Publications by authors named "Peter R Calder"

10 Publications

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An Update on the Intramedullary Implant in Limb Lengthening: A Quinquennial Review Part 2: Extending Surgical Indications and Further Innovation.

Injury 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, HA7 4LP, United Kingdom.

The use of the intramedullary lengthening nail has gained in popularity over the last decade. The reduction in complications associated with the use of external fixators and excellent patient outcomes has resulted in the largest change in management of limb length discrepancy since the concept of distraction osteogenesis was accepted by the Western world in the 1980s. Success following "simple" limb lengthening has led to surgeons extending the indications for the lengthening nail, including different bone segments, lengthening associated with potential joint instability and lengthening combined with acute deformity correction. There has been a drive for further implant modification to reduce complications, and enable full weight bearing during the lengthening process. This would offer the opportunity to consider simultaneous limb lengthening. The aim of this review is to evaluate the literature published over the last five years and highlight important learning points and technical tips for these expanding indications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2022.06.024DOI Listing
June 2022

An update on the intramedullary implant in limb lengthening: A quinquennial review Part 1: The further influence of the intramedullary nail in limb lengthening.

Injury 2022 Jun 22. Epub 2022 Jun 22.

The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, HA7 4LP, UK.

The goal of limb lengthening is to restore length to bone, safely stretch soft tissues and improve quality of life with minimal complications. Traditionally this was achieved with the use of external fixators, associated with complications related to pin site tethering and infections, joint stiffness and regenerate deformity and fracture following frame removal. The duration of treatment also impacts on patient mental health and well-being. In order to reduce external fixator time, intramedullary nails have been introduced as an adjunct, either at the initial surgery or after completion of lengthening. Complications related to the external fixator still remained and innovation has led to the popularisation of the intramedullary lengthening nail. The lengthening mechanism of the nail can be divided into those with ratchet systems and those driven by motors. In the ratchet group, patients are required to manually rotate their limb, with movement at the osteotomy site, in order to create forward movement. This was often associated with pain, and in some cases led to the requirement of general anaesthesia to enable rotation and continuation of lengthening. Further issues were reported related to lengthening rate control. Once the nail had lengthened sufficiently for the osteotomy to disengage, rapid lengthening termed a 'runaway' nail could occur. The nails were limited to forward movement, and once length was gained it could not be retracted, leading to poor regenerate formation and soft tissue contractures. The introduction of the Fitbone implant utilised a transcutaneous electrical conduit, powered by a high frequency electrical signal, enabling more control over the lengthening. The Precice intramedullary lengthening system is controlled by the use of an external device with two rotating neodymium magnets, which produce rotation of a third magnet in the nail. By altering the direction of the magnet rotation, the lengthening can be controlled both forwards and backwards with sub-millimetre precision. Following initial excellent outcomes published, the use of the lengthening intramedullary nail has become accepted by many as the implant of choice in limb lengthening. The aim of this article comes in two parts. The first to highlight the latest research and clinical results in the last five years using an intramedullary implant during limb lengthening, and the second to report the outcome in extended surgical indications and further implant innovation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2022.06.028DOI Listing
June 2022

Tension-band Plating for Leg-length Discrepancy Correction.

Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr 2022 Jan-Apr;17(1):19-25

Catterall Unit, Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, United Kingdom; Department of Orthopaedics, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, United Kingdom.

Aim: Dual tension-band plates are used for temporary epiphysiodesis and longitudinal guided growth. The study aim was to assess rate of correction, to identify development of femoral and tibial intra-articular deformity during correction and to document resumption of growth after plate removal.

Materials And Methods: A retrospective study of 34 consecutive patients treated with dual tension-band plates between 2012 and 2020 was performed. Twenty-four patients had surgery at the distal femur, six at the proximal tibia and four at both. Twenty-five female patients were treated at a mean age of 11.6 (±1.4) years and nine male patients at 13.5 (±1.5) years. Measurements were performed on standardised long-leg radiographs and included leg-length discrepancy (LLD), joint line congruency angle (JLCA), tibial roof angle, femoral floor angle and notch-intercondylar distance. Measurements were taken pre-operatively, at the end of discrepancy correction and at skeletal maturity.

Results: The LLD reduced by a mean of 12.9 mm (95% CI 10.2-15.5) with the mean residual difference 8.4 mm (95% CI 5.4-11.4). The mean correction rate for the proximal tibia was 0.40 (SD 0.33) mm/month and 0.68 (SD 0.36) mm/month for the distal femur. A significant mean change in residual LLD [-2.5 mm (95% CI -4.2 to -0.7)] was observed between plate removal and skeletal maturity at the femoral level only. After length discrepancy correction, the tibial roof angle showed a significant difference of 8.4° (95% CI 13.4-3.4) between legs. In femoral epiphysiodesis patients, no important differences were observed.

Conclusion: A significant reduction in LLD can be achieved using dual tension-band plating. A change in intra-articular morphology was observed only in the proximal tibia and not in the distal femur. In the authors' opinion, tension-band plating is a useful tool for leg-length equalisation but should be reserved for younger patients or when residual growth is difficult to predict. It is one of the management strategies for limb-length difference prior to skeletal maturity.

How To Cite This Article: Tolk JJ, Merchant R, Calder PR, . Tension-band Plating for Leg-length Discrepancy Correction. Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr 2022;17(1):19-25.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10080-1547DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9166256PMC
June 2022

Femoral lengthening using the Precice intramedullary limb-lengthening system: outcome comparison following antegrade and retrograde nails.

Bone Joint J 2019 09;101-B(9):1168-1176

The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, UK.

Aims: The Precice intramedullary limb-lengthening system has demonstrated significant benefits over external fixation lengthening methods, leading to a paradigm shift in limb lengthening. This study compares outcomes following antegrade and retrograde femoral lengthening in both adolescent and adult patients.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was undertaken of a consecutive series of 107 femoral lengthening operations in 92 patients. In total, 73 antegrade nails and 34 retrograde nails were inserted. Outcome was assessed by the regenerate healing index (HI), hip and knee range of movement (ROM), and the presence of any complications.

Results: The mean lengthening was 4.65 cm (1.5 to 8) in the antegrade group and 4.64 cm (1.6 to 8) in the retrograde group. Of the 107 lengthenings, 100 had sufficient datapoints to calculate the mean HI. This was 31.6 days/cm (15 to 108). There was a trend toward a lower (better) HI with an antegrade nail and better outcomes in adolescent patients, but these were not statistically significant. Hip and knee ROM was maintained and/or improved following commencement of femoral lengthening in 44 patients (60%) of antegrade nails and 13 patients (38%) of retrograde nails. In female patients, loss of movement occurred both earlier and following less total length achieved. Minor implant complications included locking bolt migration and in one patient deformity of the nail, but no implant failed to lengthen and there were no deep infections. Three patients had delayed union, five patients required surgical intervention for joint contracture.

Conclusion: This study confirms excellent results in femoral lengthening with antegrade and retrograde Precice nails. There is a trend for better healing and less restriction in hip and knee movement following antegrade nails. There are clinical scenarios, that mandate the use of a retrograde nail. However, when these are not present, we recommend the use of antegrade nailing. Cite this article: 2019;101-B:1168-1176.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.101B9.BJJ-2018-1271.R1DOI Listing
September 2019

External fixation for the correction of adult post-traumatic deformities.

Injury 2019 Jun 29;50 Suppl 1:S36-S44. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, HA7 4LP, UK.

Malalignment of the lower limb is a significant factor in the progression of arthritis of the knee and ankle, and correction of deformity can slow the progress and reduce symptoms. It is less clear that malalignment can cause arthritis de novo, but in post traumatic deformity it has been shown that a fracture of the tibia can increase the risk of pain and stiffness of the knee and ankle irrespective of deformity. The management of deformity of the lower limb by external fixation requires a careful systematic method of deformity analysis combining clinical and radiographic assessment is essential to avoid the pitfalls of overlooking potential soft tissue problems, and hidden secondary deformities. External fixators are powerful tools for the correction of deformity, but a sound grounding in deformity analysis is essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2019.03.040DOI Listing
June 2019

The role of external fixation in paediatric limb lengthening and deformity correction.

Injury 2019 Jun 6;50 Suppl 1:S18-S23. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, HA7 4LP, UK.

Limb deformity and shortening remains a common presenting complaint in paediatric orthopaedics. The ability to restore length, alignment with consistent bone formation allows standardised treatment in these difficult conditions. The use of an external fixator produces a stable construct which allows manipulation of the bone segments, with a controlled rate and rhythm. Deformity analysis permits the surgeon to plan osteotomy levels and frame application to produce accurate correction. Complications, especially in congenital conditions remain an issue and modification of the treatment is required to try and reduce their incidence. New types of fixators, the latest being hexapod frames, have increased the versatility in deformity correction. The aim of this paper is to review the use of external fixators in elective paediatric orthopaedics and highlight the latest changes in technique and application for the limb reconstruction surgeon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2019.03.049DOI Listing
June 2019

A Systematic Review of Patient-reported Outcome Measures Used in Circular Frame Fixation.

Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr 2019 Jan-Apr;14(1):34-44

Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Brockley Hill, Stanmore, UK.

Introduction: Clinical studies in orthopedics are using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) increasingly. PROMs are often being designed for a specific disease or an area of the body with the aim of being patient centered. As yet, none exists specifically for treatment with circular ring external fixation devices.

Aim: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive systematic review of the published literature related to the use of PROMs in patients that underwent treatment with circular frames (Ilizarov or Hexapod Type Fixators).

Methods: An online literature search was conducted for English language articles using the Scopus.

Results: There were 534 published articles identified. After initial filtering for relevance and duplication, this figure reduced to 17, with no further articles identified through searching the bibliographies. Exclusion criteria removed two articles resulting in 15 articles included in the final review. Out of the 15 studies identified, a total of 10 different scoring measures where used. The majority of studies used a combination of joint/limb-specific and generic health PROMs with an average of 2.5 per study. No paper specifically discussed all eight PROMs criteria when justifying which PROMs they used.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that none of the PROMs analyzed in this systematic review are truly representative of the health outcomes specific to this patient group and, therefore, propose that a PROM specific to this patient group needs to be developed.

How To Cite This Article: Antonios T, Barker A, Ibrahim I, A Systematic Review of Patient-reported Outcome Measures Used in Circular Frame Fixation. Strategies Trauma Limb Reconstr 2019;14(1):34-44.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10080-1413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001598PMC
June 2020

Assessment of material loss of retrieved magnetically controlled implants for limb lengthening.

Proc Inst Mech Eng H 2018 Nov 11;232(11):1129-1136. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

1 Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Science, Research Department of Materials and Tissue, University College London, Stanmore, UK.

Purpose: We aimed to understand wear from the telescopic component of PRECICE nails, which are used for distraction osteogenesis of the femur or tibia. We also aimed to identify any correlation between implant performance and patient factors.

Methods: This retrieval study involved 11 magnetically controlled intramedullary nails from nine patients who had achieved the targeted leg length. All the nails were assessed macroscopically and microscopically for wear. All implants were radiographed to assess the internal mechanism. A Talyrond 365 (Taylor Hobson, Leicester, UK) roundness measuring machine was used to generate three-dimensional surface maps of the telescopic components to allow for measurement of wear.

Results: Visual assessment of all the nails showed evidence of wear from the telescopic component. The radiographs revealed that all the nails had intact internal mechanism and no evidence of fractured pins. The roundness measuring machine showed that the quantity of wear was lowest in the latest design of the PRECICE nail. There was no significant correlation between wear and the two patient factors (duration of the lengthening phase, the time of implantation) included in this study.

Conclusion: This study is the first to investigate the performance of the three different designs of the PRECICE system with a focus on wear. We found that the latest design had the best implant performance. We are confident of the continued success of the PRECICE system and reassure surgeons and patients that they are unlikely to encounter problems with the implant related to wear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0954411918806329DOI Listing
November 2018

The role of the intramedullary implant in limb lengthening.

Injury 2017 Jun 24;48 Suppl 1:S52-S58. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, UK.

Limb lengthening is now an accepted practice in orthopaedic surgery. The principles of distraction osteogenesis have become well established with the use of external fixators, utilizing both monolateral and ring fixators. Corticotomy technique, frame stability, lengthening rate and rhythm all contribute to the formation of bone regenerate and tissues. Complications are however common including pin-site infection, soft tissue tethering from the pins and wires resulting in pain, regenerate deformity from soft tissue forces or fracture following frame removal and patient intolerance of the frames during treatment. Surgical techniques have changed to try and minimise these complications. The use of intramedullary nails have been used in conjunction with an external fixator or inserted after lengthening has been achieved, to reduce fixator time and prevent regenerate deformity. Implant innovation has led to the production of intramedullary lengthening nails. The initial devices used ratchet mechanisms with rotation of the bone fragments to achieve lengthening (Bliskunov, Albizzia and ISKD). More accurate control of lengthening and a reduction in pain, resulting from the manual rotation of the leg required to achieve the ratchet progression, was achieved by the use of a transcutaneous electrical conduit powered by external high frequency electrical energy (Fitbone). The most recent implant uses an external remote controller which contains two neodymium magnets. These are placed over the nail on the skin and rotate which in turn rotates a third magnet within the intramedullary nail (Precice). This magnet rotation is converted by a motor to extend or retract the extendible rod. There are multiple nail sizes and lengths available, and early results have shown accurate control with few complications. With such promising outcomes the use of this lengthening intramedullary nail is now recommended as the implant of choice in femoral lengthening. This article is an historical account of the intramedullary device and the impact on limb lengthening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2017.04.028DOI Listing
June 2017

Reducing missing fracture clinic radiographs by entrusting them to patients.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2004 Sep;86(5):342-3

Department of Orthopaedics, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London, UK.

Background: Missing radiographs in fracture clinics may compromise fracture management and lead to inappropriate use of clerical resources.

Methods: We prospectively compared the number of missing radiographs in two hospitals over a period of two months. In hospital A the radiographs were retained and in hospital B they were entrusted to the patients.

Results: At the completion of the study, entrusting patients with their radiographs resulted in statistically less radiographs missing from the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1308/147870804362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1964239PMC
September 2004
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