Publications by authors named "Peter T Res"

10 Publications

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Protein Type, Protein Dose, and Age Modulate Dietary Protein Digestion and Phenylalanine Absorption Kinetics and Plasma Phenylalanine Availability in Humans.

J Nutr 2020 08;150(8):2041-2050

Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+ (MUMC+), Maastricht, Netherlands.

Background: Dietary protein ingestion stimulates muscle protein synthesis by providing amino acids to the muscle. The magnitude and duration of the postprandial increase in muscle protein synthesis rates are largely determined by dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics.

Objective: We assessed the impact of protein type, protein dose, and age on dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics in vivo in humans.

Methods: We included data from 18 randomized controlled trials with a total of 602 participants [age: 53 ± 23 y; BMI (kg/m2): 24.8 ± 3.3] who consumed various quantities of intrinsically l-[1-13C]-phenylalanine-labeled whey (n = 137), casein (n = 393), or milk (n = 72) protein and received intravenous infusions of l-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine, which allowed us to assess protein digestion and phenylalanine absorption kinetics and the postprandial release of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine into the circulation. The effect of aging on these processes was assessed in a subset of 82 young (aged 22 ± 3 y) and 83 older (aged 71 ± 5 y) individuals.

Results: A total of 50% ± 14% of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine appeared in the circulation over a 5-h postprandial period. Casein ingestion resulted in a smaller (45% ± 11%), whey protein ingestion in an intermediate (57% ± 10%), and milk protein ingestion in a greater (65% ± 13%) fraction of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine appearing in the circulation (P < 0.001). The postprandial availability of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine in the circulation increased with the ingestion of greater protein doses (P < 0.05). Protein digestion and phenylalanine absorption kinetics were attenuated in older when compared with young individuals, with 45% ± 10% vs. 51% ± 14% of dietary protein-derived phenylalanine appearing in the circulation, respectively (P = 0.001).

Conclusions: Protein type, protein dose, and age modulate dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics and subsequent postprandial plasma amino acid availability in vivo in humans. These trials were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00557388, NCT00936039, NCT00991523, NCT01317511, NCT01473576, NCT01576848, NCT01578590, NCT01615276, NCT01680146, NCT01820975, NCT01986842, and NCT02596542, and at http://www.trialregister.nl as NTR3638, NTR3885, NTR4060, NTR4429, and NTR4492.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398787PMC
August 2020

Protein Ingestion before Sleep Increases Muscle Mass and Strength Gains during Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Healthy Young Men.

J Nutr 2015 Jun 29;145(6):1178-84. Epub 2015 Apr 29.

Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Health, Medicine, and Life Sciences, School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Human Movement Sciences, Faculty of Health, Medicine, and Life Sciences, School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands;

Background: It has been demonstrated that protein ingestion before sleep increases muscle protein synthesis rates during overnight recovery from an exercise bout. However, it remains to be established whether dietary protein ingestion before sleep can effectively augment the muscle adaptive response to resistance-type exercise training.

Objective: Here we assessed the impact of dietary protein supplementation before sleep on muscle mass and strength gains during resistance-type exercise training.

Methods: Forty-four young men (22 ± 1 y) were randomly assigned to a progressive, 12-wk resistance exercise training program. One group consumed a protein supplement containing 27.5 g of protein, 15 g of carbohydrate, and 0.1 g of fat every night before sleep. The other group received a noncaloric placebo. Muscle hypertrophy was assessed on a whole-body (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), limb (computed tomography scan), and muscle fiber (muscle biopsy specimen) level before and after exercise training. Strength was assessed regularly by 1-repetition maximum strength testing.

Results: Muscle strength increased after resistance exercise training to a significantly greater extent in the protein-supplemented (PRO) group than in the placebo-supplemented (PLA) group (+164 ± 11 kg and +130 ± 9 kg, respectively; P < 0.001). In addition, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area increased in both groups over time (P < 0.001), with a greater increase in the PRO group than in the PLA group (+8.4 ± 1.1 cm(2) vs. +4.8 ± 0.8 cm(2), respectively; P < 0.05). Both type I and type II muscle fiber size increased after exercise training (P < 0.001), with a greater increase in type II muscle fiber size in the PRO group (+2319 ± 368 μm(2)) than in the PLA group (+1017 ± 353 μm(2); P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Protein ingestion before sleep represents an effective dietary strategy to augment muscle mass and strength gains during resistance exercise training in young men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02222415.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.208371DOI Listing
June 2015

Effect of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists: a randomized trial.

PLoS One 2013 19;8(11):e79280. Epub 2013 Nov 19.

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Cardiac troponin is the biochemical gold standard to diagnose acute myocardial infarction. Interestingly however, elevated cardiac troponin concentrations are also frequently observed during and after endurance-type exercise. Oxidative stress associated with prolonged exercise has been proposed to contribute to cardiac troponin release. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 4 week astaxanthin supplementation (a potent cartenoid antioxidant) on antioxidant capacity and exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists.

Methods: Thirty-two well-trained male cyclists (age 25±5, weight 73±7 kg, maximum O2 uptake 60±5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Wmax 5.4±0.5 W·kg(-1); mean ± SD) were repeatedly subjected to a laboratory based standardized exercise protocol before and after 4 weeks of astaxanthin (20 mg/day), or placebo supplementation in a double-blind randomized manner. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at 60 min of cycling and immediately post-exercise (≈ 120 min).

Results: The pre-supplementation cycling trial induced a significant rise of median cardiac troponin T concentrations from 3.2 (IQR 3.0-4.2) to 4.7 ng/L (IQR 3.7-6.7), immediately post-exercise (p<0.001). Four weeks of astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased mean basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations from non-detectable values to 175±86 µg·kg(-1). However, daily astaxanthin supplementation had no effect on exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release (p = 0.24), as measured by the incremental area under the curve. Furthermore, the elevation in basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations was not reflected in changes in antioxidant capacity markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, and malondialdehyde). Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase) were equally unaffected by astaxanthin supplementation.

Conclusion: Despite substantial increases in plasma astaxanthin concentrations, astaxanthin supplementation did not improve antioxidant capacity in well-trained cyclists. Accordingly, exercise-induced cardiac troponin T concentrations were not affected by astaxanthin supplementation.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01241877.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0079280PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3834092PMC
July 2014

Astaxanthin supplementation does not augment fat use or improve endurance performance.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2013 Jun;45(6):1158-65

Department of Human Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Astaxanthin is a lipid-soluble carotenoid found in a variety of aquatic organisms. Prolonged astaxanthin supplementation has been reported to increase fat oxidative capacity and improve running time to exhaustion in mice. These data suggest that astaxanthin may be applied as a potent ergogenic aid in humans.

Purpose: To assess the effect of 4 wk of astaxanthin supplementation on substrate use and subsequent time trial performance in well-trained cyclists.

Methods: Using a double-blind parallel design, 32 young, well-trained male cyclists or triathletes (age = 25 ± 1 yr, weight = 73 ± 1 kg, V˙O2peak = 60 ± 1 mL·kg·min, Wmax = 395 ± 7 W; mean ± SEM) were supplemented for 4 wk with 20 mg of astaxanthin per day (ASTA) or a placebo (PLA). Before and after the supplementation period, subjects performed 60 min of exercise (50% Wmax), followed by an time trial of approximately 1 h.

Results: Daily astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations from nondetectable values to 187 ± 19 μg·kg (P < 0.05). This elevation was not reflected in greater total plasma antioxidant capacity (P = 0.90) or attenuated malondialdehyde levels (P = 0.63). Whole-body fat oxidation rates during submaximal exercise did not differ between groups and did not change over time (from 0.71 ± 0.04 to 0.68 ± 0.03 g·min and from 0.66 ± 0.04 to 0.61 ± 0.05 g·min in the PLA and ASTA groups, respectively; P = 0.73). No improvements in time trial performance were observed in either group (from 236 ± 9 to 239 ± 7 and from 238 ± 6 to 244 ± 6 W in the PLA and ASTA groups, respectively; P = 0.63).

Conclusion: Prolonged astaxanthin supplementation does not augment antioxidant capacity, increase fat oxidative capacity, or improve time trial performance in trained cyclists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31827fddc4DOI Listing
June 2013

Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of skeletal muscle to resistance-type exercise training: a meta-analysis.

Am J Clin Nutr 2012 Dec 7;96(6):1454-64. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Department of Human Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, Netherlands.

Background: Protein ingestion after a single bout of resistance-type exercise stimulates net muscle protein accretion during acute postexercise recovery. Consequently, it is generally accepted that protein supplementation is required to maximize the adaptive response of the skeletal muscle to prolonged resistance-type exercise training. However, there is much discrepancy in the literature regarding the proposed benefits of protein supplementation during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in younger and older populations.

Objective: The objective of the study was to define the efficacy of protein supplementation to augment the adaptive response of the skeletal muscle to prolonged resistance-type exercise training in younger and older populations.

Design: A systematic review of interventional evidence was performed through the use of a random-effects meta-analysis model. Data from the outcome variables fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass, type I and II muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) leg press strength were collected from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of dietary protein supplementation during prolonged (>6 wk) resistance-type exercise training.

Results: Data were included from 22 RCTs that included 680 subjects. Protein supplementation showed a positive effect for FFM (weighted mean difference: 0.69 kg; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.91 kg; P < 0.00001) and 1-RM leg press strength (weighted mean difference: 13.5 kg; 95% CI: 6.4, 20.7 kg; P < 0.005) compared with a placebo after prolonged resistance-type exercise training in younger and older subjects.

Conclusion: Protein supplementation increases muscle mass and strength gains during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in both younger and older subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.112.037556DOI Listing
December 2012

Protein ingestion before sleep improves postexercise overnight recovery.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2012 Aug;44(8):1560-9

Department of Human Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: The role of nutrition in modulating postexercise overnight recovery remains to be elucidated. We assessed the effect of protein ingestion immediately before sleep on digestion and absorption kinetics and protein metabolism during overnight recovery from a single bout of resistance-type exercise.

Methods: Sixteen healthy young males performed a single bout of resistance-type exercise in the evening (2000 h) after a full day of dietary standardization. All subjects were provided with appropriate recovery nutrition (20 g of protein, 60 g of CHO) immediately after exercise (2100 h). Thereafter, 30 min before sleep (2330 h), subjects ingested a beverage with (PRO) or without (PLA) 40 g of specifically produced intrinsically [1-C]phenylalanine-labeled casein protein. Continuous intravenous infusions with [ring-H5]phenylalanine and [ring-H2]tyrosine were applied with blood and muscle samples collected to assess protein digestion and absorption kinetics, whole-body protein balance and mixed muscle protein synthesis rates throughout the night (7.5 h).

Results: During sleep, casein protein was effectively digested and absorbed resulting in a rapid rise in circulating amino acid levels, which were sustained throughout the remainder of the night. Protein ingestion before sleep increased whole-body protein synthesis rates (311 ± 8 vs 246 ± 9 μmol·kg per 7.5 h) and improved net protein balance (61 ± 5 vs -11 ± 6 μmol·kg per 7.5 h) in the PRO vs the PLA experiment (P < 0.01). Mixed muscle protein synthesis rates were ∼22% higher in the PRO vs the PLA experiment, which reached borderline significance (0.059%·h ± 0.005%·h vs 0.048%·h ± 0.004%·h, P = 0.05).

Conclusions: This is the first study to show that protein ingested immediately before sleep is effectively digested and absorbed, thereby stimulating muscle protein synthesis and improving whole-body protein balance during postexercise overnight recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e31824cc363DOI Listing
August 2012

Intragastric protein administration stimulates overnight muscle protein synthesis in elderly men.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2012 Jan 13;302(1):E52-60. Epub 2011 Sep 13.

Department of Human Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

The loss of skeletal muscle mass with aging has been attributed to an impaired muscle protein synthetic response to food intake. Therefore, nutritional strategies are targeted to modulate postprandial muscle protein accretion in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of protein administration during sleep on in vivo protein digestion and absorption kinetics and subsequent muscle protein synthesis rates in elderly men. Sixteen healthy elderly men were randomly assigned to an experiment during which they were administered a single bolus of intrinsically l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine-labeled casein protein (PRO) or a placebo (PLA) during sleep. Continuous infusions with l-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine and l-[ring-(2)H(2)]tyrosine were applied to assess in vivo dietary protein digestion and absorption kinetics and subsequent muscle protein synthesis rates during sleep. We found that exogenous phenylalanine appearance rates increased following protein administration. The latter stimulated protein synthesis, resulting in a more positive overnight whole body protein balance (0.30 ± 0.1 vs. 11.8 ± 1.0 μmol phenylalanine·kg(-1)·h(-1) in PLA and PRO, respectively; P < 0.05). In agreement, overnight muscle protein fractional synthesis rates were much greater in the PRO experiment (0.045 ± 0.002 vs. 0.029 ± 0.002%/h, respectively; P < 0.05) and showed abundant incorporation of the amino acids ingested via the intrinsically labeled protein (0.058 ± 0.006%/h). This is the first study to show that dietary protein administration during sleep is followed by normal digestion and absorption kinetics, thereby stimulating overnight muscle protein synthesis. Dietary protein administration during sleep stimulates muscle protein synthesis and improves overnight whole body protein balance. These findings may provide a basis for novel interventional strategies to attenuate muscle mass loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00321.2011DOI Listing
January 2012

Nutritional strategies to optimize training and racing in middle-distance athletes.

J Sports Sci 2007 ;25 Suppl 1:S17-28

Nestlé Research Center, Nestec Ltd., Lausanne, Switzerland.

Middle-distance athletes implement a dynamic continuum in training volume, duration, and intensity that utilizes all energy-producing pathways and muscle fibre types. At the centre of this periodized training regimen should be a periodized nutritional approach that takes into account acute and seasonal nutritional needs induced by specific training and competition loads. The majority of a middle-distance athlete's training and racing is dependant upon carbohydrate-derived energy provision. Thus, to support this training and racing intensity, a high carbohydrate intake should be targeted. The required energy expenditure throughout each training phase varies significantly, and thus the total energy intake should also vary accordingly to better maintain an ideal body composition. Optimizing acute recovery is highly dependant upon the immediate consumption of carbohydrate to maximize glycogen resynthesis rates. To optimize longer-term recovery, protein in conjunction with carbohydrate should be consumed. Supplementation of beta-alanine or sodium bicarbonate has been shown to augment intra- and extracellular buffering capacities, which may lead to a small performance increase. Future studies should aim to alter specific exercise (resistance vs. endurance) and/or nutrition stimuli and measure downstream effects at multiple levels that include gene and molecular signalling pathways, leading to muscle protein synthesis, that result in optimized phenotypic adaptation and performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640410701607213DOI Listing
June 2009

Effect of a carbohydrate-protein supplement on endurance performance during exercise of varying intensity.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2003 Sep;13(3):382-95

Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

Increasing the plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during prolonged variable intensity exercise by supplementing with carbohydrate has been found to spare muscle glycogen and increase aerobic endurance. Furthermore, the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement will enhance the insulin response of a carbohydrate supplement. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of a carbohydrate and a carbohydrate-protein supplement on aerobic endurance performance. Nine trained cyclists exercised on 3 separate occasions at intensities that varied between 45% and 75% VO2max for 3 h and then at 85% VO2max until fatigued. Supplements (200 ml) were provided every 20 min and consisted of placebo, a 7.75% carbohydrate solution, and a 7.75% carbohydrate/1.94% protein solution. Treatments were administered using a double-blind randomized design. Carbohydrate supplementation significantly increased time to exhaustion (carbohydrate 19.7 +/- 4.6 min vs. placebo 12.7 +/- 3.1 min), while the addition of protein enhanced the effect of the carbohydrate supplement (carbohydrate-protein 26.9 +/- 4.5 min, p < .05). Blood glucose and plasma insulin levels were elevated above placebo during carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein supplementation, but no differences were found between the carbohydrate and carbohydrate-protein treatments. In summary, we found that the addition of protein to a carbohydrate supplement enhanced aerobic endurance performance above that which occurred with carbohydrate alone, but the reason for this improvement in performance was not evident.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.13.3.382DOI Listing
September 2003
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