Publications by authors named "Peter Ntiamoah"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Deep Multi-Magnification Networks for multi-class breast cancer image segmentation.

Comput Med Imaging Graph 2021 Mar 12;88:101866. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 USA; Weill Cornell Graduate School for Medical Sciences, New York, NY 10065 USA.

Pathologic analysis of surgical excision specimens for breast carcinoma is important to evaluate the completeness of surgical excision and has implications for future treatment. This analysis is performed manually by pathologists reviewing histologic slides prepared from formalin-fixed tissue. In this paper, we present Deep Multi-Magnification Network trained by partial annotation for automated multi-class tissue segmentation by a set of patches from multiple magnifications in digitized whole slide images. Our proposed architecture with multi-encoder, multi-decoder, and multi-concatenation outperforms other single and multi-magnification-based architectures by achieving the highest mean intersection-over-union, and can be used to facilitate pathologists' assessments of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compmedimag.2021.101866DOI Listing
March 2021

Three-Dimensional Vessel Segmentation in Whole-Tissue and Whole-Block Imaging Using a Deep Neural Network: Proof-of-Concept Study.

Am J Pathol 2021 Mar 18;191(3):463-474. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

In the field of pathology, micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) has become an attractive imaging modality because it enables full analysis of the three-dimensional characteristics of a tissue sample or organ in a noninvasive manner. However, because of the complexity of the three-dimensional information, understanding would be improved by development of analytical methods and software such as those implemented for clinical CT. As the accurate identification of tissue components is critical for this purpose, we have developed a deep neural network (DNN) to analyze whole-tissue images (WTIs) and whole-block images (WBIs) of neoplastic cancer tissue using micro-CT. The aim of this study was to segment vessels from WTIs and WBIs in a volumetric segmentation method using DNN. To accelerate the segmentation process while retaining accuracy, a convolutional block in DNN was improved by introducing a residual inception block. Three colorectal tissue samples were collected and one WTI and 70 WBIs were acquired by a micro-CT scanner. The implemented segmentation method was then tested on the WTI and WBIs. As a proof-of-concept study, our method successfully segmented the vessels on all WTI and WBIs of the colorectal tissue sample. In addition, despite the large size of the images for analysis, all segmentation processes were completed in 10 minutes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2020.12.008DOI Listing
March 2021

Discordant DNA mismatch repair protein status between synchronous or metachronous gastrointestinal carcinomas: frequency, patterns, and molecular etiologies.

Fam Cancer 2020 Oct 9. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

The widespread use of tumor DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein immunohistochemistry in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) carcinomas has unveiled cases where the MMR protein status differs between synchronous/metachronous tumors from the same patients. This study aims at examining the frequency, patterns and molecular etiologies of such inter-tumoral MMR discordances. We analyzed a cohort of 2159 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients collected over a 5-year period and found that 1.3% of the patients (27/2159) had ≥ 2 primary CRCs, and 25.9% of the patients with ≥ 2 primary CRCs (7/27) exhibited inter-tumoral MMR discordance. We then combined the seven MMR-discordant CRC patients with three additional MMR-discordant GIT carcinoma patients and evaluated their discordant patterns and associated molecular abnormalities. The 10 patients consisted of 3 patients with Lynch syndrome (LS), 1 with polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis (PAPP), 1 with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and 5 deemed to have no cancer disposing hereditary syndromes. Their MMR discordances were associated with the following etiologies: (1) PMS2-LS manifesting PMS2-deficient cancer at an old age when a co-incidental sporadic MMR-proficient cancer also occurred; (2) microsatellite instability-driven secondary somatic MSH6-inactivation occurring in only one-and not all-PMS2-LS associated MMR-deficient carcinomas; (3) "compound LS" with germline mutations in two MMR genes manifesting different tumors with deficiencies in different MMR proteins; (4) PAPP or FAP syndrome-associated MMR-proficient cancer co-occurring metachronously with a somatic MMR-deficient cancer; and (5) non-syndromic patients with sporadic MMR-proficient cancers co-occurring synchronously/metachronously with sporadic MMR-deficient cancers. Our study thus suggests that inter-tumoral MMR discordance is not uncommon among patients with multiple primary GIT carcinomas (25.9% in patients with ≥ 2 CRCs), and may be associated with widely varied molecular etiologies. Awareness of these patterns is essential in ensuring the most effective strategies in both LS detection and treatment decision-making. When selecting patients for immunotherapy, MMR testing should be performed on the tumor or tumors that are being treated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-020-00210-4DOI Listing
October 2020

Chromosome 3p loss of heterozygosity and reduced expression of H3K36me3 correlate with longer relapse-free survival in sacral conventional chordoma.

Hum Pathol 2020 Oct 12;104:73-83. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Conventional chordoma is a rare slow-growing malignant tumor of notochordal origin primarily arising at the base of the skull and sacrococcygeal bones. Chordoma may arise from its benign counterpart, benign notochordal cell tumors, and can also undergo dedifferentiation progressing into dedifferentiated chordoma. No study has directly compared the genomic alterations among these tumors comprising a morphologic continuum. Our prior study identified frequent chromosome 3p loss of heterozygosity and minimal deleted regions on chromosome 3 encompassing SETD2, encoding a histone methyltransferase involved in histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3). In the present study, we expanded our study to include 65 sacral conventional chordoma cases, 3 benign notochordal cell tumor cases, and 2 dedifferentiated chordoma cases using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, targeted next-generation sequencing analysis, and immunohistochemistry. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of histone, H3K36me3, and investigated whether there is any association between the clinical behavior and recurrent chromosome or aneuploidy or H3K36me3 protein expression. We found that there is increased genomic instability from benign notochordal cell tumor to conventional chordoma to dedifferentiated chordoma. The highly recurrent genomic aberration, chromosome 3p loss of heterozygosity (occurred in 70% of conventional chordomas), is correlated with longer relapse-free survival, but not with overall survival or metastasis-free survival in sacral chordoma. Chordomas demonstrate variable patterns and levels of H3K36me3 expression, and reduced expression of H3K36me3 showed marginally significant correlation with longer relapse-free survival. Copy number alterations in the genes encoding the H3K36me3 methylation transferase complex and demethylase may account for the altered H3K36me3 expression levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2020.07.002DOI Listing
October 2020

Validation of a digital pathology system including remote review during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Mod Pathol 2020 11 22;33(11):2115-2127. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Remote digital pathology allows healthcare systems to maintain pathology operations during public health emergencies. Existing Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments regulations require pathologists to electronically verify patient reports from a certified facility. During the 2019 pandemic of COVID-19 disease, caused by the SAR-CoV-2 virus, this requirement potentially exposes pathologists, their colleagues, and household members to the risk of becoming infected. Relaxation of government enforcement of this regulation allows pathologists to review and report pathology specimens from a remote, non-CLIA certified facility. The availability of digital pathology systems can facilitate remote microscopic diagnosis, although formal comprehensive (case-based) validation of remote digital diagnosis has not been reported. All glass slides representing routine clinical signout workload in surgical pathology subspecialties at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center were scanned on an Aperio GT450 at ×40 equivalent resolution (0.26 µm/pixel). Twelve pathologists from nine surgical pathology subspecialties remotely reviewed and reported complete pathology cases using a digital pathology system from a non-CLIA certified facility through a secure connection. Whole slide images were integrated to and launched within the laboratory information system to a custom vendor-agnostic, whole slide image viewer. Remote signouts utilized consumer-grade computers and monitors (monitor size, 13.3-42 in.; resolution, 1280 × 800-3840 × 2160 pixels) connecting to an institution clinical workstation via secure virtual private network. Pathologists subsequently reviewed all corresponding glass slides using a light microscope within the CLIA-certified department. Intraobserver concordance metrics included reporting elements of top-line diagnosis, margin status, lymphovascular and/or perineural invasion, pathology stage, and ancillary testing. The median whole slide image file size was 1.3 GB; scan time/slide averaged 90 s; and scanned tissue area averaged 612 mm. Signout sessions included a total of 108 cases, comprised of 254 individual parts and 1196 slides. Major diagnostic equivalency was 100% between digital and glass slide diagnoses; and overall concordance was 98.8% (251/254). This study reports validation of primary diagnostic review and reporting of complete pathology cases from a remote site during a public health emergency. Our experience shows high (100%) intraobserver digital to glass slide major diagnostic concordance when reporting from a remote site. This randomized, prospective study successfully validated remote use of a digital pathology system including operational feasibility supporting remote review and reporting of pathology specimens, and evaluation of remote access performance and usability for remote signout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-020-0601-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7306935PMC
November 2020

A rectal cancer organoid platform to study individual responses to chemoradiation.

Nat Med 2019 10 7;25(10):1607-1614. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Rectal cancer (RC) is a challenging disease to treat that requires chemotherapy, radiation and surgery to optimize outcomes for individual patients. No accurate model of RC exists to answer fundamental research questions relevant to patients. We established a biorepository of 65 patient-derived RC organoid cultures (tumoroids) from patients with primary, metastatic or recurrent disease. RC tumoroids retained molecular features of the tumors from which they were derived, and their ex vivo responses to clinically relevant chemotherapy and radiation treatment correlated with the clinical responses noted in individual patients' tumors. Upon engraftment into murine rectal mucosa, human RC tumoroids gave rise to invasive RC followed by metastasis to lung and liver. Importantly, engrafted tumors displayed the heterogenous sensitivity to chemotherapy observed clinically. Thus, the biology and drug sensitivity of RC clinical isolates can be efficiently interrogated using an organoid-based, ex vivo platform coupled with in vivo endoluminal propagation in animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0584-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7385919PMC
October 2019

Application of large format tissue processing in the histology laboratory.

J Histotechnol 2019 09 27;42(3):150-162. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center , NewYork , NY , USA.

In clinical, research and veterinary laboratories of North America, large format histology has more recently been improved with newer equipment and better methodology. Large tissue specimens are frequently sliced in the grossing room and processed in multiple smaller, standard size tissue cassettes. Justifiably, submitting more blocks inherently lends itself to a greater confidence in the accuracy of the diagnosis, yet guidelines for tissue sampling often suggest taking fewer samples. For example, large tumor specimen protocols recommend taking one standard-sized tissue block for each cm diameter of tumor. However, cancers are the culmination of many complex changes in cell metabolism and often appear dissimilar at different tissue locations. As these changes have an uncertain behavior, many other tissue samples are often taken from areas that appear to have either a variable texture or color. Consequently, at microscopy, the complete tissue sample may need to be reassembled like a jigsaw puzzle as the stained sections are frequently presented over many slides. This problem has easily been overcome by using large format cassettes since the entire cross-section of the tissue sample can often be viewed on a single slide. Because these cassettes can effectively hold up to 10 times the volume of conventional standard size cassettes, they are a more efficient way of assessing large areas of tissue samples. This system is easily adapted for all tissue types and has become the established method for assessing large tissue samples in many laboratory settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01478885.2019.1628425DOI Listing
September 2019

Pathology Services in Nigeria: Cross-Sectional Survey Results From Three Cancer Consortia.

J Glob Oncol 2019 09;5:1-9

Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

Purpose: Cancer incidence is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there is little information on the capacity of pathology laboratories in this region. We aimed to assess the current state of pathology services in Nigeria to guide strategies to ensure best practices and improve the quality of surgical specimen handling.

Methods: We developed structured pathology survey to assess tissue handling, sample processing, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) capabilities. The survey was distributed electronically to 22 medical centers in Nigeria that are part of established cancer consortia. Data were collected between September and October 2017.

Results: Sixteen of 22 centers completed the survey in full. All 16 institutions had at least one board-certified pathologist and at least one full-time laboratory scientist/technologist. The majority of responding institutions (75%) reported processing fewer than 3,000 samples per year. For sample processing, 38% of institutions reported manual tissue processing and 75% processed biopsies and surgical specimens together. The average tissue fixation time ranged from 5 to more than 72 hours before processing and paraffin embedding. Half of the institutions reported having no quality assurance processes to evaluate hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, and 25% reported having no written operating procedures. Half of the participating institutions have a facility for routine IHC staining, and among these there was considerable variability in processes and validation procedures. External proficiency testing was not common among surveyed sites (38%).

Conclusion: Data from 16 Nigerian medical institutions indicate deficiencies in standardization, quality control, and IHC validation that could affect the reliability of pathology results. These findings highlight addressable gaps in pathology services that can ensure accurate diagnosis and follow-up for the growing number of patients with cancer in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JGO.19.00138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6733183PMC
September 2019

Colorectal carcinoma with double somatic mismatch repair gene inactivation: clinical and pathological characteristics and response to immune checkpoint blockade.

Mod Pathol 2019 10 7;32(10):1551-1562. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Double somatic mismatch-repair-gene mutation/alteration is a recently recognized molecular mechanism that underlies microsatellite instability-high in some colorectal carcinomas. It remains to be determined whether and how microsatellite instability-high tumors with this molecular defect differ from their counterparts caused by other mechanisms, specifically, Lynch syndrome-associated and MLH1-promoter hypermethylated. In this study, we evaluated the clinical and pathological characteristics of a series of 15 double somatic mutation/alteration-associated microsatellite instability-high colorectal carcinomas identified from our genetics service and 68 such cases reported in the literature. We observed that these cases presented at an age similar to MLH1-promoter hypermethylated (n = 20) and microsatellite-stable (n = 39) cases but older than Lynch syndrome-associated cases (n = 20, p < 0.05). While these tumors simulated other microsatellite instability-high tumors in their prevalent right-sided location, they appeared to differ in TNM stages at presentation (73% stage III/IV versus 25% stage III/IV in other microsatellite instability-high tumors, p = 0.04). Histologically, 40% of them had a dominant solid growth pattern. Inter-tumoral heterogeneity was a striking feature, spanning the spectrum from medullary type (with a tumor-infiltrating-lymphocyte/high-power-field count as high as 59) to conventional-type with only few tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes (1/high-power-filed). As a group, these tumors seemed less likely to show robustly high lymphocytic infiltration than other microsatellite instability-high tumors (only 20% had ≥10 tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes/high-power-filed, whereas this rate in Lynch syndrome-associated and MLH1-promoter hypermethylated tumors was 60% and 75%, respectively). Three double somatic mutation/alteration-associated tumors were treated with a PD1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitor. While all three had an elevated tumor-mutation-burden (>47 mut/megabase), only one had tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes >10/high-power-field, yet all three exhibited measurable response. In summary, microsatellite instability-high colorectal carcinomas caused by double somatic mismatch-repair-gene mutation/alteration may have varied clinical and pathological characteristics, and some may have relatively low tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes; response to immune checkpoint inhibitors can be achieved in this group even when the lymphocytic infiltration is not abundant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-019-0289-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849386PMC
October 2019

SMAD4 Loss in Colorectal Cancer Patients Correlates with Recurrence, Loss of Immune Infiltrate, and Chemoresistance.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 03 26;25(6):1948-1956. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Colorectal Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: SMAD4 has shown promise in identifying patients with colorectal cancer at high risk of recurrence or death. A discovery cohort and independent validation cohort were classified by SMAD4 status. SMAD4 status and immune infiltrate measurements were tested for association with recurrence-free survival (RFS). Patient-derived xenografts from SMAD4-deficient and SMAD4-retained tumors were used to examine chemoresistance.

Results: The discovery cohort consisted of 364 patients with stage I-IV colorectal cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 53 years. The cohort consisted of 61% left-sided tumors and 62% stage II/III patients. Median follow-up was 5.4 years (interquartile range, 2.3-8.2). SMAD4 loss, noted in 13% of tumors, was associated with higher tumor and nodal stage, adjuvant therapy use, fewer tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), and lower peritumoral lymphocyte aggregate (PLA) scores (all < 0.04). SMAD4 loss was associated with worse RFS ( = 0.02). When stratified by SMAD4 and immune infiltrate status, patients with SMAD4 loss and low TIL or PLA had worse RFS ( = 0.002 and = 0.006, respectively). Among patients receiving 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based systemic chemotherapy, those with SMAD4 loss had a median RFS of 3.8 years compared with 13 years for patients with SMAD4 retained. In xenografted mice, the SMAD4-lost tumors displayed resistance to 5-FU. An independent cohort replicated our findings, in particular, the association of SMAD4 loss with decreased immune infiltrate, as well as worse disease-specific survival.

Conclusions: Our data show SMAD4 loss correlates with worse clinical outcome, resistance to chemotherapy, and decreased immune infiltrate, supporting its use as a prognostic marker in patients with colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-1726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421131PMC
March 2019

Cellular localization of PD-L1 expression in mismatch-repair-deficient and proficient colorectal carcinomas.

Mod Pathol 2019 01 30;32(1):110-121. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Blockade of the interaction between PD-1 and its ligands PD-L1 has shown clinical efficacy across several tumor types, especially in mismatch-repair-deficient colorectal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern and cellular localization of PD-L1 expression in the different molecular subtypes of mismatch-repair-deficient colorectal cancers vs. their mismatch-repair-proficient counterparts. PD-L1/SATB2 double-antibody-immunohistochemistry was utilized to distinguish tumor cell from immune cell staining. We observed in our series of 129 colorectal adenocarcinomas that PD-L1 expression occurred primarily in tumor-associated-immune cells and most prominently at the tumor-stroma-interface of the invasive front. The level of invasive front immune cell staining was significantly higher in mismatch-repair-deficient tumors compared to mismatch-repair-proficient tumors (p < 0.001), but no difference was observed among the different subtypes of mismatch-repair-deficient tumors: Lynch syndrome-associated vs. MLH1-methylated vs. unexplained. While selected mismatch-repair-proficient tumors exhibited unusually high tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes and had high level immune cell PD-L1 expression, a positive correlation between PD-L1 expression and high lymphocyte count was detected only in mismatch-repair-deficient tumors (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) and not in mismatch-repair-proficient tumors. Notably, true tumor cell PD-L1 expression in colorectal carcinoma was rare, present in only 3 of 129 tumors (2.3%): 2 MLH1-methylated and 1 mismatch-repair-proficient with high tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes; and the staining in the tumor cells in all 3 was diffuse (>=50% of the tumor). These findings may serve to inform further efforts aiming to evaluate PD-L1 immunohistochemistry vis-à-vis molecular sub-classification as predictive biomarkers in the treatment of colorectal carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-018-0114-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6309293PMC
January 2019

Histone H3K36M mutation and trimethylation patterns in chondroblastoma.

Histopathology 2019 Jan 4;74(2):291-299. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Great Neck, NY, USA.

Aims: Histones are essential components of chromatin, and mutations in histones lead to alterations in methylation and acetylation, which play an important role in tumorigenesis. Most of the chondroblastomas harbour the H3K36M mutation. With the availability of a mutation-specific antibody, we sought to assess the sensitivity of this antibody and the alterations of histone methylation in a series of chondroblastoma cases.

Methods And Results: Immunohistochemical staining with antibodies against H3K36M, trimethylated histones (H3K27me3 and H3K36me3) and an osteoblastic marker (SATB2) was performed on 27 chondroblastomas from 27 patients. The clinical and radiological characteristics of each patient were reviewed. All 27 tumours showed typical radiological and histological features of chondroblastoma, with a subset of cases showing secondary aneurysmal bone cyst changes (11/27), giant-cell-rich foci (4/27), and matrix-rich areas mimicking chondromyxoid fibroma (1/27). All except one case (26/27, 96%) showed positive H3K36M immunostaining (nuclear). In the majority of cases, there was a diffuse staining pattern. Immunohistochemical staining for H3K27me3 and H3K36me3 showed a heterogeneous staining pattern in all cases, regardless of mutation status. None of the cases showed loss of positivity or diffuse positivity. Focal or diffuse SATB2 expression was seen in 21 of 26 tumours (81%).

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of chondroblastomas are positive for H3K36M by immunohistochemical analysis, confirming its diagnostic value. H3K27me3 expression and H3K36me3 expression are heterogeneous in these tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.13725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298805PMC
January 2019

Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF Performance on Tissues: Potential Impact on Airborne Infection Isolation at a Tertiary Cancer Care Center.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018 04 15;39(4):462-466. Epub 2018 Feb 15.

1Clinical Microbiology Service,Department of Laboratory Medicine,Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center,New York,New York.

OBJECTIVES In this study, we sought to evaluate the performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid) assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex DNA on fresh and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens from oncology patients in an area with a low prevalence of tuberculosis. We also aimed to retrospectively assess the potential impact of Xpert MTB/RIF on the duration of airborne infection isolation (AII). SETTING A 473-bed, tertiary-care cancer center in New York City. DESIGN A total of 203 tissue samples (101 FFPE and 102 fresh) were tested using Xpert MTB/RIF, including 133 pulmonary tissue samples (65.5%) and 70 extrapulmonary tissue samples (34.5%). Acid-fast bacilli (AFB) culture was used as the diagnostic gold standard. The limit of detection (LOD) and reproducibility were also evaluated for both samples types using contrived specimens. The potential impact of the Xpert MTB PCR assay on tissue samples from AII patients on AII duration was retrospectively assessed. RESULTS Using the Xpert MTB/RIF for fresh tissue specimens, the sensitivity was 50% (95% CI, 1.3%-98.7%) and the specificity was 99% (95% CI, 94.5%-99.9%). For FFPE tissue specimens, the sensitivity was 100% (95% CI, 63.1%-100%) and the specificity was 98.3% (95% CI, 95.5%-100%. The LOD was 103 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL for both fresh and FFPE tissue specimens, and the Xpert MTB/RIF was 100% reproducible at concentrations 10 times that of the LOD. With an expected turnaround time of 24 hours, the Xpert MTB PCR could decrease the duration of AII from a median of 8 days to a median of 1 day. CONCLUSIONS The Xpert MTB/RIF assay offers a valid option for ruling out Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) on tissue samples from oncology patients and for minimizing AII resource utilization. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:462-466.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2018.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543871PMC
April 2018

Patterns and prognostic relevance of PD-1 and PD-L1 expression in colorectal carcinoma.

Mod Pathol 2016 11 22;29(11):1433-1442. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Immune checkpoint blockade targeting the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway has shown efficacy in several types of cancers including mismatch-repair-deficient colorectal carcinoma. In some tumor types, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression detected by immunohistochemistry has shown utility as a predictive marker for response to anti-PD-1 therapies. This utility, however, remains to be determined in colorectal carcinoma. In addition, although tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes have been associated with better prognosis in colorectal carcinoma, the prognostic value of PD-1 expression in these lymphocytes and its interaction with PD-L1 expression still await investigation. To address these questions, we performed a pilot study to evaluate the patterns of PD-L1 and PD-1 immunohistochemical expression on colorectal carcinoma cells and their tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, respectively. Using tissue microarray, we found that 5% (19/394) of colorectal carcinomas exhibited high tumor PD-L1 expression, and 19% (76/392) had elevated numbers of PD-1-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. PD-L1 levels correlated with PD-1 levels (P<0.001), and mismatch-repair-deficient tumors had significantly higher rates of high PD-L1 and PD-1 expression when compared with mismatch-repair-proficient tumors (18% vs 2% and 50% vs 13%, respectively; P<0.001 for both). Staining intensity was also stronger for both markers in mismatch-repair-deficient tumors. Furthermore, we observed that among patients with mismatch-repair-deficient colorectal carcinoma, PD-1/PD-L1 expression stratified recurrence-free survival in an inter-dependent manner: an association between high PD-1-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and improved recurrence-free survival (P=0.041) was maintained only when the tumors had low-level PD-L1 expression (P=0.006); patients whose tumors had both high PD-1-positive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and high PD-L1 expression had a significantly worse recurrence-free survival (P<0.001). Thus, our results not only provide a foundation for further assessment of PD-L1 immunohistochemistry as a predictive marker for anti-PD-1 therapy in colorectal carcinoma, they also shed light on the prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in different subsets of mismatch-repair-deficient colorectal carcinomas.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5083129PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/modpathol.2016.139DOI Listing
November 2016

The utility of C4d immunohistochemistry on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue in the distinction of polymorphic eruption of pregnancy from pemphigoid gestationis.

Am J Dermatopathol 2013 Dec;35(8):787-91

*Dermpath Diagnostics New York, Port Chester, NY; †Department of Pathology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY; and ‡Department of Dermatology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY.

Polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP), formerly known as pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy, is a dermatosis of pregnancy that must be distinguished from pemphigoid gestationis (PG). Although this differential diagnosis may be possible on routine histology, an additional biopsy for direct immunofluorescence (DIF) is often needed. Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of anti-C4d or anti-C3d antibodies in the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid (BP) in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue (FFPE). We investigated the utility of routine immunohistochemistry (IHC) for anti-C4d in FFPE tissue in the specific differential diagnosis of PEP versus PG in known, DIF-proven cases. We performed C4d IHC on PEP (n = 11), PG (n = 8), DIF-proven BP (n = 12), and other common dermatoses (n = 12) that are typically DIF negative. None of the PEP cases (0/11) or the other common dermatoses (0/12) demonstrated C4d positivity at the basement membrane zone. In comparison, 100% of PG cases (8/8) and 83.3% of BP cases (10/12) showed linear C4d immunoreactant deposition along the basement membrane zone. The results demonstrate the potential utility of C4d IHC in FFPE tissue for distinguishing PEP from PG, thus potentially obviating the need of a repeat biopsy for DIF, particularly in C4d-negative cases where there is a low suspicion of PG on both clinical and histological grounds. Also, patients with positive C4d-positive immunoreactivity may also potentially proceed directly to less invasive serological confirmatory testing, such as BP180 NC16a enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DAD.0b013e3182a6b6ccDOI Listing
December 2013