Publications by authors named "Peter Pascoe"

64 Publications

Comparison of the efficacy and duration of desensitization of oral structures following injection of a lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture via lateral percutaneous and modified infraorbital approaches in dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2021 Jan;82(1):22-27

Objective: To compare efficacy and duration of desensitization of oral structures with a lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture administered via a lateral percutaneous or modified infraorbital approach.

Animals: 6 healthy adult hound-type female dogs.

Procedures: In this crossover study, dogs were randomized for side (left or right) and maxillary nerve approach (lateral percutaneous or infraorbital), with a 2-week washout period. Dogs were anesthetized, and a 2-mL mixture of 2% lidocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine (50:50 [vol/vol]) was administered with a 22-gauge, 4.5-cm-long catheter inserted through the infraorbital canal (infraorbital approach) or with a shielded stimulating needle to the maxillary nerve (percutaneous approach). Reflex-evoked motor potentials were measured for the maxillary canine tooth, fourth premolar tooth, second molar tooth, and hard palate mucosa ipsilateral to the injected mixture and for the contralateral maxillary canine tooth (control) at three 10-minute intervals before injection (baseline) and at predetermined times after injection for up to 6.7 hours. For each oral structure, the proportion of dogs with desensitization (efficacy) and time to onset and duration of desensitization were compared between approaches.

Results: The proportion of dogs with successful nerve blockade did not significantly differ between infraorbital and percutaneous approaches and among the 4 oral structures. Time to onset of desensitization did not differ between approaches, but duration was significantly longer with the infraorbital approach.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: A modified infraorbital approach with the lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture had similar effects to a lateral percutaneous approach but provided a longer duration of desensitization. Neither approach was universally successful at desensitizing all oral structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.82.1.22DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparison of the efficacy and duration of desensitization of oral structures following injection of various volumes of a lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture via an infraorbital approach in dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2020 Jun;81(6):463-470

Objective: To compare the efficacy and duration of desensitization of oral structures following injection of various volumes of lidocaine-bupivacaine via an infraorbital approach in dogs.

Animals: 6 healthy adult hound-type dogs.

Procedures: In a randomized crossover study, each dog received 1, 2, and 3 mL of a 2% lidocaine-0.5% bupivacaine mixture (50:50 vol/vol) injected within and near the caudal aspect of the infraorbital canal with a 14-day washout period between treatments. Dogs were anesthetized, and each treatment was administered through a 22-gauge, 4.5-cm-long catheter, which was fully inserted through and then withdrawn 2 cm to the caudal aspect of the infraorbital canal. The reflex-evoked motor potential was measured for the maxillary canine tooth (MC), fourth premolar tooth (MPM4), second molar tooth (MM2), and hard palate mucosa ipsilateral to the injected treatment and for the contralateral MC (control) at predetermined times before and for 6 hours after treatment administration or until the block was no longer effective. For each oral structure, the proportion of dogs with desensitization (efficacy) and time to onset and duration of desensitization were compared among the 3 treatments (injectate volumes).

Results: Treatment was not associated with efficacy, time to onset, or duration of desensitization. Regardless of treatment, MC and MPM4 were more frequently desensitized and mean durations of desensitization for MC and MPM4 were longer, compared with those for MM2 and the hard palate.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: The volume of local anesthetic used for an infraorbital nerve block had no effect on block efficacy or duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.81.6.463DOI Listing
June 2020

Hemodynamic effects of subclinical, clinical and supraclinical plasma alfaxalone concentrations in cats.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2019 Sep 10;46(5):597-604. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Jurox Pty Ltd, Rutherford, NSW, Australia.

Objective: To characterize the hemodynamic effects of subclinical, clinical and supraclinical plasma alfaxalone concentrations in cats.

Study Design: Experimental study.

Animals: A group of six adult healthy male neutered cats.

Methods: Cats were anesthetized with desflurane in oxygen for instrumentation. Catheters were placed in a medial saphenous vein for drug administration and in a carotid artery for arterial blood pressure measurement and blood collection. A thermodilution catheter was placed in the pulmonary artery via an introducer placed in a jugular vein for measurement of central venous pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, cardiac output and core body temperature, and for sampling mixed venous blood. A lead II electrocardiogram was connected. Desflurane administration was discontinued and a target-controlled infusion system was used to administer alfaxalone to reach six plasma alfaxalone concentrations ranging from 1.0 to 30.4 mg L, with 7.6 mg L considered a clinical concentration for anesthesia. Cardiovascular measurements were recorded, and arterial and mixed-venous blood samples were collected for blood-gas analysis and plasma alfaxalone concentration measurement at each target concentration. Data were analyzed using a repeated-measures analysis of variance and Dunnett's test for comparisons to the lowest target concentration. Significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: Mean ± standard deviation plasma alfaxalone concentrations were 0.73 ± 0.32, 1.42 ± 0.41, 3.44 ± 0.40, 6.56 ± 0.43, 18.88 ± 6.81 and 49.47 ± 5.50 mg L for the 1, 1.9, 3.8, 7.6, 15.2, and 30.4 mg L target concentrations, respectively. PaCO increased with increasing target plasma alfaxalone concentrations and was 69.4 ± 14.2 mmHg (9.3 ± 1.9 kPa) at the 30.4 mg L target. Some cardiovascular variables were statistically significantly affected by increasing target plasma alfaxalone concentrations.

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: Within the plasma concentration range studied, alfaxalone caused hypoventilation, but the cardiovascular effects were of small clinical significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2019.05.004DOI Listing
September 2019

Cardiorespiratory effects of variable pressure thoracic insufflation in cats undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery.

Vet Surg 2019 Jun 15;48(S1):O130-O137. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, California.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of intrathoracic insufflation on cardiorespiratory variables and working space in cats undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery.

Study Design: Prospective randomized study.

Animals: Six healthy cats.

Methods: Cats were anesthetized using a standardized protocol. A Swan-Ganz catheter was positioned in the pulmonary artery under fluoroscopic guidance for measurement of cardiac output. Intrathoracic pressures (ITP) of 0 (baseline), 3, and 5 mm Hg were induced with CO and maintained for 30 minutes. Statistical comparison of cardiorespiratory variables was performed. After the procedures, all cats were recovered from anesthesia. Videos of thoracic working space at each ITP level were scored in a blinded fashion by 3 board-certified surgeons using a numerical scale from 0-10.

Results: All cats tolerated insufflation with 3 and 5 mm Hg for 30 minutes without oxygen desaturation, although ventilatory levels had to be increased substantially to maintain eucapnia and oxygenation. Cardiac index was not significantly different from baseline after 30 minutes at 3 mm Hg but was significantly lower after 30 minutes at 5 mm Hg compared with 3 mm Hg. Oxygen delivery was unaffected by 3 or 5 mm Hg compared with baseline. Scores for working space increased between baseline and 3 and 5 mm Hg but were not different between 3 and 5 mm Hg.

Conclusion: CO insufflation to 5 mm Hg seems well tolerated in healthy cats, provided ventilatory settings are substantially increased as ITP increases.

Clinical Significance: Thoracic CO insufflation of 3 mm Hg in cats during video-assisted thoracic surgery is associated with less hemodynamic perturbation than 5 mm Hg insufflation and may provide the benefit of improved working space compared with baseline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13130DOI Listing
June 2019

Effects of three fentanyl plasma concentrations on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res 2018 Jun;79(6):600-605

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of 3 plasma concentrations of fentanyl on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MAC) and cardiovascular variables in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). ANIMALS 6 adult parrots. PROCEDURES In phase 1, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided. The MAC was determined for each bird by use of a bracketing method and supramaximal electrical stimulus. Fentanyl (20 μg/kg) was administered IV, and blood samples were collected over time to measure plasma fentanyl concentrations for pharmacokinetic calculations. In phase 2, pharmacokinetic values for individual birds were used for administration of fentanyl to achieve target plasma concentrations of 8, 16, and 32 ng/mL. At each concentration, MAC and cardiovascular variables were determined. Data were analyzed with mixed-effects multilevel linear regression analysis. RESULTS Mean ± SD fentanyl plasma concentrations were 0 ng/mL, 5.01 ± 1.53 ng/mL, 12.12 ± 3.58 ng/mL, and 24.93 ± 4.13 ng/mL, and MAC values were 2.09 ± 0.17%, 1.45 ± 0.32%, 1.34 ± 0.31%, and 0.95 ± 0.14% for fentanyl target concentrations of 0, 8, 16, and 32 ng/mL, respectively. Fentanyl significantly decreased MAC in a dose-dependent manner. Heart rate and blood pressure significantly decreased at all fentanyl doses, compared with values for MAC at 0 ng of fentanyl/mL. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Fentanyl significantly decreased the MAC in healthy Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, but this was accompanied by a depressive effect on heart rate and blood pressure that would need to be considered for application of this technique in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.79.6.600DOI Listing
June 2018

Pharmacokinetics of fentanyl after intravenous administration in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

Am J Vet Res 2018 Jun;79(6):606-613

OBJECTIVE To compare the disposition of fentanyl citrate after a single IV injection in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). ANIMALS 6 adult red-tailed hawks and 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. PROCEDURES Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; intermittent positive-pressure ventilation was provided. The minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane was determined for each bird by use of the bracketing method and a supramaximal electrical stimulus. Fentanyl (20 μg/kg) was administered IV. Arterial (red-tailed hawks) or jugular venous (Hispaniolan Amazon parrots) blood samples were obtained immediately before and 1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, and 480 minutes (red-tailed hawks) and 1, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes (Hispaniolan Amazon parrots) after fentanyl administration. RESULTS A 3-compartment and a 2-compartment model best described fentanyl pharmacokinetics in red-tailed hawks and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, respectively. Median apparent volume of the central compartment and volume of distribution at steady state were 222 mL/kg and 987 mL/kg, respectively, for the red-tailed hawks and 5,108 mL/kg and 13,079 mL/kg, respectively, for the Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Median clearance and elimination half-life were 8.9 mL/min/kg and 90.22 minutes, respectively, for the red-tailed hawks and 198.8 mL/min/kg and 51.18 minutes, respectively, for the Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Pharmacokinetic results for fentanyl in isoflurane-anesthetized red-tailed hawks and Hispaniolan Amazon parrots indicated large differences and should strongly discourage extrapolation of doses between these 2 species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.79.6.606DOI Listing
June 2018

AAFP Feline Anesthesia Guidelines.

J Feline Med Surg 2018 07;20(7):602-634

Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, 300 W Drake Rd, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Aim: The overarching purpose of the AAFP Anesthesia Guidelines (hereafter referred to as the 'Guidelines') is to make anesthesia and sedation safer for the feline patient. Scope and accessibility: It is noteworthy that these are the first exclusively feline anesthesia guidelines authored by an expert panel, making them particularly useful as an extensively referenced, practical resource for veterinary practice teams. Because much of the key content is presented in tabular or visual format, the Guidelines have a high level of accessibility and convenience that invites regular usage. While the recommendations in the Guidelines focus primarily on client-owned cats, the content is also applicable to community-sourced animals with an unknown medical history.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1098612X18781391DOI Listing
July 2018

A question of time.

Authors:
Peter J Pascoe

Vet Anaesth Analg 2018 07 5;45(4):401-404. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California - Davis, Davis, CA, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2018.05.004DOI Listing
July 2018

Retrobulbar vs peribulbar regional anesthesia techniques using bupivacaine in dogs.

Vet Ophthalmol 2019 Mar 15;22(2):183-191. Epub 2018 May 15.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of retrobulbar anesthesia (RBA) and peribulbar anesthesia (PBA) in dogs.

Animal Studied: Six adult mixed-breed dogs (18-24 kg).

Procedures: In a randomized, masked, crossover trial with a 10-day washout period, each dog was sedated with intravenously administered dexmedetomidine and administered 0.5% bupivacaine:iopamidol (4:1) as RBA (2 mL via a ventrolateral site) or PBA (5 mL divided equally between ventrolateral and dorsomedial sites). The contralateral eye acted as control. Injectate distribution was evaluated by computed tomography. Following intramuscularly administered atipamezole, corneal and periocular skin sensation, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular reflexes, and appearance were evaluated for 24 hours. Comparisons were performed with mixed-effects linear regression (IOP) or the exact Wilcoxon signed rank test (scores). Significance was set at P ≤ .05.

Results: Injectate distribution was intraconal in 2/6 RBA- and 4/6 PBA-injected eyes. Eyes undergoing PBA had significantly reduced lateral, ventral, and dorsal periocular skin sensation for 2-3 hours, and significantly reduced corneal sensitivity for 4 hours, relative to control eyes. Chemosis and exophthalmos occurred in 33%-40% of eyes undergoing RBA and 83%-100% eyes undergoing PBA but resolved within 14 hours. Anterior uveitis developed in 2/6 and 1/6 eyes of RBA and PBA, respectively, of them corneal ulcer developed in one eye of each treatment. Both resolved 1-3 days following medical treatment.

Conclusions: Peribulbar injection produced notable anesthesia more reliably than did retrobulbar injection. Both techniques may produce adverse effects, although the uveitis/ulcer could have resulted from the contrast agent used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vop.12579DOI Listing
March 2019

Video-assisted thoracoscopic thoracic duct sealing is inconsistent when performed with a bipolar vessel-sealing device in healthy cats.

Vet Surg 2018 Jun 6;47(S1):O84-O90. Epub 2018 Apr 6.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, California.

Objective: To describe a technique for video-assisted thoracoscopic (VATS) thoracic duct ligation (TDL) in normal cats with a bipolar vessel-sealing device and to assess durability of the seal.

Study Design: Prospective case series.

Animals: Six healthy research cats.

Methods: Cats were placed under anesthesia for computed tomography lymphangiography (CTLA) to identify thoracic duct anatomy. On the basis of CTLA findings, cats were positioned in either right or left lateral recumbency for a 3-port VATS TDL. Thoracic duct branches were dissected from the aorta after subcutaneous indirect near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) lymphography with indocyanine green was performed to optimize detection. A vessel-sealing device was used to seal each thoracic duct in 1 or more locations. Postattenuation, indirect NIRF lymphography was repeated to confirm complete occlusion of thoracic duct flow. CTLA was repeated in all cats 3 months postoperatively.

Results: The thoracic duct was surgically approached from the right in 3 cats and from the left in 3 cats. A median of 2.5 (range 1-6) TDL seal sites were applied. In 2 cats, leakage of chyle was detected during dissection. At 3 months postoperatively, CTLA confirmed reestablished chylous flow in 5 of 6 cats, appearing to occur through recanalization of previously sealed sites rather than through development of de novo lymphatic vessels.

Conclusion: VATS TDL is feasible in cats, although the variable and delicate nature of feline thoracic duct anatomy should be considered preoperatively.

Clinical Significance: Bipolar vessel-sealing devices are not a durable modality for thoracic duct sealing in healthy cats in a seal only fashion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.12788DOI Listing
June 2018

Comparison of intraosseous pentobarbital administration and thoracic compression for euthanasia of anesthetized sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

Am J Vet Res 2017 Aug;78(8):887-899

OBJECTIVE To compare intraosseous pentobarbital treatment (IPT) and thoracic compression (TC) on time to circulatory arrest and an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) in anesthetized passerine birds. ANIMALS 30 wild-caught adult birds (17 house sparrows [Passer domesticus] and 13 European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris]). PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive IPT or TC (n = 6/species/group). Birds were anesthetized, and carotid arterial pulses were monitored by Doppler methodology. Five subdermal braided-wire electrodes were used for EEG. Anesthetic depth was adjusted until a continuous EEG pattern was maintained, then euthanasia was performed. Times from initiation of euthanasia to cessation of carotid pulse and irreversible isoelectric EEG (indicators of death) were measured. Data (medians and first to third quartiles) were summarized and compared between groups within species. Necropsies were performed for all birds included in experiments and for another 6 birds euthanized under anesthesia by TC (4 sparrows and 1 starling) or IPT (1 sparrow). RESULTS Median time to isoelectric EEG did not differ significantly between treatment groups for sparrows (19.0 and 6.0 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively) or starlings (88.5 and 77.5 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively). Median times to cessation of pulse were significantly shorter for TC than for IPT in sparrows (0.0 vs 18.5 seconds) and starlings (9.5 vs 151.0 seconds). On necropsy, most (14/17) birds that underwent TC had grossly visible coelomic, pericardial, or perihepatic hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that TC might be an efficient euthanasia method for small birds. Digital pressure directly over the heart during TC obstructed venous return, causing rapid circulatory arrest, with rupture of the atria or vena cava in several birds. The authors propose that cardiac compression is a more accurate description than TC for this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.78.8.887DOI Listing
August 2017

A comparison of retrobulbar and two peribulbar regional anesthetic techniques in dog cadavers.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2017 Jul 13;44(4):925-932. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

Objective: To compare injectate distribution and likelihood of regional anesthesia to the orbit following retrobulbar (RB) or peribulbar (PB) injections in dog cadavers.

Study Design: Randomized, masked study.

Animals: Twenty-four dog cadavers (aged 5.5-17 years, 2.0-36.3 kg).

Methods: Orbits underwent one of three injection techniques with bupivacaine 0.5% and iohexol (1:1): ventrolateral RB injection (1-2 mL; 15 orbits), medial canthal PB injection (2-8 mL; PB-1; 16 orbits), or dorsomedial and ventrolateral PB injections (each 1-4 mL; PB-2; 16 orbits). The likelihood of successful regional anesthesia was estimated based on computed tomographic images scored for injectate volume of distribution at the base and within the extraocular muscle cone (EOMC), and injectate distribution around the optic nerve. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured before and after injections. Mixed-effects linear regression with post hoc Bonferroni contrast adjustments was performed. Significance was set at 0.05.

Results: A difference in injectate volume of distribution within or at the base of the EOMC was not detected among groups. The median optic nerve circumference of injectate distribution was significantly higher in the RB injected group than in the PB-2 group. Injectate distribution following RB, PB-1 and PB-2 injections was graded as likely to provide regional anesthesia within the EOMC in 40%, 19% and 31% of eyes, and at the EOMC base in 60%, 63% and 50% of eyes, respectively. The probability of likelihood to provide regional anesthesia was lower in dogs of higher body weights. The IOP was significantly higher than baseline following PB-1 (18 ± 14 mmHg) and in comparison with RB (2 ± 3 mmHg), but not different from PB-2 injection (10 ± 11 mmHg).

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: None of the techniques reliably produced 'successful' injectate distribution based on this study's definitions; however, clinical assessment of anesthetic success is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2017.02.009DOI Listing
July 2017

A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Sarcomere Contractility Acutely Relieves Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

PLoS One 2016 14;11(12):e0168407. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of the heart muscle characterized by otherwise unexplained thickening of the left ventricle. Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction is present in approximately two-thirds of patients and substantially increases the risk of disease complications. Invasive treatment with septal myectomy or alcohol septal ablation can improve symptoms and functional status, but currently available drugs for reducing obstruction have pleiotropic effects and variable therapeutic responses. New medical treatments with more targeted pharmacology are needed, but the lack of preclinical animal models for HCM with LVOT obstruction has limited their development. HCM is a common cause of heart failure in cats, and a subset exhibit systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve leading to LVOT obstruction. MYK-461 is a recently-described, mechanistically novel small molecule that acts at the sarcomere to specifically inhibit contractility that has been proposed as a treatment for HCM. Here, we use MYK-461 to test whether direct reduction in contractility is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction in feline HCM. We evaluated mixed-breed cats in a research colony derived from a Maine Coon/mixed-breed founder with naturally-occurring HCM. By echocardiography, we identified five cats that developed systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and LVOT obstruction both at rest and under anesthesia when provoked with an adrenergic agonist. An IV MYK-461 infusion and echocardiography protocol was developed to serially assess contractility and LVOT gradient at multiple MYK-461 concentrations. Treatment with MYK-461 reduced contractility, eliminated systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve and relieved LVOT pressure gradients in an exposure-dependent manner. Our findings provide proof of principle that acute reduction in contractility with MYK-461 is sufficient to relieve LVOT obstruction. Further, these studies suggest that feline HCM will be a valuable translational model for the study of disease pathology, particularly LVOT obstruction.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0168407PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5156432PMC
July 2017

Effects of fentanyl administration on locomotor response in horses with the G57C μ-opioid receptor polymorphism.

Am J Vet Res 2016 Aug;77(8):828-32

OBJECTIVE To determine the locomotor response to the administration of fentanyl in horses with and without the G57C polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor. ANIMALS 20 horses of various breeds and ages (10 horses heterozygous for the G57C polymorphism and 10 age-, breed-, and sex-matched horses that did not have the G57C polymorphism). PROCEDURES The number of steps each horse took was counted over consecutive 2-minute periods for 20 minutes to determine a baseline value. The horse then received a bolus of fentanyl (20 μg/kg, IV), and the number of steps was again counted during consecutive 2-minute periods for 60 minutes. The mean baseline value was subtracted from each 2-minute period after fentanyl administration; step counts with negative values were assigned a value of 0. Data were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures ANOVA. RESULTS Data for 19 of 20 horses (10 horses with the G57C polymorphism and 9 control horses without the G57C polymorphism) were included in the analysis. Horses with the G57C polymorphism had a significant increase in locomotor activity, compared with results for horses without the polymorphism. There was a significant group-by-time interaction. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Horses heterozygous for the G57C polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor had an increased locomotor response to fentanyl administration, compared with the response for horses without this polymorphism. The clinical impact of this finding should be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.77.8.828DOI Listing
August 2016

The effects of lidocaine or a lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture administered into the infraorbital canal in dogs.

Authors:
Peter J Pascoe

Am J Vet Res 2016 Jul;77(7):682-7

OBJECTIVE To determine the onset, duration, and extent of regional nerve blocks performed by administration of lidocaine or lidocaine-bupivacaine into the infraorbital canal in dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy hound-type dogs. PROCEDURES Under general anesthesia, stimulating needles were inserted into the gingiva dorsolateral to both maxillary canine (MC) teeth and the maxillary fourth premolar (MPM4) and second molar (MM2) teeth on the treatment side. A reflex-evoked muscle potential (REMP) was recorded from the digastricus muscle after noxious electrical stimulation at each site. After baseline measurements, 1 mL of 2% lidocaine solution or a 2% lidocaine-0.5% bupivacaine mixture (0.5 mL each) was injected into the infraorbital canal (at approx two-thirds of the canal length measured rostrocaudally). The REMPs were recorded for up to 7 hours. The REMP data for the contralateral (untreated control) canine tooth were used to normalize results for all stimulation sites. RESULTS With both treatments, nerve block for MC teeth on the treated side was achieved by 5 (n = 5 dogs) or 10 (1) minutes after injection, but nerve block for ipsilateral MPM4 and MM2 teeth was successful for only 3 dogs and 1 dog, respectively. Mean duration of nerve blocks for MC teeth was 120 and 277 minutes following injection of lidocaine and lidocaine-bupivacaine, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Local anesthesia, as performed in this study, successfully blocked innervation of MC teeth, but results for MPM4 and MM2 teeth were inconsistent. This specific technique should not be used during tooth extractions caudal to the MC teeth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.77.7.682DOI Listing
July 2016

Response.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2016 09 19;43(5):586. Epub 2016 Jun 19.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12396DOI Listing
September 2016

Plasma bupivacaine concentrations following orbital injections in cats.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2017 Jan 23;44(1):178-182. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

Objective: To determine plasma bupivacaine concentrations after retrobulbar or peribulbar injection of bupivacaine in cats.

Study Design: Randomized, crossover, experimental trial with a 2 week washout period.

Animals: Six adult healthy cats, aged 1-2 years, weighing 4.6 ± 0.7 kg.

Methods: Cats were sedated by intramuscular injection of dexmedetomidine (36-56 μg kg) and were administered a retrobulbar injection of bupivacaine (0.75 mL, 0.5%; 3.75 mg) and iopamidol (0.25 mL), or a peribulbar injection of bupivacaine (1.5 mL, 0.5%; 7.5 mg), iopamidol (0.5 mL) and 0.9% saline (1 mL) via a dorsomedial approach. Blood (2 mL) was collected before and at 5, 10, 15, 22, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240 and 480 minutes after bupivacaine injection. Atipamezole was administered approximately 30 minutes after bupivacaine injection. Plasma bupivacaine and 3-hydroxybupivacaine concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bupivacaine maximum plasma concentration (C) and time to C (T) were determined from the data.

Results: The bupivacaine median (range) C and T were 1.4 (0.9-2.5) μg mL and 17 (4-60) minutes, and 1.7 (1.0-2.4) μg mL, and 28 (8-49) minutes, for retrobulbar and peribulbar injections, respectively. In both treatments the 3-hydroxybupivacaine peak concentration was 0.05-0.21 μg mL.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: In healthy cats, at doses up to 2 mg kg, bupivacaine peak plasma concentrations were approximately half that reported to cause arrhythmias or convulsive electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in cats, and about one-sixth of that required to produce hypotension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12388DOI Listing
January 2017

Endoscopic treatment of an intrathoracic tracheal osteochondroma in a dog.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2015 Dec;247(11):1303-8

Case Description: A 1.5-year-old spayed female Bernese Mountain Dog was examined for a 6-month history of intermittent vomiting, regurgitation, wheezing, and coughing. Initially, a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease with secondary aspiration pneumonitis was made but clinical signs did not resolve with treatment.

Clinical Findings: Thoracic and cervical radiography and CT revealed a sessile, irregularly marginated soft tissue opacity at the level of the fourth rib. Results of a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and urinalysis were within reference limits. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were normal.

Treatment And Outcome: Tracheoscopy revealed a firm, irregularly marginated mass apparently originating from the ventral aspect of the trachea, occluding approximately one-half of the tracheal lumen, and located 2 cm cranial to the carina. Cytologic and histopathologic examination of fine-needle aspirate and biopsy samples suggested a benign etiology; therefore, endoscopic minimally invasive laser and electrocautery resection of the mass was scheduled. A total IV anesthetic protocol was administered with an oxygen-air mixture used to decrease the risk of fire during tracheal surgery. The mass was successfully resected, and histopathologic examination confirmed a diagnosis of osteochondroma. Clinical signs resolved, and at follow-up 32 months later, no regrowth of the mass was evident.

Clinical Relevance: Tracheoscopy-guided electrocautery and surgical diode laser resection was successful in removing an obstructive tracheal mass that was not resectable by means of a conventional open surgical approach. Minimally invasive procedures may decrease morbidity and mortality and improve outcome in appropriately selected small animal patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.247.11.1303DOI Listing
December 2015

Pain and analgesia following onychectomy in cats: a systematic review.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2016 Jan 12;43(1):5-17. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

Objectives: To systematically review published studies evaluating pain associated with onychectomy in cats, and to assess the efficacy of the analgesic therapies applied.

Databases Used: Four sources were used to identify manuscripts for review. Databases searched were those of the National Library of Medicine, EMBASE and CAB International. In addition, pertinent references in the bibliographies of included articles were retrieved.

Results: Twenty manuscripts published in refereed journals were reviewed. These included papers reporting 18 clinical trials and two studies conducted in conditioned research cats. Twelve analgesics were evaluated, including seven opioids, four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and one local anesthetic. Nine studies involved a direct comparison of analgesic agents. Limb use was abnormal when measured at 2 and 12 days following onychectomy, and neither fentanyl patch nor butorphanol administration resulted in normal use of the surgical limb. In another study, cats evaluated at 6 months after this surgery were not lame. Differing surgical techniques were compared in six studies; the results indicated that pain scores were lower after laser surgery than after scalpel surgery. The difficulties associated with assessing pain in cats and the lack of sensitivity of the evaluation systems utilized were highlighted in many of the studies. Huge variations in dose and dosing strategies had significant impacts on drug efficacy. Statistically significant differences among treatments were found in most studies; however, no clearly superior analgesic treatment was identified. A combination of meloxicam or robenacoxib with an opioid may provide more effective analgesia and should be evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12314DOI Listing
January 2016

ANGIOGRAPHIC ANATOMY OF THE MAJOR ABDOMINAL ARTERIAL BLOOD SUPPLY IN THE DOG.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2015 Sep-Oct;56(5):474-85. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, 95616.

Vascular-based interventional radiology (IR) procedures are being more regularly performed in veterinary patients for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. A complete description of the fluoroscopic arterial anatomy of the canine abdominal cavity has not been published. This information is essential for performance of IR procedures to allow for improved preparation before and during a particular procedure. The primary purpose of this study was to provide a fluoroscopic description of the vascular branching from the abdominal aorta in a ventro-dorsal projection with a secondary goal of producing pictorial reference images of the major abdominal arterial blood vessels. Five healthy female hound type dogs were enrolled and underwent fluoroscopic arteriography. During fluoroscopy, both nonselective and selective arteriography were performed. The nonselective arteriograms were obtained in the aorta at four locations: cranial to the celiac artery, cranial to the renal arteries, cranial to the caudal mesenteric artery, and cranial to the branching of the external iliac arteries. Selective arteriography was conducted by performing injections into the following arteries: celiac, splenic, common hepatic, cranial mesenteric, left and right renal, and caudal mesenteric. Fluoroscopic arteriography allowed for excellent characterization of the aortic ostia and the location of the lower order vascular branches. Future evaluation of vascular-based treatment options will likely increase as the understanding of the normal and pathologic anatomy improves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vru.12250DOI Listing
May 2016

Comparison of peribulbar and retrobulbar regional anesthesia with bupivacaine in cats.

Am J Vet Res 2014 Dec;75(12):1029-39

Departments of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Objective: To compare effectiveness and complications associated with peribulbar and retrobulbar anesthesia with bupivacaine in cats.

Animals: 6 healthy adult cats.

Procedures: Cats were sedated with dexmedetomidine and received a peribulbar injection of 0.5% bupivacaine (1.5 mL), iopamidol (0.5 mL), and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL) or retrobulbar injection of 0.5% bupivacaine (0.75 mL) and iopamidol (0.25 mL) in a crossover study with ≥ 2 weeks between treatments. The contralateral eye was the control. Injectate distribution was evaluated with CT. After atipamezole administration, periocular and corneal sensations, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular reflexes and appearance were evaluated for 24 hours.

Results: All peribulbar and 3 of 6 retrobulbar injections resulted in CT evidence of intraconal injectate. Corneal sensation and periocular skin sensation were absent or significantly reduced relative to that for control eyes for 3 hours after peribulbar injection. Mean ± SD IOP immediately after injection was significantly higher for eyes with peribulbar injections (33 ± 12 mm Hg) than for control eyes or eyes with retrobulbar injections (both 14 ± 4 mm Hg) but 10 minutes later decreased to 18 ± 3 mm Hg. Exophthalmos, chemosis, and ptosis were evident in most injected eyes, and irritation was evident in 3 of 6 peribulbar-injected and 1 of 6 retrobulbar-injected eyes. All conditions resolved within 14 hours.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Peribulbar injection resulted in intraconal deposition of bupivicaine in a higher percentage of cats than did retrobulbar injection and induced notable anesthesia relative to that for the control eye; however, IOP increased temporarily.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.75.12.1029DOI Listing
December 2014

Prospective evaluation of access incision position for minimally invasive surgical organ exposure in cats.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2014 Nov;245(10):1129-34

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Objective: To evaluate the exposure obtained for minimally invasive abdominal organ biopsy (MIOB) from 3 access incisions in cats.

Design: Prospective experimental study and clinical case series.

Animals: 6 purpose-bred research cats and 6 feline clinical patients with indications for abdominal organ biopsy.

Procedures: Three 3-cm incisions into the peritoneal cavity were created at different locations along the linea alba in research cats in randomized order. A wound retraction device was inserted in each incision. Ability to exteriorize various abdominal organs to the extent required to reasonably perform a surgical biopsy was recorded, and results were compared among incision sites. On the basis of results obtained, the access incision that provided exposure of the most frequently biopsied abdominal organs was used to perform MIOB in 6 feline clinical patients with various underlying pathological conditions.

Results: On the basis of experiments with research cats, a 3-cm access incision centered midway between the caudal margin of the xiphoid cartilage and the umbilicus was found to provide access for MIOB for most organs. In 5 of 6 clinical patients, all of the organs of interest were biopsied successfully via this incision location, although access to all hepatic lobes and all parts of the pancreas was inconsistent. In 1 cat, conversion to an open approach was performed because a palpable mass was detected in the area of the duodenocolic ligament.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Optimization of access incision location for MIOB allowed biopsy specimen collection from organs of interest to be performed in a minimally invasive manner in cats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.245.10.1129DOI Listing
November 2014

Effect of One-Lung Ventilation With or Without Low-Pressure Carbon Dioxide Insufflation on Cardiorespiratory Variables in Cats Undergoing Thoracoscopy.

Vet Surg 2015 Jul 16;44 Suppl 1:15-22. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, California.

Objectives: To document a technique for one-lung ventilation (OLV) in cats and evaluate the effect of low-pressure carbon dioxide insufflation and OLV (OLV-CDI) on cardiorespiratory variables in cats.

Study Design: Prospective randomized study.

Animals: Cats (n = 6).

Methods: General anesthesia was induced using a standardized anesthetic protocol. A thermodilution catheter was placed into the pulmonary artery using fluoroscopic guidance. Two 6 mm thoracoscopic cannulae were placed at a subxiphoid and intercostal location, respectively, to allow direct observation of all lung lobes. OLV was induced using an endobronchial blocker, which was placed into the right and left main stem bronchi in randomized order using bronchoscopic guidance. Cardiorespiratory variables were measured at 5 and 30 minutes after induction of OLV and subsequently at 5 and 30 minutes after initiation of OLV-CDI at intra-thoracic pressures of 3 mmHg.

Results: Left-sided OLV was successful in 5 cats, right-sided OLV was successful in 2 cats, and neither was successful in 1 cat. No significant effects on hemodynamic variables or oxygen delivery were observed after right or left-sided OLV alone. Hemodynamic variables were also well-preserved after OLV-CDI; however, oxygen delivery was significantly lower after left OLV-CDI compared with right OLV-CDI, and in 2 cats, severe desaturation occurred after L-OLV-CDI before the 30 minute time point.

Conclusions: OLV can be used in cats for thoracoscopic interventions. Although right OLV-CDI was tolerated better than left OLV-CDI, the technique requires further investigation before it can be recommended for widespread clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.2014.12272.xDOI Listing
July 2015

A tribute to Dr. Steve Haskins.

Authors:
Peter J Pascoe

Vet Anaesth Analg 2014 Sep;41(5):550-1

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12217DOI Listing
September 2014

The cardiopulmonary effects of dexmedetomidine infusions in dogs during isoflurane anesthesia.

Authors:
Peter J Pascoe

Vet Anaesth Analg 2015 Jul 31;42(4):360-8. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Objective: To determine the cardiopulmonary changes associated with intravenous (IV) infusions of dexmedetomidine at equipotent isoflurane-dexmedetomidine concentrations compared with isoflurane alone.

Study Design: Prospective, randomized, crossover experiment.

Animals: Six adult intact female mixed-breed dogs weighing (mean ± SD [range]) 23.3 ± 3.8 (17.8-29.4) kg.

Methods: Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Measurements of respiratory rate (fR), heart rate (HR), systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures (SAP, DAP, MAP, MPAP), central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure (PAOP), cardiac index (CI), left and right ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI, RVSWI), systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance index (SVRI, PVRI), arteriovenous shunt (Q˙s/Q˙t), oxygen delivery (D˙O2), oxygen extraction ratio (O2 ER), oxygen consumption, arterial and mixed venous blood gases, and arterial packed cell volume (PCV) were obtained 30 minutes after instrumentation at an end-tidal isoflurane concentration (Fe'Iso) of 1.73 ± 0.02% (1.3 MAC). Dexmedetomidine was administered IV at 0.5 or 3 μg kg(-1) over 6 minutes followed by an infusion at 0.5 (LD) or 3 μg kg(-1) hour(-1) (HD), respectively, with Fe'Iso at 1.41 ± 0.02 (LD) or 0.72 ± 0.09% (HD). Measurements were taken at 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes after the start of the infusion.

Results: The low dose produced significant decreases in HR, increases in SAP, DAP, CVP, MPAP, PAOP and LVSWI, but no change in CI. HD produced significant increases in SAP, MAP, DAP, CVP, PAOP, SVRI, LVSWI, O2 ER and PCV and significant decreases in CI and D˙O2. There were significant differences between treatments in HR, MAP, DAP, CVP, MPAP, PAOP, CI, SVRI, HCO3-, SBE, D˙O2, O2 ER and Q˙s/Q˙t.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Cardiopulmonary changes associated with LD were within clinically accepted normal ranges whereas HD produced clinically significant changes. The LD may be useful as an anesthetic adjunct in healthy dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12220DOI Listing
July 2015

The challenge of evaluating pain and a pre-incisional local anesthetic block.

PeerJ 2014 10;2:e341. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California , Davis, CA , USA.

Background. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of a local anesthetic line block administered before surgery in reducing postoperative pain scores in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy (OVHX). Methods. This study is a prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical trial involving 59 healthy female dogs. An algometric pressure-measuring device was used to determine nociceptive threshold, and compared to three subjective pain scales. Group L/B received a line block of lidocaine (4 mg/kg) and bupivacaine (1 mg/kg) subcutaneously in the area of the incision site and saline subcutaneously as premedication; group L/BM (positive control) received a similar block and morphine (0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneously for premedication; and group SS (negative control) received a saline line block and saline premedication. Criteria for rescue analgesia were defined before the study. Dogs were assessed prior to surgery, at extubation (time 0) and at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 h post-recovery. The data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA, and a Split Plot Repeated Measures ANOVA with one grouping factor and one repeat factor (time). P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Approximately 33% of dogs required rescue analgesia at some point during the study, with no significant difference between groups. There was no significant difference between treatment groups with any assessment method. Conclusions. As there were no statistically significant differences between positive and negative controls, the outcome of this technique cannot be proven.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3994627PMC
April 2014

Effects of pneumoperitoneum induced at various pressures on cardiorespiratory function and working space during laparoscopy in cats.

Am J Vet Res 2013 Oct;74(10):1340-6

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of pneumoperitoneum on cardiorespiratory variables and working space during experimental induction of 3 intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs) in cats.

Animals: 6 healthy young adult neutered male domestic shorthair cats.

Procedures: All cats were anesthetized through use of a standardized protocol. A catheter was placed in the right femoral artery for blood pressure and blood gas monitoring. A thermodilution catheter was placed in the right jugular vein via fluoroscopic guidance. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured before (baseline) and 2 and 30 minutes after initiation of pneumoperitoneum at IAPs of 4, 8, and 15 mm Hg; these were created through the use of a mechanical insufflator. At each IAP, abdominal dimensions (height, width, and circumference) were measured at a standardized location.

Results: At 4 mm Hg and 8 mm Hg IAP, no clinically important changes were identified in cardiorespiratory values. Heart rate, cardiac index, and stroke volume index remained unchanged throughout the study at all IAPs. Mean arterial blood pressure began to increase at 8 mm Hg and was significantly higher, compared with baseline, at both time points at 15 mm Hg. At 15 mm Hg, Paco2 was significantly higher and cats were more acidotic than at baseline. Working space was subjectively greater at 8 mm Hg than at 4 mm Hg IAP; however, at 15 mm Hg, no clinically important enlargement of the working space was identified, compared with at 8 mm Hg.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Values of cardiopulmonary variables were largely unchanged by induction of pneumoperitoneum in healthy cats up to an IAP of 8 mm Hg, and no clinically important increases in working space were evident at an IAP of 15 versus 8 mm Hg. These findings provide little justification for use of IAPs > 8 mm Hg in healthy cats undergoing laparoscopic procedures; however, whether the situation is similar in diseased or elderly cats remains to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.74.10.1340DOI Listing
October 2013

Evaluation of short-term outcome after lung lobectomy for resection of primary lung tumors via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery or open thoracotomy in medium- to large-breed dogs.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013 Sep;243(5):681-8

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences and Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Objective: To describe clinicopathologic features of dogs that underwent lung lobectomy for resection of primary lung tumors via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or open thoracotomy (OT) and to compare short-term outcomes for dogs following these procedures.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Animals: 46 medium- to large-breed dogs with primary lung tumors.

Procedures: Medical records of dogs that underwent a lung lobectomy via VATS (n = 22) or OT (24) for resection of primary lung tumors between 2004 and 2012 were reviewed. Dogs were included if they weighed > 10 kg (22 lb) and resection of a primary lung tumor was confirmed histologically. Tumor volumes were calculated from preoperative CT scans where available. Surgical time, completeness of excision, time in the ICU, indwelling thoracic drain time, postoperative and total hospitalization time, incidence of major complications, and short-term survival rate were evaluated.

Results: VATS was performed with a 3-port (n = 12) or 4-port (10) technique and 1-lung ventilation (22). In 2 of 22 (9%) dogs, VATS was converted to OT. All dogs survived to discharge from the hospital. There were no significant differences between the VATS and OT groups with regard to most variables. Surgery time was significantly longer for VATS than for OT (median, 120 vs 95 minutes, respectively).

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: In medium- to large-breed dogs, short-term outcomes for dogs that underwent VATS for lung lobectomy were comparable to those of dogs that underwent OT. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of surgical approach on indices of postoperative pain and long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.243.5.681DOI Listing
September 2013

Retrobulbar and peribulbar regional techniques in cats: a preliminary study in cadavers.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2013 Nov 20;40(6):623-31. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Objective: To compare injectate distribution and potential complications of retrobulbar and peribulbar injections in cat cadavers.

Study Design: Prospective randomized masked study.

Animals: Ten cat cadavers (20 eyes).

Methods: A dorsomedial retrobulbar injection (RB) of 1 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine and iopamidol (1:1) was performed in seven eyes. A dorsomedial peribulbar injection (PB-1) of 4 mL of the same injectate was performed in seven eyes, and two peribulbar injections (PB-2) of the same injectate, divided equally between the dorsomedial and ventrolateral regions (2 mL each) were performed in six eyes. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured before, immediately and 15 minutes after injection. Cadavers underwent computed tomography before and following injections. A radiologist scored injectate distribution within the intraconal space (none, moderate, or large) and around the optic nerve (degrees). An injection was defined as likely to provide adequate regional anesthesia if the volume of distribution of intraconal injectate was 'large' and it contacted over 270° of the optic nerve circumference.

Results: The success rate (95% confidence interval) of RB, PB-1, and PB-2 injections was 71% (29.0-96.3%), 86% (42.1-99.6%), and 67% (22.3-95.7%), respectively. With all three techniques, IOP increased significantly after injection, but returned to baseline by 15 minutes following RB injection. No intraocular, intravascular, intrathecal, or intraneural injectate was observed.

Conclusion And Clinical Relevance: The single-peribulbar injection technique may be superior to retrobulbar or double-peribulbar injections, however, all techniques require further studies in live cats to determine safety and efficacy prior to clinical use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12060DOI Listing
November 2013

Evaluation of the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during anesthesia with isoflurane in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

Am J Vet Res 2013 Jan;74(1):136-43

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the effects of dorsal versus lateral recumbency on the cardiopulmonary system during isoflurane anesthesia in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

Animals: 6 adult 1.1- to 1.6-kg red-tailed hawks.

Procedures: A randomized, crossover study was used to evaluate changes in respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, heart rate, mean arterial and indirect blood pressures, and end-tidal Pco(2) measured every 5 minutes plus Paco(2) and Pao(2) and arterial pH measured every 15 minutes throughout a 75-minute study period.

Results: Respiratory rate was higher, tidal volume lower, and minute ventilation not different in lateral versus dorsal recumbency. Position did not affect heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, or indirect blood pressure, although heart rate decreased during the anesthetic period. Birds hypoventilated in both positions and Paco(2) differed with time and position × time interaction. The Petco(2) position × time interaction was significant and Petco(2) was a mean of 7 Torr higher than Paco(2). The Paco(2) in dorsal recumbency was a mean of 32 Torr higher than in lateral recumbency. Birds in both positions developed respiratory acidosis.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Differences in tidal volume with similar minute ventilation suggested red-tailed hawks in dorsal recumbency might have lower dead space ventilation. Despite similar minute ventilation in both positions, birds in dorsal recumbency hypoventilated more yet maintained higher Pao(2), suggesting parabronchial ventilatory or pulmonary blood flow distribution changes with position. The results refute the hypothesis that dorsal recumbency compromises ventilation and O(2) transport more than lateral recumbency in red-tailed hawks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.74.1.136DOI Listing
January 2013
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