Publications by authors named "Peter Subrt"

7 Publications

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Immune profile differences between chronic GVHD and late acute GVHD: results of the ABLE/PBMTC 1202 studies.

Blood 2020 04;135(15):1287-1298

CancerCare Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Human graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) biology beyond 3 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is complex. The Applied Biomarker in Late Effects of Childhood Cancer study (ABLE/PBMTC1202, NCT02067832) evaluated the immune profiles in chronic GVHD (cGVHD) and late acute GVHD (L-aGVHD). Peripheral blood immune cell and plasma markers were analyzed at day 100 post-HSCT and correlated with GVHD diagnosed according to the National Institutes of Health consensus criteria (NIH-CC) for cGVHD. Of 302 children enrolled, 241 were evaluable as L-aGVHD, cGVHD, active L-aGVHD or cGVHD, and no cGVHD/L-aGVHD. Significant marker differences, adjusted for major clinical factors, were defined as meeting all 3 criteria: receiver-operating characteristic area under the curve ≥0.60, P ≤ .05, and effect ratio ≥1.3 or ≤0.75. Patients with only distinctive features but determined as cGVHD by the adjudication committee (non-NIH-CC) had immune profiles similar to NIH-CC. Both cGVHD and L-aGVHD had decreased transitional B cells and increased cytolytic natural killer (NK) cells. cGVHD had additional abnormalities, with increased activated T cells, naive helper T (Th) and cytotoxic T cells, loss of CD56bright regulatory NK cells, and increased ST2 and soluble CD13. Active L-aGVHD before day 114 had additional abnormalities in naive Th, naive regulatory T (Treg) cell populations, and cytokines, and active cGVHD had an increase in PD-1- and a decrease in PD-1+ memory Treg cells. Unsupervised analysis appeared to show a progression of immune abnormalities from no cGVHD/L-aGVHD to L-aGVHD, with the most complex pattern in cGVHD. Comprehensive immune profiling will allow us to better understand how to minimize L-aGVHD and cGVHD. Further confirmation in adult and pediatric cohorts is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019003186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146024PMC
April 2020

Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Prophylaxis Induces a Decrease in Naive Th Cells to Inhibit the Onset of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease: Results from the Canadian Bone Marrow Transplant Group (CBMTG) 0801 Study.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 03 19;26(3):438-444. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/Blood & Marrow Transplant, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Michael Cuccione Childhood Cancer Research Program, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Electronic address:

Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is an established approach to decrease chronic GVHD (cGVHD), yet the exact mechanism is uncertain. To better understand the mechanism of action of ATG in preventing cGVHD, we evaluated the day 100 immune reconstitution of known cGVHD cellular biomarkers using patients from the randomized Canadian Bone Marrow Transplant Group (CBMTG) 0801 trial, which demonstrated a significant impact of ATG on cGVHD. In a separate companion biology study, we evaluated the impact of ATG prophylaxis on cGVHD cellular markers at day 100 in 40 CBMTG 0801 patients. Analysis focused on previously identified cGVHD cellular biomarkers, including naive helper T (Th) cells, recent thymic emigrant (RTE) Th cells, CD21 B cells, CD56 NK cells, and T cells ST2, osteopontin, soluble B-cell activating factor (sBAFF), Interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sCD25), T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-3 (TIM-3), matrix metallopeptidase 3, ICAM-1, C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10), and soluble aminopeptidase N. The ATG-treated group had a >10-fold decrease in both RTE naive Th and naive Th cells (P < .0001) and a 10-fold increase in CD56 NK cells (P < .0001). T cells, conventional Th cells, CD21 B cells, and all plasma markers were not affected. In the populations most affected by ATG, changes in naive Th cells were associated with the later development of cGVHD. This analysis suggests that ATG primarily impacts on cGVHD through suppression of naive Th cell expansion after transplantation. These associations need to be validated in additional studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.11.015DOI Listing
March 2020

The TLR9 agonist (GNKG168) induces a unique immune activation pattern in vivo in children with minimal residual disease positive acute leukemia: Results of the TACL T2009-008 phase I study.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2019 Nov 18;36(8):468-481. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology & BMT, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, USA.

: Preclinical studies show that TLR9 agonists can eradicate leukemia by induction of immune responses against AML and ALL. These studies demonstrated that TLR9 agonists induce an immediate NK response followed by adaptive T and B cells responses resulting in long term anti-leukemia immunity. : The Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia and Lymphoma Phase I consortium performed a pilot study on 3 patients with MRD positive acute leukemia after an initial remission on conventional chemotherapy (TACL T2009-008) with the TLR 9 agonist (GNKG168). To guide future trial development, we evaluated the impact of GNKG168 by Nanostring on the expression 608 genes before and 8 days after initiation of GNKG168 therapy. : Twenty-three out of 578 markers on the nanostring panel showed significant difference ( ≤ 0.05). We focused on 8 markers that had the greatest differences with  < 0.01. Two genes were increased, and , and 6 were decreased, and (). Tumor inhibitory pathways were downregulated including the (), important in signaling and NK cell inhibition. TLR9 can induce IL-33, which is known to downregulate ST2 (IL1RL1) a receptor for IL-33. : GNKG168 therapy is associated with immunologic changes in pediatric leukemia patients. Further work with a larger sample size is required to assess the impact of these changes on disease treatment and persistence of leukemia remission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880018.2019.1667461DOI Listing
November 2019

Higher levels of free plasma mitochondrial DNA are associated with the onset of chronic GvHD.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 10 21;53(10):1263-1269. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Michael Cuccione Childhood Cancer Research Program, Department of Pediatrics, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9) responsive B cells have previously been associated with the onset of extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD). We hypothesized that the onset of cGvHD associated with a higher level of plasma-free mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), a putative TLR9 agonist. Plasma cell-free mtDNA levels were measured in 39 adult patients post-HSCT with and without cGvHD. mtDNA was isolated from plasma and quantified by Q-PCR amplification. We correlated B cell responsiveness to CpG-DNA, a prototypical TLR9 agonist, and previously identified cGVHD biomarkers with mtDNA levels. Free plasma mtDNA were elevated in patients post-HSCT without cGvHD compared to normal non-HSCT adults. There was a significantly higher level of free plasma mtDNA associated with the onset of cGvHD (3080 ± 1586 versus 1834 ± 1435 copies/μL; p = 0.02) compared to 6 months post-HSCT controls. Free mtDNA levels post-HSCT correlated with B cell responsiveness to CpG-DNA and known cGvHD biomarkers: CXCL10 (p = 0.003), ICAM-1 (p = 0.007), CXCL9 (p = 0.03), sCD25 (p = 0.05) and sBAFF (p = 0.05), and percentage of CD21 B cells. Plasma levels of free mtDNA are increased in cGvHD and may represent an endogenous inflammatory stimulus for TLR9 expressing B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0156-yDOI Listing
October 2018

Practice Patterns in the Treatment and Monitoring of Acute T Cell-Mediated Kidney Graft Rejection in Canada.

Can J Kidney Health Dis 2018 15;5:2054358117753616. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

Canadian National Transplant Research Program, Montreal, Québec, Canada.

Background: One of the goals of the Canadian National Transplant Research Program (CNTRP) is to develop novel therapies for acute rejection that could positively affect graft outcomes with greater efficacy or less toxicity. To develop innovative management strategies for kidney graft rejection, new modalities need to be compared with current clinical practices. However, there are no standardized practices concerning the management of acute T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR).

Objectives: To describe clinicians' practice patterns in the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of acute TCMR in Canada.

Design: Survey.

Setting Patients/participants: Canadian transplant nephrologists and transplant surgeons involved in the management of acute TCMR.

Methods And Measurements: We developed an anonymous, web-based survey consisting of questions related to the diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of TCMR. The survey was disseminated on 3 occasions between June and October 2016 through the Canadian Society of Transplantation (CST) kidney group electronic mailing list.

Results: Forty-seven respondents, mostly transplant nephrologists (97%), originating from at least 18 of the 25 Canadian centers offering adult or pediatric kidney transplantation, participated in the study. Surveillance biopsies were used by 28% of respondents to screen for kidney graft rejection. High-dose steroids were used by most of the respondents to treat clinical and subclinical Banff grade 1A and 1B rejections. Nine percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1-17) of practitioners used lymphocyte-depleting agents as the first-line approach for the treatment of Banff grade 1B acute rejection. Eighteen percent (95% CI: 7-29) and 36% (95% CI: 8-65) of respondents reported that they would not use high-dose steroids for treating clinical and subclinical borderline rejections, respectively. Seventy percent (95% CI: 54-83) of respondents answered that there was no indication to assess histological response to treatment independent of the change in kidney function.

Limitations: The limitations of this study are its limited sample size and the low representation of pediatric specialists.

Conclusions: There is heterogeneity regarding the use of surveillance biopsies, treatment of borderline rejection, and modalities to monitor treatment response among transplant physicians. Our results illustrate the current state of practice patterns across Canada and can be used to inform the design of future trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2054358117753616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5818088PMC
February 2018

Heterogeneity of chronic graft-versus-host disease biomarkers: association with CXCL10 and CXCR3+ NK cells.

Blood 2016 06 28;127(24):3082-91. Epub 2016 Mar 28.

Michael Cuccione Childhood Cancer Research Program, British Columbia Children's Hospital/University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada;

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) remains one of the most significant long-term complications after allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation. Diagnostic biomarkers for cGVHD are needed for early diagnosis and may guide identification of prognostic markers. No cGVHD biomarker has yet been validated for use in clinical practice. We evaluated both previously known markers and performed discovery-based analysis for cGVHD biomarkers in a 2 independent test sets (total of 36 cases ≤1 month from diagnosis and 31 time-matched controls with no cGVHD). On the basis of these results, 11 markers were selected and evaluated in 2 independent replication cohorts (total of 134 cGVHD cases and 154 controls). cGVHD cases and controls were evaluated for several clinical covariates, and their impact on biomarkers was identified by univariate analysis. The 2 replications sets were relatively disparate in the biomarkers they replicated. Only sBAFF and, most consistently, CXCL10 were identified as significant in both replication sets. Other markers identified as significant in only 1 replication set included intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), anti-LG3, aminopeptidase N, CXCL9, endothelin-1, and gelsolin. Multivariate analysis found that all covariates evaluated affected interpretation of the biomarkers. CXCL10 had an increased significance in combination with anti-LG3 and CXCL9, or inversely with CXCR3(+)CD56(bright) natural killer (NK) cells. There was significant heterogeneity of cGVHD biomarkers in a large comprehensive evaluation of cGVHD biomarkers impacted by several covariates. Only CXCL10 strongly correlated in both replication sets. Future analyses for plasma cGVHD biomarkers will need to be performed on very large patient groups with consideration of multiple covariates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2015-09-668251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4911864PMC
June 2016

The response of the tidepool sculpin, Oligocottus maculosus, to hypoxia in laboratory, mesocosm and field environments.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2008 Mar 11;149(3):284-92. Epub 2008 Jan 11.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Devon, UK.

Animals living in the intertidal zone experience regular, predictable fluctuations in physical parameters including temperature, oxygen and salinity and rely on behavioural, physiological and biochemical mechanisms to cope with environmental variation. In the present study, behavioural strategies induced by aquatic hypoxia (e.g. emergence) were performed at similar oxygen tensions across laboratory, mesocosm and field environments; the number of individuals performing these behaviours at any one time was similar in mesocosms and the field. The use of aquatic surface respiration (ASR) was more plastic than emergence behaviour, occurring at a lower oxygen tension in juveniles than adults and being influenced by the addition of alarm substance. Oxygen uptake was lower in air than in water in adults but, in contrast, oxygen uptake was not influenced by the respiratory medium in juveniles. In the laboratory, 72 h of forced emergence did not affect whole body concentrations of lactate but when ASR and emergence were prevented within mesocosm environments there was a significant elevation of lactate. The present study highlights the benefits of transcending traditional laboratory/field boundaries allowing the responses of laboratory-held animals to environmental fluctuation to be integrated with how these animals perform in their natural environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2008.01.004DOI Listing
March 2008