challenged by overlapping neural sources. This lack of accuracy is a severe limitation to the application of ERs to clinical diagnostics.

New Method: We here introduce a theory of stochastic neuronal spike timing probability densities for describing the large-scale spiking activity in neural assemblies, and a spike density component analysis (SCA) method for isolating specific neural sources. The method is tested in three empirical studies with 564 cases of ERs to auditory stimuli from 94 humans, each measured with 60 EEG electrodes and 306 MEG sensors, and a simulation study with 12,300 ERs.

Results: The first study showed that neural sources (but not non-encephalic artifacts) in individual averaged MEG/EEG waveforms are modelled accurately with temporal Gaussian probability density functions (median 99.7 %-99.9 % variance explained). The following studies confirmed that SCA can isolate an ER, namely the mismatch negativity (MMN), and that SCA reveals inter-individual variation in MMN amplitude. Finally, SCA reduced errors by suppressing interfering sources in simulated cases.

Comparison With Existing Methods: We found that gamma and sine functions fail to adequately describe individual MEG/EEG waveforms. Also, we observed that principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) does not consistently suppress interference from overlapping brain activity in neither empirical nor simulated cases.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the overlapping neural sources in single-subject or patient data can be more accurately separated by applying SCA in comparison to PCA and ICA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2020.108743DOI Listing
July 2020

Transient brain networks underlying interpersonal strategies during synchronized action.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2021 01;16(1-2):19-30

Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus University & The Royal Academy of Music Aarhus/Aalborg, Aarhus, Denmark.

Interpersonal coordination is a core part of human interaction, and its underlying mechanisms have been extensively studied using social paradigms such as joint finger-tapping. Here, individual and dyadic differences have been found to yield a range of dyadic synchronization strategies, such as mutual adaptation, leading-leading, and leading-following behaviour, but the brain mechanisms that underlie these strategies remain poorly understood. To identify individual brain mechanisms underlying emergence of these minimal social interaction strategies, we contrasted EEG-recorded brain activity in two groups of musicians exhibiting the mutual adaptation and leading-leading strategies. We found that the individuals coordinating via mutual adaptation exhibited a more frequent occurrence of phase-locked activity within a transient action-perception-related brain network in the alpha range, as compared to the leading-leading group. Furthermore, we identified parietal and temporal brain regions that changed significantly in the directionality of their within-network information flow. Our results suggest that the stronger weight on extrinsic coupling observed in computational models of mutual adaptation as compared to leading-leading might be facilitated by a higher degree of action-perception network coupling in the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsaa056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812620PMC
January 2021

The sensation of groove engages motor and reward networks.

Neuroimage 2020 07 23;214:116768. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Psychology, Concordia University, 7141 Sherbrooke St W, Montreal, Quebec, H4B 1R6, Canada. Electronic address:

The sensation of groove has been defined as the pleasurable desire to move to music, suggesting that both motor timing and reward processes are involved in this experience. Although many studies have investigated rhythmic timing and musical reward separately, none have examined whether the associated cortical and subcortical networks are engaged while participants listen to groove-based music. In the current study, musicians and non-musicians listened to and rated experimentally controlled groove-based stimuli while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Medium complexity rhythms elicited higher ratings of pleasure and wanting to move and were associated with activity in regions linked to beat perception and reward, as well as prefrontal and parietal regions implicated in generating and updating stimuli-based expectations. Activity in basal ganglia regions of interest, including the nucleus accumbens, caudate and putamen, was associated with ratings of pleasure and wanting to move, supporting their important role in the sensation of groove. We propose a model in which different cortico-striatal circuits interact to support the mechanisms underlying groove, including internal generation of the beat, beat-based expectations, and expectation-based affect. These results show that the sensation of groove is supported by motor and reward networks in the brain and, along with our proposed model, suggest that the basal ganglia are crucial nodes in networks that interact to generate this powerful response to music.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116768DOI Listing
July 2020

The CI MuMuFe - A New MMN Paradigm for Measuring Music Discrimination in Electric Hearing.

Front Neurosci 2020 23;14. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University and The Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus/Aalborg, Aarhus, Denmark.

Cochlear implants (CIs) allow good perception of speech while music listening is unsatisfactory, leading to reduced music enjoyment. Hence, a number of ongoing efforts aim to improve music perception with a CI. Regardless of the nature of these efforts, effect measurements must be valid and reliable. While auditory skills are typically examined by behavioral methods, recording of the mismatch negativity (MMN) response, using electroencephalography (EEG), has recently been applied successfully as a supplementary objective measure. Eleven adult CI users and 14 normally hearing (NH) controls took part in the present study. To measure their detailed discrimination of fundamental features of music we applied a new multifeature MMN-paradigm which presented four music deviants at four levels of magnitude, incorporating a novel "no-standard" approach to be tested with CI users for the first time. A supplementary test measured behavioral discrimination of the same deviants and levels. The MMN-paradigm elicited significant MMN responses to all levels of deviants in both groups. Furthermore, the CI-users' MMN amplitudes and latencies were not significantly different from those of NH controls. Both groups showed MMN strength that was in overall alignment with the deviation magnitude. In CI users, however, discrimination of pitch levels remained undifferentiated. On average, CI users' behavioral performance was significantly below that of the NH group, mainly due to poor pitch discrimination. Although no significant effects were found, CI users' behavioral results tended to be in accordance with deviation magnitude, most prominently manifested in discrimination of the rhythm deviant. In summary, the study indicates that CI users may be able to discriminate subtle changes in basic musical features both in terms of automatic neural responses and of attended behavioral detection. Despite high complexity, the new CI MuMuFe paradigm and the "no-standard" approach provided reliable results, suggesting that it may serve as a relevant tool in future CI research. For clinical use, future studies should investigate the possibility of applying the paradigm with the purpose of assessing discrimination skills not only at the group level but also at the individual level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6990974PMC
January 2020

Musical prediction error responses similarly reduced by predictive uncertainty in musicians and non-musicians.

Eur J Neurosci 2020 06 20;51(11):2250-2269. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus University & The Royal Academy of music, Aarhus, Denmark.

Auditory prediction error responses elicited by surprising sounds can be reliably recorded with musical stimuli that are more complex and realistic than those typically employed in EEG or MEG oddball paradigms. However, these responses are reduced as the predictive uncertainty of the stimuli increases. In this study, we investigate whether this effect is modulated by musical expertise. Magnetic mismatch negativity (MMNm) responses were recorded from 26 musicians and 24 non-musicians while they listened to low- and high-uncertainty melodic sequences in a musical multi-feature paradigm that included pitch, slide, intensity and timbre deviants. When compared to non-musicians, musically trained participants had significantly larger pitch and slide MMNm responses. However, both groups showed comparable reductions in pitch and slide MMNm amplitudes in the high-uncertainty condition compared with the low-uncertainty condition. In a separate, behavioural deviance detection experiment, musicians were more accurate and confident about their responses than non-musicians, but deviance detection in both groups was similarly affected by the uncertainty of the melodies. In both experiments, the interaction between uncertainty and expertise was not significant, suggesting that the effect is comparable in both groups. Consequently, our results replicate the modulatory effect of predictive uncertainty on prediction error; show that it is present across different types of listeners; and suggest that expertise-related and stimulus-driven modulations of predictive precision are dissociable and independent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14667DOI Listing
June 2020

Functional connectivity of music-induced analgesia in fibromyalgia.

Sci Rep 2019 10 29;9(1):15486. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Subdirección de Investigaciones Clínicas, Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría "Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz", México City, México.

Listening to self-chosen, pleasant and relaxing music reduces pain in fibromyalgia (FM), a chronic centralized pain condition. However, the neural correlates of this effect are fairly unknown. In our study, we wished to investigate the neural correlates of music-induced analgesia (MIA) in FM patients. To do this, we studied 20 FM patients and 20 matched healthy controls (HC) acquiring rs-fMRI with a 3T MRI scanner, and pain data before and after two 5-min auditory conditions: music and noise. We performed resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC) seed-based correlation analyses (SCA) using pain and analgesia-related ROIs to determine the effects before and after the music intervention in FM and HC, and its correlation with pain reports. We found significant differences in baseline rs-FC between FM and HC. Both groups showed changes in rs-FC after the music condition. FM patients reported MIA that was significantly correlated with rs-FC decrease between the angular gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, and rs-FC increase between amygdala and middle frontal gyrus. These areas are related to autobiographical and limbic processes, and auditory attention, suggesting MIA may arise as a consequence of top-down modulation, probably originated by distraction, relaxation, positive emotion, or a combination of these mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-51990-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6820536PMC
October 2019

Functional connectivity in human auditory networks and the origins of variation in the transmission of musical systems.

Elife 2019 10 29;8. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Language Acquisition and Language Processing Lab, Department of Language and Literature, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Music producers, whether original composers or performers, vary in their ability to acquire and faithfully transmit music. This form of variation may serve as a mechanism for the emergence of new traits in musical systems. In this study, we aim to investigate whether individual differences in the social learning and transmission of music relate to intrinsic neural dynamics of auditory processing systems. We combined auditory and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with an interactive laboratory model of cultural transmission, the signaling game, in an experiment with a large cohort of participants (N=51). We found that the degree of interhemispheric rs-FC within fronto-temporal auditory networks predicts-weeks after scanning-learning, transmission, and structural modification of an artificial tone system. Our study introduces neuroimaging in cultural transmission research and points to specific neural auditory processing mechanisms that constrain and drive variation in the cultural transmission and regularization of musical systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.48710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6819097PMC
October 2019

A Kuramoto model of self-other integration across interpersonal synchronization strategies.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 10 16;15(10):e1007422. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus University & The Royal Academy of Music Aarhus/Aalborg, Aarhus, Denmark.

Human social behaviour is complex, and the biological and neural mechanisms underpinning it remain debated. A particularly interesting social phenomenon is our ability and tendency to fall into synchronization with other humans. Our ability to coordinate actions and goals relies on the ability to distinguish between and integrate self and other, which when impaired can lead to devastating consequences. Interpersonal synchronization has been a widely used framework for studying action coordination and self-other integration, showing that even in simple interactions, such as joint finger tapping, complex interpersonal dynamics emerge. Here we propose a computational model of self-other integration via within- and between-person action-perception links, implemented as a simple Kuramoto model with four oscillators. The model abstracts each member of a dyad as a unit consisting of two connected oscillators, representing intrinsic processes of perception and action. By fitting this model to data from two separate experiments we show that interpersonal synchronization strategies rely on the relationship between within- and between-unit coupling. Specifically, mutual adaptation exhibits a higher between-unit coupling than within-unit coupling; leading-following requires that the follower unit has a low within-unit coupling; and leading-leading occurs when two units jointly exhibit a low between-unit coupling. These findings are consistent with the theory of interpersonal synchronization emerging through self-other integration mediated by processes of action-perception coupling. Hence, our results show that chaotic human behaviour occurring on a millisecond scale may be modelled using coupled oscillators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6816575PMC
October 2019

The chronnectome of musical beat.

Neuroimage 2020 08 13;216:116191. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Cognitive Science Lab, Kohli Centre for Intelligent Systems, International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad, India.

Keeping time is fundamental for our everyday existence. Various isochronous activities, such as locomotion, require us to use internal timekeeping. This phenomenon comes into play also in other human pursuits such as dance and music. When listening to music, we spontaneously perceive and predict its beat. The process of beat perception comprises both beat inference and beat maintenance, their relative importance depending on the salience of beat in the music. To study functional connectivity associated with these processes in a naturalistic situation, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain responses of participants while they were listening to a piece of music containing strong contrasts in beat salience. Subsequently, we utilized dynamic graph analysis and psychophysiological interactions (PPI) analysis in connection with computational modelling of beat salience to investigate how functional connectivity manifests these processes. As the main effect, correlation analyses between the obtained dynamic graph measures and the beat salience measure revealed increased centrality in auditory-motor cortices, cerebellum, and extrastriate visual areas during low beat salience, whereas regions of the default mode- and central executive networks displayed high centrality during high beat salience. PPI analyses revealed partial dissociation of functional networks belonging to this pathway indicating complementary neural mechanisms crucial in beat inference and maintenance, processes pivotal for extracting and predicting temporal regularities in our environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116191DOI Listing
August 2020

Reduced structural connectivity in Insomnia Disorder.

J Sleep Res 2020 02 12;29(1):e12901. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Clinical Medicine, Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus University & the Royal Academy of Music Aarhus/Aalborg, Aarhus, Denmark.

Insomnia Disorder is the most prevalent sleep disorder, and it involves both sleep difficulties and daytime complaints. The neural underpinnings of Insomnia Disorder are poorly understood. Several existing neuroimaging studies focused on local measures and specific regions of interests, which makes it difficult to judge their whole-brain significance. We therefore here applied a data-driven approach to assess differences in whole-brain structural connectivity between adults with Insomnia Disorder and matched controls without sleep complaints. We used diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography to assess whole-brain structural connectivity, and examined group differences using network-based statistics. The results revealed a significant difference in the structural connectivity of the two groups (p = .014). Participants with Insomnia Disorder showed reduced connectivity in a sub-network that included mainly fronto-subcortical connections with the insula as a key region. By taking a whole-brain network perspective, our study enables the integration of previous inconsistent findings. Our results reveal that reduced structural connectivity of the left insula and the connections between frontal and subcortical regions are central neurobiological features of Insomnia Disorder. The importance of these areas for interoception, emotional processing, stress responses and the generation of slow-wave sleep may help guide the development of neurobiology-based models of the prevalent condition of Insomnia Disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.12901DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of auditory rhythm on movement accuracy in dance performance.

Hum Mov Sci 2019 Oct 23;67:102511. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Denmark and the Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus/Aalborg, Denmark.

The present study addresses the impact of the rhythmic complexity of music on the accuracy of dance performance. This study examined the effects of different levels of auditory syncopation on the execution of a dance sequence by trained dancers and exercisers (i.e., nondancers). It was hypothesized that nondancers would make more errors in synchronizing movements with moderately and highly syncopated rhythms while no performance degradation would manifest among trained dancers. Participants performed a dance sequence synchronized with three different rhythm tracks that were regular, moderately syncopated, and highly syncopated. We found significant performance degradation when comparing conditions of no syncopation vs. high syncopation for both trained dancers (p = .002) and nondancers (p = .001). Dancers and nondancers did not differ in how they managed to execute the task with increasing levels of syncopation (p = .384). The pattern of difference between trained dancers and nondancers was similar across the No Syncop and Highly Syncop conditions. The present findings may have marked implications for practitioners given that the tasks employed were analogous to those frequently observed in real-life dance settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2019.102511DOI Listing
October 2019

Experience-dependent neuroplasticity in trained musicians modulates the effects of chronic pain on insula-based networks - A resting-state fMRI study.

Neuroimage 2019 11 19;202:116103. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Center for Music in the Brain, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University & The Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus/Aalborg, Denmark; Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Recent resting-state fMRI studies associated extensive musical training with increased insula-based connectivity in large-scale networks involved in salience, emotion, and higher-order cognitive processes. Similar changes have also been found in chronic pain patients, suggesting that both types of experiences can have comparable effects on insula circuitries. Based on these observations, the current study asked the question whether, and if so in what way, different forms of experience-dependent neuroplasticity may interact. Here we assessed insula-based connectivity during fMRI resting-state between musicians and non-musicians both with and without chronic pain, and correlated the results with clinical pain duration and intensity. As expected, insula connectivity was increased in chronic pain non-musicians relative to healthy non-musicians (with cingulate cortex and supplementary motor area), yet no differences were found between chronic pain non-musicians and healthy musicians. In contrast, musicians with chronic pain showed decreased insula connectivity relative to both healthy musicians (with sensorimotor and memory regions) and chronic pain non-musicians (with the hippocampus, inferior temporal gyrus, and orbitofrontal cortex), as well as lower pain-related inferences with daily activities. Pain duration correlated positively with insula connectivity only in non-musicians, whereas pain intensity exhibited distinct relationships across groups. We conclude that although music-related sensorimotor training and chronic pain, taken in isolation, can lead to increased insula-based connectivity, their combination may lead to higher-order plasticity (metaplasticity) in chronic pain musicians, engaging brain mechanisms that can modulate the consequences of maladaptive experience-dependent neural reorganization (i.e., pain chronification).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.116103DOI Listing
November 2019

Musical interaction is influenced by underlying predictive models and musical expertise.

Sci Rep 2019 07 30;9(1):11048. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus University & Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus, Denmark.

Musical interaction is a unique model for understanding humans' ability to align goals, intentions, and actions, which also allows for the manipulation of participants' internal predictive models of upcoming events. Here we used polyrhythms to construct two joint finger tapping tasks that even when rhythmically dissimilar resulted in equal inter-tap intervals (ITIs). Thus, behaviourally a dyad of two musicians tap isochronously at the same rate, yet with their own distinct rhythmical context model (RCM). We recruited 22 highly skilled musicians (in 11 dyads) and contrasted the effect of having a shared versus non-shared RCM on dyads' synchronization behaviour. As expected, tapping synchronization was significantly worse at the start of trials with non-shared models compared to trials with a shared model. However, the musicians were able to quickly recover when holding dissimilar predictive models. We characterised the directionality in the tapping behaviour of the dyads and found patterns mostly of mutual adaptation. Yet, in a subset of dyads primarily consisting of drummers, we found significantly different synchronization patterns, suggesting that instrument expertise can significantly affect synchronization strategies. Overall, this demonstrates that holding different predictive models impacts synchronization in musicians performing joint finger tapping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-47471-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6667437PMC
July 2019

Reduced prediction error responses in high-as compared to low-uncertainty musical contexts.

Cortex 2019 11 28;120:181-200. Epub 2019 Jun 28.

Center for Music in the Brain, Aarhus University and The Royal Academy of Music, Denmark.

Theories of predictive processing propose that prediction error responses are modulated by the certainty of the predictive model or precision. While there is some evidence for this phenomenon in the visual and, to a lesser extent, the auditory modality, little is known about whether it operates in the complex auditory contexts of daily life. Here, we examined how prediction error responses behave in a more complex and ecologically valid auditory context than those typically studied. We created musical tone sequences with different degrees of pitch uncertainty to manipulate the precision of participants' auditory expectations. Magnetoencephalography was used to measure the magnetic counterpart of the mismatch negativity (MMNm) as a neural marker of prediction error in a multi-feature paradigm. Pitch, slide, intensity and timbre deviants were included. We compared high-entropy stimuli, consisting of a set of non-repetitive melodies, with low-entropy stimuli consisting of a simple, repetitive pitch pattern. Pitch entropy was quantitatively assessed with an information-theoretic model of auditory expectation. We found a reduction in pitch and slide MMNm amplitudes in the high-entropy as compared to the low-entropy context. No significant differences were found for intensity and timbre MMNm amplitudes. Furthermore, in a separate behavioral experiment investigating the detection of pitch deviants, similar decreases were found for accuracy measures in response to more fine-grained increases in pitch entropy. Our results are consistent with a precision modulation of auditory prediction error in a musical context, and suggest that this effect is specific to features that depend on the manipulated dimension-pitch information, in this case.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.06.010DOI Listing
November 2019

Reply to Martin-Saavedra and Saade-Lemus.

Pain 2019 06;160(6):1483-1484

Department of Psychology and Behavioural Sciences, School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/j.pain.0000000000001534DOI Listing
June 2019
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