Publications by authors named "Peter M Voorhees"

64 Publications

Transition from Intravenous to Subcutaneous Daratumumab Formulation in Clinical Practice.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Mar 4. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Plasma Cell Disorders Division, Department of Hematologic Oncology & Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute/Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC.

Introduction: Daratumumab is an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody widely used for treating patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. The subcutaneous formulation of daratumumab was developed with the purpose of minimizing the treatment burden (to patients and health care system) associated with intravenous daratumumab. Given its recent approval, there is a knowledge gap regarding the best practices that should be instituted for safe administration of subcutaneous daratumumab.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed from August 2020 until November 2020 to identify patients either switched to or treated upfront (daratumumab naive) with any subcutaneous daratumumab-based treatment regimen. All patients received appropriate premedications per institutional standards of care. The study end points were to report real-world data regarding administration-related reaction rates (at or following discharge from infusion center), as well as compare their incidence rates to those noted in the COLUMBA study (historical cohort).

Results: The study included 58 patients, of whom 38% (n = 22) were daratumumab naive. The majority (84%, n = 49) received subcutaneous daratumumab in combination with various antimyeloma regimens. There were no cases of administration-related reactions at infusion center or after discharge irrespective of previous exposure to intravenous daratumumab. None of the patients included herein required rescue home medications or visited the emergency department within 24 to 48 hours after subcutaneous daratumumab administration. These translated into a significant difference in incidence of administration-related reactions compared with historical cohort (0% vs. 13%, P = .003).

Conclusion: Subcutaneous daratumumab was extremely well tolerated and could be safely administered without need for monitoring or rescue home medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.02.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Daratumumab plus RVd for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: final analysis of the safety run-in cohort of GRIFFIN.

Blood Adv 2021 Feb;5(4):1092-1096

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

The phase 2 GRIFFIN study of daratumumab plus lenalidomide/bortezomib/dexamethasone (D-RVd) for transplant-eligible, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma included a safety run-in phase followed by a randomized phase. The ongoing randomized phase has met its prespecified primary end point of an improved stringent complete response (sCR) rate after consolidation for D-RVd (reported elsewhere). Final analysis of the safety run-in cohort is reported herein and provides longer follow-up (median, 40.8 months) encompassing daratumumab plus lenalidomide (D-R) maintenance therapy. Patients in the safety run-in cohort (N = 16) received 4 induction cycles (D-RVd), high-dose melphalan supported by autologous stem cell transplant, 2 consolidation cycles (D-RVd), and 24 months of maintenance (D-R). By the end of consolidation, all patients had responded, with a best response of sCR in 9 (56.3%) patients; 8 (50.0%) patients were minimal residual disease (MRD) negative (10‒5 threshold). After maintenance, 15 (93.8%) patients had achieved a best response of sCR, and 13 (81.3%) patients were MRD (10‒5) negative. Estimated 36-month progression-free and overall survival rates were 78.1% and 93.8%, respectively. One death from progressive disease occurred in the patient who did not achieve sCR. Observed safety profiles were consistent with daratumumab and RVd. With >3 years of median follow-up, D-RVd achieved durable responses that deepened with D-R maintenance. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02874742.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7903234PMC
February 2021

Melflufen plus dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: long-term survival follow-up from the Phase II study O-12-M1.

Br J Haematol 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

An updated survival analysis was conducted for the Phase II study O-12-M1 of melphalan flufenamide (melflufen) plus dexamethasone in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) with two or more prior lines of therapy (including bortezomib and lenalidomide). Partial response or better was seen in 31%. After a 46-month median overall survival (OS) follow-up, melflufen plus dexamethasone had a median OS of 20·7 months (75th percentile OS, 47·5 months). The median time-to-next treatment for melflufen plus dexamethasone was 7·9 months. In summary, melflufen plus dexamethasone resulted in sustained long-term clinical benefit in patients with RRMM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17302DOI Listing
January 2021

Bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone with or without elotuzumab in patients with untreated, high-risk multiple myeloma (SWOG-1211): primary analysis of a randomised, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Haematol 2021 Jan 22;8(1):e45-e54. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: The introduction of immunomodulatory agents, proteasome inhibitors, and autologous haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation has improved outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma, but patients with high-risk multiple myeloma have a poor long-term prognosis. We aimed to address optimal treatment for these patients.

Methods: SWOG-1211 is a randomised phase 2 trial comparing eight cycles of lenalidomide (25 mg orally on days 1-14 every 21 days), bortezomib (1·3 mg/m subcutaneously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 21 days), and dexamethasone (20 mg orally on days 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, and 12 every 21 days; RVd) induction followed by dose-attenuated RVd maintenance (bortezomib 1 mg/m subcutaneously on days 1, 8, and 15; lenalidomide 15 mg orally on days 1-21; dexamethasone 12 mg orally on days 1, 18, and 15 every 28 days) until disease progression with or without elotuzumab (10 mg/kg intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 for cycles 1-2, on days 1 and 11 for cycles 3-8, and on days 1 and 15 during maintenance). Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either RVd or RVd-elotuzumab. High-risk multiple myeloma was defined by one of the following: gene expression profiling high risk (GEP), t(14;16), t(14;20), del(17p) or amp1q21, primary plasma cell leukaemia and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (two times the upper limit of normal or more). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, and all analyses were done on intention-to-treat basis among eligible patients who were evaluable for response. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01668719.

Findings: 100 (RVd n=52, RVd-elotuzumab n=48) patients were enrolled between Oct 27, 2013, and May 15, 2016, across 26 cooperative group institutions in the USA. Median age was 64 years (IQR 57-70, range 36-85). 74 (75%) of 99 had International Staging System stage II or stage III disease, 47 (47%) of 99 had amp1q21, 37 (37%) of 100 had del17p, 11 (11%) of 100 had t(14;16), eight (9%) of 90 were GEP, seven (7%) of 100 had primary plasma cell leukaemia, five (5%) of 100 had t(14;20), four (4%) of 100 had elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase, and 17 (17%) had two or more features. With a median follow-up of 53 months (IQR 46-59), no difference in median progression-free survival was observed (RVd 33·64 months [95% CI 19·55-not reached], RVd-elotuzumab 31·47 months [18·56-53·98]; hazard ratio 0·968 [80% CI 0·697-1·344]; one-sided p=0·45]. 37 (71%) of 52 patients in the RVd group and 37 (77%) of 48 in the RVd-elotuzumab group had grade 3 or worse adverse events. No significant differences in the safety profile were observed, although some notable results included grade 3-5 infections (four [8%] of 52 in the RVd group, eight [17%] of 48 in the RVd-elotuzumab group), sensory neuropathy (four [8%] of 52 in the RVd group, six [13%] of 48 in the RVd-elotuzumab group), and motor neuropathy (one [2%] of 52 in the RVd group, four [8%] of 48 in the RVd-elotuzumab group). There were no treatment-related deaths in the RVd group and one death in the RVd-elotuzumab group for which study treatment was listed as possibly contributing by the investigator.

Interpretation: In the first randomised study of high-risk multiple myeloma reported to date, the addition of elotuzumab to RVd induction and maintenance did not improve patient outcomes. However, progression-free survival in both study groups exceeded the original statistical assumptions and supports the role for continuous proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drug combination maintenance therapy for this patient population.

Funding: National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Bristol Myers Squibb, Celgene, Leukemia and Lymphoma Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30354-9DOI Listing
January 2021

Frontline treatment patterns and attrition rates by subsequent lines of therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

BMC Cancer 2020 Nov 10;20(1):1087. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Levine Cancer Institute/Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Background: For patients with multiple myeloma (MM), each additional line of therapy (LOT) is associated with lower response rates, shorter treatment duration and treatment-free intervals, and increased rates of toxicities and comorbidities. Here, we examine frontline treatment patterns, and attrition rates by LOT among newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) patients in the United States who were eligible or ineligible for autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT).

Methods: Data were identified from three US patient-level databases collectively covering the period January 2000 to September 2018. Patients had an index diagnosis of MM on or after January 1, 2007, medical and prescription insurance coverage at diagnosis, a 1-year look-back period prior to the index diagnosis, no prior malignancies in the 1-year period before index diagnosis, and had received ≥1 LOT.

Results: Among patients who did not receive ASCT (non-transplant; n = 22,062), 12,557 (57%) received only 1 LOT and 9505 (43%) received > 1 LOT. Patients receiving only 1 LOT were significantly older, had higher mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) scores, and higher incidences of comorbidities. Among the 2763 patients receiving ASCT, 2184 received > 1 LOT, and 579 (21%) received only 1 LOT (ie, ASCT was the last treatment). 1682 (61%) patients received induction therapy as frontline treatment, of whom 187 (11%) also received consolidation therapy. The latter group was younger than those who received only induction therapy, had lower mean CCI scores, and comparable or lower incidences of selected comorbidities. The most common frontline therapy for non-transplant and transplant-eligible patients was bortezomib/dexamethasone and bortezomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone, respectively. Attrition rates across all LOTs were high for non-transplant patients (range, 43-57%) and transplant patients (range, 21-37%). Treatment duration decreased by LOT for non-transplant patients and was consistent across LOTs for transplant patients.

Conclusions: In this analysis, a substantial proportion of patients with NDMM who received frontline therapy did not appear to receive a subsequent LOT. These high attrition rates underscore the need to use the most optimal treatment regimens upfront rather than reserving them for later LOTs in which the clinical benefit may decrease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07503-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7656738PMC
November 2020

Single-agent belantamab mafodotin for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: analysis of the lyophilised presentation cohort from the pivotal DREAMM-2 study.

Blood Cancer J 2020 10 23;10(10):106. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Emory University, Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA, USA.

DREAMM-2 (NCT03525678) is an ongoing global, open-label, phase 2 study of single-agent belantamab mafodotin (belamaf; GSK2857916), a B-cell maturation antigen-targeting antibody-drug conjugate, in a frozen-liquid presentation in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). Alongside the main study, following identical inclusion/exclusion criteria, a separate patient cohort was enrolled to receive belamaf in a lyophilised presentation (3.4 mg/kg, every 3 weeks) until disease progression/unacceptable toxicity. Primary outcome was independent review committee-assessed overall response rate (ORR). Twenty-five patients were enrolled; 24 received ≥1 dose of belamaf. As of 31 January 2020, ORR was 52% (95% CI: 31.3-72.2); 24% of patients achieved very good partial response. Median duration of response was 9.0 months (2.8-not reached [NR]); median progression-free survival was 5.7 months (2.2-9.7); median overall survival was not reached (8.7 months-NR). Most common grade 3/4 adverse events were keratopathy (microcyst-like corneal epithelial changes, a pathological finding seen on eye examination [75%]), thrombocytopenia (21%), anaemia (17%), hypercalcaemia and hypophosphatemia (both 13%), neutropenia and blurred vision (both 8%). Pharmacokinetics supported comparability of frozen-liquid and lyophilised presentations. Single-agent belamaf in a lyophilised presentation (intended for future use) showed a deep and durable clinical response and acceptable safety profile in patients with heavily pre-treated RRMM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-00369-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584571PMC
October 2020

Evaluation of Montelukast for the Prevention of Infusion-related Reactions With Daratumumab.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2020 10 7;20(10):e777-e781. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Atrium Health, Levine Cancer Institute, Charlotte, NC.

Background: Daratumumab is an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody indicated for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Infusion-related reactions (IRRs) are among the most common adverse events associated with daratumumab. IRRs are most common with the first infusion of daratumumab. Recommended premedications to be given prior to the daratumumab dose include acetaminophen, diphenhydramine, and a corticosteroid. There is emerging data to suggest that the addition of montelukast to this premedication regimen can lower the incidence of daratumumab-related IRRs.

Patients And Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective chart review conducted at a large, multistate health system with several different hematology/oncology practice sites. Eligible patients included those with a primary diagnosis of a plasma cell disorder who received at least 1 dose of daratumumab. The primary outcome was the incidence of IRRs with the first daratumumab infusion.

Results: A total of 141 patients receiving daratumumab-based therapy were included in this study. All patients received acetaminophen, diphenhydramine, and a corticosteroid as premedications prior to the first infusion of daratumumab. Overall, 46 (33%) patients experienced an IRR with the first infusion of daratumumab. The incidence of IRR was lower in patients that received montelukast as a premedication compared with those that did not (montelukast, n = 25 [27%]; no montelukast, n = 21 [45%]; P = .0371). Patients in each arm experienced similar rates of overall, composite pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and systemic IRR manifestations.

Conclusion: The use of montelukast prior to the first daratumumab infusion led to a reduction in the incidence of IRRs in our experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.05.024DOI Listing
October 2020

Management of newly diagnosed transplant ineligible multiple myeloma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 11 4;61(11):2549-2560. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Hematologic Oncology & Blood Disorders, Division of Plasma Cell Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute/Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a chronically managed blood cancer with a median age of 69 years at the time of diagnosis. Although high dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains a standard of care for eligible patients, more than half of the newly diagnosed MM patients are deemed ineligible due to comorbidities or complications of the disease by itself. In this setting, where ASCT is deemed inappropriate, patients could still achieve durable and deep responses if given the appropriate treatment plan. The key concepts of optimizing induction and maintenance strategies while minimizing side-effects are discussed in this review, especially in the context of employing novel agent combinations. It is important to understand the balance between safety and efficacy for each regimen, utilizing maintenance strategy and the best supportive care measures (bone health, infection prevention, and treatment, pain management, etc.). Here, we examine the evidence behind each of those principles and review results from clinical trials for transplant-ineligible (TI) MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1786558DOI Listing
November 2020

Daratumumab monotherapy in patients with heavily pretreated relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: final results from the phase 2 GEN501 and SIRIUS trials.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Jun;7(6):e447-e455

Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Daratumumab showed encouraging efficacy as monotherapy in patients with heavily pretreated multiple myeloma in the GEN501 and SIRIUS studies. Here we report a pooled, post-hoc final analysis of these two studies.

Methods: GEN501 was an open-label, multicentre, phase 1-2, dose escalation and expansion study done in the Netherlands, the USA, Sweden, and Denmark. Eligible patients had multiple myeloma and had relapsed or were refractory to 2 or more previous lines of treatment that included a proteasome inhibitor or an immunomodulatory drug. SIRIUS was an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study done in Canada, Spain, and the USA, in which eligible patients with multiple myeloma had received 3 or more previous lines of therapy, including a proteasome inhibitor or an immunomodulatory drug, or were double refractory. In both studies, eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or less. In part 2 of GEN501, patients were given intravenous daratumumab 16 mg/kg once per week for 8 weeks, twice per month for 8 doses, and then once per month until disease progression. In part 2 of SIRIUS, patients received intravenous daratumumab 16 mg/kg once per week for 8 weeks, twice per month for 16 weeks, and once per month until disease progression. The primary endpoints (safety in GEN501 and overall response rate in SIRIUS) have previously been reported. These trials are registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00574288 (GEN501) and NCT01985126 (SIRIUS).

Findings: Patients were enrolled in GEN501 from March 27, 2008, until May 30, 2014, and in SIRIUS from Sept 30, 2013, until May 5, 2014. The combined analysis included 148 patients who received daratumumab 16 mg/kg (42 patients in GEN501 part 2; 106 patients in SIRIUS), with a median follow-up of 36·6 months (IQR 34·5-38·2). Patients had received a median of 5 previous lines of therapy (IQR 4-7), and 128 (87%) of 148 patients were double refractory. The overall response rate was 30·4% (95% CI 23·1-38·5), including 20 (14%) of 148 patients with very good partial response or better (8·5-20·1) and seven (5%) patients reporting complete response or better (1·9-9·5). Among 45 responders, the median duration of response was 8·0 months (95% CI 6·5-14·7). Median overall survival was 20·5 months (95% CI 16·6-28·1), with a 3-year overall survival rate of 36·5% (28·4-44·6). The most common grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were anaemia (grade 3, 26 [18%] of 148 patients; no grade 4 events) and thrombocytopenia (grade 3, 13 [9%] of 148 patients; grade 4, 8 [5%] of 148 patients). Serious drug-related TEAEs occurred in 13 (9%) of 148 patients. There were no treatment-related deaths.

Interpretation: In this analysis, daratumumab 16 mg/kg monotherapy showed durable responses and there were no new safety concerns with longer follow-up.

Funding: Janssen Research & Development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30081-8DOI Listing
June 2020

Daratumumab, lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone for transplant-eligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: the GRIFFIN trial.

Blood 2020 08;136(8):936-945

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (RVd) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is standard frontline therapy for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). The addition of daratumumab (D) to RVd (D-RVd) in transplant-eligible NDMM patients was evaluated. Patients (N = 207) were randomized 1:1 to D-RVd or RVd induction (4 cycles), ASCT, D-RVd or RVd consolidation (2 cycles), and lenalidomide or lenalidomide plus D maintenance (26 cycles). The primary end point, stringent complete response (sCR) rate by the end of post-ASCT consolidation, favored D-RVd vs RVd (42.4% vs 32.0%; odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-2.82; 1-sided P = .068) and met the prespecified 1-sided α of 0.10. With longer follow-up (median, 22.1 months), responses deepened; sCR rates improved for D-RVd vs RVd (62.6% vs 45.4%; P = .0177), as did minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity (10-5 threshold) rates in the intent-to-treat population (51.0% vs 20.4%; P < .0001). Four patients (3.8%) in the D-RVd group and 7 patients (6.8%) in the RVd group progressed; respective 24-month progression-free survival rates were 95.8% and 89.8%. Grade 3/4 hematologic adverse events were more common with D-RVd. More infections occurred with D-RVd, but grade 3/4 infection rates were similar. Median CD34+ cell yield was 8.2 × 106/kg for D-RVd and 9.4 × 106/kg for RVd, although plerixafor use was more common with D-RVd. Median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were comparable. Daratumumab with RVd induction and consolidation improved depth of response in patients with transplant-eligible NDMM, with no new safety concerns. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02874742.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7441167PMC
August 2020

Low-dose versus High-dose Carfilzomib with Dexamethasone (S1304) in Patients with Relapsed-Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 08 16;26(15):3969-3978. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Purpose: Treatment of multiple myeloma has evolved tremendously and optimal utilization of available therapies will ensure maximal patient benefits.

Patients And Methods: We report the Southwest Oncology Group randomized phase II trial (S1304) comparing twice weekly low-dose (27 mg/m; arm 1) to high-dose carfilzomib (56 mg/m; arm 2), both with dexamethasone, administered for 12 cycles (11 months) for relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma with up to six prior lines of therapy (NCT01903811). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and patients on arm 1 could cross-over to arm 2 after progression on treatment.

Results: Among 143 enrolled patients, of whom 121 were eligible and analyzable, the overall response rate was 42.8%, with no significant difference between the arms ( = 0.113). Also, neither the median PFS [5 months and 8 months, respectively; HR, 1.061; 80% Wald confidence interval (CI), 0.821-1.370; = 0.384] nor the median overall survival were significantly different (26 and 22 months, respectively; HR, 1.149, 80% Wald CI, 0.841-.571; = 0.284). Sixteen patients crossed over to arm 2 with a median PFS benefit of 3 months. Certain adverse events (AE) were more frequent in arm 2, including fatigue, thrombocytopenia, and peripheral neuropathy, but there was no significant difference in cardiopulmonary AEs.

Conclusions: This randomized trial did not support a benefit of fixed duration, twice weekly 56 mg/m dosing of carfilzomib over the 27 mg/m dose for the treatment of relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. However, treatment to progression in earlier patient populations with high-dose carfilzomib using different schedules should still be considered as part of the standard of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7415520PMC
August 2020

Safety and Cost Benefits of the Rapid Daratumumab Infusion Protocol.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2020 08 7;20(8):526-532.e1. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Plasma Cell Disorders Division, Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute/Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC. Electronic address:

Introduction: Daratumumab is approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma in both frontline and relapsed/refractory settings. Its major limitation is the long infusion time, especially with the first dose. Recent data demonstrated the feasibility of infusing daratumumab at an accelerated rate of 90 minutes starting from cycle 1 on day 15. Herein, we report the safety profile and cost associated with rapid daratumumab infusion protocol.

Patients And Methods: A chart review was performed to identify patients who completed at least 1 cycle of daratumumab (single agent or in combination) from April 2016 to October 2018. Patients were divided into 2 cohorts: cohort 1 received rapid daratumumab infusion after its implementation in March 2018, whereas cohort 2 included patients treated with daratumumab administered at the standard rate. The primary endpoint was to compare differences in rates of infusion-related reactions (IRRs). An Excel (Microsoft)-based model was developed to estimate cost and productivity.

Results: A total of 100 patients with relapsed/refractory disease were included in this study (53 in cohort 1 and 47 in cohort 2). Of the 53 patients in cohort 1, 18 (34%) received rapid daratumumab infusion starting with cycle 1. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in rates of IRRs between cohort 1 and 2 (1.9% vs. 4.3%, P = .59); 1 patient in cohort 1 developed an IRR. The total costs estimated for a 52-week regimen of daratumumab infused at standard and rapid rates were $137,200 and $122,200 (P < .001), respectively.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that rapid daratumumab infusion is safe and tolerable and provides cost savings for patients with relapsed/refractory disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2020.02.014DOI Listing
August 2020

Long-term safety of siltuximab in patients with idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease: a prespecified, open-label, extension analysis of two trials.

Lancet Haematol 2020 Mar 3;7(3):e209-e217. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Center for Personalized Therapy and Clinical Trials Office, UC San Diego Moore's Cancer Center, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Siltuximab is recommended by international consensus as a first-line treatment for idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease on the basis of durable efficacy and safety data. This study was done to assess the long-term safety and activity of siltuximab over up to 6 years of treatment.

Methods: This study is a prespecified open-label extension analysis of a phase 1 trial (NCT00412321) and a phase 2 trial (NCT01024036), done at 26 hospitals worldwide. Patients in both studies were at least 18 years old with histologically confirmed, symptomatic Castleman disease. This extension study enrolled 60 patients who completed the previous trials without disease progression on siltuximab. Patients received siltuximab infusions of 11 mg/kg every 3 weeks (which could be extended to 6 weeks) for up to 6 years. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the data. No formal hypothesis testing was performed. The primary endpoint was the safety of siltuximab, assessed at each dosing cycle. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01400503 and with EudraCT, number 2010-022837-27.

Findings: Patient enrolment into the phase 1 trial was from June 20, 2005, to Sept 15, 2009, and enrolment into the phase 2 trial was from Feb 9, 2010, to Feb 3, 2012. Patients were enrolled in this long-term extension from April 1, 2011, to Jan 15, 2014. Median follow-up was 6 years (IQR 5·11-7·76). Median treatment duration, from the beginning of the previous trials to the end of the present study, was 5·5 years (IQR 4·26-7·14). Siltuximab was well tolerated; however, adverse events of grade 3 or worse were reported in 36 (60%) of 60 patients with the most common being hypertension (eight [13%]), fatigue (five [8%]), nausea (four [7%]), neutropenia (four [7%]), and vomiting (three [5%]). 25 (42%) patients reported at least one serious adverse event, which most commonly was an infection (eight [13%]). Only two serious adverse events, polycythaemia and urinary retention, were considered related to siltuximab treatment. 18 patients discontinued before study completion, either to receive siltuximab locally (eight) or because of progressive disease (two), adverse events (two), or other reasons (six). No deaths were reported.

Interpretation: These results show that siltuximab is well tolerated long term and provides important evidence for the feasibility of the life-long use required by patients with idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease.

Funding: Janssen R&D and EUSA Pharma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(19)30257-1DOI Listing
March 2020

Belantamab mafodotin for relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (DREAMM-2): a two-arm, randomised, open-label, phase 2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2020 02 16;21(2):207-221. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Abramson Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Belantamab mafodotin (GSK2857916), an immunoconjugate targeting B-cell maturation antigen, showed single-agent activity in the phase 1 DREAMM-1 study in heavily pre-treated patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. We further investigated the safety and activity of belantamab mafodotin in the DREAMM-2 study.

Methods: DREAMM-2 is an open-label, two-arm, phase 2 study done at 58 multiple myeloma specialty centres in eight countries. Patients (aged ≥18 years) with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma with disease progression after three or more lines of therapy and who were refractory to immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors, and refractory or intolerant (or both) to an anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 were recruited, centrally randomly assigned (1:1) with permuted blocks (block size 4), and stratified by previous lines of therapy (≤4 vs >4) and cytogenetic features to receive 2·5 mg/kg or 3·4 mg/kg belantamab mafodotin via intravenous infusion every 3 weeks on day 1 of each cycle until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The intention-to-treat population comprised all randomised patients, regardless of treatment administration. The safety population comprised all patients who received at least one dose of belantamab mafodotin. The primary outcome was the proportion of randomly assigned patients in the intention-to-treat population who achieved an overall response, as assessed by an independent review committee. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03525678, and is ongoing.

Findings: Between June 18, 2018, and Jan 2, 2019, 293 patients were screened and 196 were included in the intention-to-treat population (97 in the 2·5 mg/kg cohort and 99 in the 3·4 mg/kg cohort). As of June 21, 2019 (the primary analysis data cutoff date), 30 (31%; 97·5% CI 20·8-42·6) of 97 patients in the 2·5 mg/kg cohort and 34 (34%; 23·9-46·0) of 99 patients in the 3·4 mg/kg cohort achieved an overall response. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events in the safety population were keratopathy (in 26 [27%] of 95 patients in the 2·5 mg/kg cohort and 21 [21%] of 99 patients in the 3·4 mg/kg cohort), thrombocytopenia (19 [20%] and 33 [33%]), and anaemia (19 [20%] and 25 [25%]); 38 (40%) of 95 patients in the 2·5 mg/kg cohort and 47 (47%) of 99 in the 3·4 mg/kg cohort reported serious adverse events. Two deaths were potentially treatment related (one case of sepsis in the 2·5 mg/kg cohort and one case of haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in the 3·4 mg/kg cohort).

Interpretation: Single-agent belantamab mafodotin shows anti-myeloma activity with a manageable safety profile in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Funding: GlaxoSmithKline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30788-0DOI Listing
February 2020

Extramedullary multiple myeloma.

Leukemia 2020 01 27;34(1):1-20. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute/Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Extramedullary multiple myeloma (EMM) is an aggressive subentity of multiple myeloma, characterized by the ability of a subclone to thrive and grow independent of the bone marrow microenvironment, resulting in a high-risk state associated with increased proliferation, evasion of apoptosis and treatment resistance. Despite improvement in survival for most patients with multiple myeloma over recent decades, outcomes are generally poor when EMM develops. Understanding the molecular underpinnings leading to homing of plasma cells in ecosystems outside the bone marrow will be crucial for therapeutically manipulating the microenvironment and targeting key signaling pathways. Herein, we discuss the evolutionary biology of EMM, underscore the importance of a uniform definition, discuss prognostic significance, and provide current and emerging treatment strategies for managing this rare subentity of multiple myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0660-0DOI Listing
January 2020

Efficacy and safety results from a phase 1b/2, multicenter, open-label study of oprozomib and dexamethasone in patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma.

Leuk Res 2019 08 17;83:106172. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Oprozomib is an oral proteasome inhibitor with activity in multiple myeloma (MM). Our phase 1b/2 study examined the safety and efficacy of oprozomib with dexamethasone in patients with relapsed and refractory MM. Oprozomib was administered with a 5/14 or 2/7 schedule with dexamethasone. Phase 1b primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of oprozomib; phase 2 primary objectives were to determine overall response rate (ORR) and safety/tolerability of the RP2D. Between July 2, 2013, and August 29, 2016, data were available on 65 enrolled patients (5/14 schedule, n = 19; 2/7 schedule, n = 46). In phase 1b, MTD was 180 mg (5/14 schedule) and not reached (2/7 schedule); RP2D was 300 mg (2/7 schedule). In phases 1b and 2, ORR across dosing cohorts (210-330 mg) for the 2/7 schedule was 58.7% overall and 46.4% for bortezomib-refractory patients (n = 28). All patients reported ≥1 treatment-emergent adverse event (AE); the most common AEs were gastrointestinal. Grade ≥3 AEs occurred in 78.9% and 82.6% of patients on the 5/14 and 2/7 schedules, respectively. The oprozomib and dexamethasone combination has encouraging activity and could be an important MM therapy if gastrointestinal tolerability is improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2019.106172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6871647PMC
August 2019

Antibody-drug conjugate, GSK2857916, in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: an update on safety and efficacy from dose expansion phase I study.

Blood Cancer J 2019 03 20;9(4):37. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Interim analyses of a phase I study with GSK2857916, an antibody-drug conjugate against B cell maturation antigen, have previously reported a 60% overall response and 7.9 months progression-free survival in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). We provide updated safety and efficacy results of the BMA117159 trial following an additional 14 months' follow-up. This open-label, first-in-human, phase I study was conducted at nine centres in the USA, Canada and the UK, and included adults with MM and progressive disease after stem cell transplantation, alkylators, proteasome inhibitors, and immunomodulators. In part 1, the recommended dose of 3.4 mg/kg was identified; in part 2, patients received GSK2857916 3.4 mg/kg once every 3 weeks. Selected part 2 safety/tolerability and efficacy endpoints are reported. Twenty-one (60.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 42.1-76.1) of 35 patients achieved partial response or better, including two stringent complete responses and three complete responses. The median progression-free survival was 12 months and median duration of response was 14.3 months. Thrombocytopenia and corneal events were commonly reported; no new safety signals were identified. GSK2857916 was well tolerated and demonstrated a rapid, deep and durable response in heavily pre-treated patients with relapsed/refractory MM, consolidating the interim analyses conclusions that GSK2857916 is a promising treatment for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-019-0196-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6426965PMC
March 2019

Enhancing the feasibility of outpatient daratumumab administration via a split-dosing strategy with initial doses.

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 09 8;60(9):2295-2298. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Atrium Health, Levine Cancer Institute , Charlotte , NC , USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2019.1576871DOI Listing
September 2019

Daratumumab, pomalidomide and dexamethasone combination therapy in daratumumab and/or pomalidomide refractory multiple myeloma.

Br J Haematol 2019 07 11;186(1):140-144. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute, Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15716DOI Listing
July 2019

The evaluation of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance: a consensus report of the International Kidney and Monoclonal Gammopathy Research Group.

Nat Rev Nephrol 2019 01;15(1):45-59

Division of Nephrology, Hematology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

The term monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) was introduced by the International Kidney and Monoclonal Gammopathy Research Group (IKMG) in 2012. The IKMG met in April 2017 to refine the definition of MGRS and to update the diagnostic criteria for MGRS-related diseases. Accordingly, in this Expert Consensus Document, the IKMG redefines MGRS as a clonal proliferative disorder that produces a nephrotoxic monoclonal immunoglobulin and does not meet previously defined haematological criteria for treatment of a specific malignancy. The diagnosis of MGRS-related disease is established by kidney biopsy and immunofluorescence studies to identify the monotypic immunoglobulin deposits (although these deposits are minimal in patients with either C3 glomerulopathy or thrombotic microangiopathy). Accordingly, the IKMG recommends a kidney biopsy in patients suspected of having MGRS to maximize the chance of correct diagnosis. Serum and urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation, as well as analyses of serum free light chains, should also be performed to identify the monoclonal immunoglobulin, which helps to establish the diagnosis of MGRS and might also be useful for assessing responses to treatment. Finally, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy should be conducted to identify the lymphoproliferative clone. Flow cytometry can be helpful in identifying small clones. Additional genetic tests and fluorescent in situ hybridization studies are helpful for clonal identification and for generating treatment recommendations. Treatment of MGRS was not addressed at the 2017 IKMG meeting; consequently, this Expert Consensus Document does not include any recommendations for the treatment of patients with MGRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41581-018-0077-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136169PMC
January 2019

Peripheral Immunotype Correlates with Minimal Residual Disease Status and Is Modulated by Immunomodulatory Drugs in Multiple Myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 03 24;25(3):459-465. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute/Atrium Health, Charlotte, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Data indicate reversal of immune dysfunction with active treatment; however, the precise contribution of specific immune effector and immune suppressor components to achieve a minimal residual disease (MRD) state and immunomodulatory drug-mediated immunomodulatory effects in multiple myeloma (MM) patients remains poorly understood. In this prospective proof-of-principle study we sought to determine the dynamic alterations in natural killer (NK), NK-T, and T cells, including maturation and activating/inhibitory repertoire associated with MRD versus MRD status after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and during lenalidomide-based maintenance therapy. Of the 46MM patients enrolled, 36 had bone marrow MRD assessment 60+ days post-ASCT, 30 had longitudinal blood immunotyping during maintenance (pretherapy and after cycles 1, 3, and 6), and 20 had both MRD assessment and longitudinal immunotyping. Multicolor flow cytometry was used for MRD and immunotyping. Although the absolute number of NK cells was significantly lower in patients with MRD response, phenotypically NK cells in these patients displayed higher expression of activating receptors KIRDS4 and decreased expression of inhibitory molecules NKG2A compared with the MRD group. Furthermore, we observed significantly lower frequencies of T cells displaying KIR3DL1 in MRD versus MRD patients. Longitudinal immunotyping during lenalidomide maintenance showed loss of mature NK effector function, augmentation of NK-T effector function, and acquisition of PD1 independent anergic state. Our findings also suggest skewing of T cells toward an exhausted state during the maintenance phase in MRD patients. Put together, these observations provide a distinctive signature for MRD and MRD groups. These data support exploration of immune profiling in prospective clinical trials according to MRD-defined responses to identify patients that may benefit from maintenance intensification/modification or maintenance withdrawal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.11.015DOI Listing
March 2019

Targeting B-cell maturation antigen with GSK2857916 antibody-drug conjugate in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (BMA117159): a dose escalation and expansion phase 1 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2018 12 12;19(12):1641-1653. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a cell-surface receptor of the tumour necrosis superfamily required for plasma cell survival. BMCA is universally detected on patient-derived myeloma cells and has emerged as a selective antigen to be targeted by novel treatments in multiple myeloma. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and preliminary clinical activity of GSK2857916, a novel anti-BCMA antibody conjugated to microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin F, in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma.

Methods: We did an international, multicentre, open-label, first-in-human phase 1 study with dose escalation (part 1) and dose expansion (part 2) phases, at nine centres in the USA, Canada, and the UK. Adults with histologically or cytologically confirmed multiple myeloma, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, and progressive disease after stem cell transplantation, alkylators, proteasome inhibitors, and immunomodulators were recruited for this study. In part 1, patients received GSK2857916 (0·03-4·60 mg/kg) through 1 h intravenous infusions once every 3 weeks. In part 2, patients received the selected recommended phase 2 dose of GSK2857916 (3·40 mg/kg) once every 3 weeks. Primary endpoints were maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase 2 dose. Secondary endpoints for part 2 included preliminary anti-cancer clinical activity. All patients who received one or more doses were included in this prespecified administrative interim analysis (data cutoff date June 26, 2017), which was done for internal purposes. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02064387, and is ongoing, but closed for recruitment.

Findings: Between July 29, 2014, and Feb 21, 2017, we treated 73 patients: 38 patients in the dose-escalation part 1 and 35 patients in the dose-expansion part 2. There were no dose-limiting toxicities and no maximum tolerated dose was identified in part 1. On the basis of safety and clinical activity, we selected 3·40 mg/kg as the recommended phase 2 dose. Corneal events were common (20 [53%] of 38 patients in part 1 and 22 [63%] of 35 in part 2); most (18 [47%] in part 1 and 19 [54%] in part 2) were grade 1 or 2 and resulted in two treatment discontinuations in part 1 and no discontinuations in part 2. The most common grade 3 or 4 events were thrombocytopenia (13 [34%] of 38 patients in part 1 and 12 [34%] of 35 in part 2) and anaemia (6 [16%] in part 1 and 5 [14%] in part 2). There were 12 treatment-related serious adverse events and no treatment-related deaths. In part 2, 21 (60·0%; 95% CI 42·1-76·1) of 35 patients achieved an overall response.

Interpretation: At the identified recommended phase 2 dose, GSK2857916 was well tolerated and had good clinical activity in heavily pretreated patients, thereby indicating that this might be a promising candidate for the treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma.

Funding: GlaxoSmithKline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30576-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328058PMC
December 2018

Isolation of circulating plasma cells from blood of patients diagnosed with clonal plasma cell disorders using cell selection microfluidics.

Integr Biol (Camb) 2018 02;10(2):82-91

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

Blood samples from patients with plasma cell disorders were analysed for the presence of circulating plasma cells (CPCs) using a microfluidic device modified with monoclonal anti-CD138 antibodies. CPCs were immuno-phenotyped using a CD38/CD56/CD45 panel and identified in 78% of patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), all patients with smouldering and symptomatic multiple myeloma (MM), and none in the controls. The burden of CPCs was higher in patients with symptomatic MM compared with MGUS and smouldering MM (p < 0.05). FISH analysis revealed the presence of chromosome 13 deletions in CPCs that correlated with bone marrow results. Point mutations in KRAS were identified, including different mutations from sub-clones derived from the same patient. The microfluidic assay represents a highly sensitive method for enumerating CPCs and allows for the cytogenetic and molecular characterization of CPCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7ib00183eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877822PMC
February 2018

Influence of Disease and Patient Characteristics on Daratumumab Exposure and Clinical Outcomes in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2018 04;57(4):529-538

Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Raritan, NJ, USA.

Objective: The aim of this study was to understand the influence of disease and patient characteristics on exposure to daratumumab, an immunoglobulin Gκ (IgGκ) monoclonal antibody, and clinical outcomes in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (MM).

Patients And Methods: Baseline myeloma type, albumin levels, renal/hepatic function, age, sex, race, weight, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status, refractory status, and number of prior therapies were evaluated using data from two clinical studies-GEN501 (N = 104) and SIRIUS (N = 124).

Results: Daratumumab clearance was approximately 110% higher in IgG myeloma patients than non-IgG myeloma patients, leading to significantly lower exposure in IgG myeloma patients based on maximum trough serum concentrations (p < 0.0001). However, the overall response rate was similar for IgG and non-IgG myeloma patients (odds ratio 1.08, 95% confidence interval 0.54-2.17, p = 0.82). For a given exposure, the drug effect was significantly higher (approximately two times) in IgG versus non-IgG patients (p = 0.03). The influence of other patient and disease characteristics on daratumumab exposure was minimal and no significant effect on efficacy was observed (p ≥ 0.1). The incidences of infections and overall grade 3 or higher adverse events in subpopulations were generally consistent with that of the overall population.

Conclusion: Due to competition with the MM-produced IgG M-protein for neonatal Fc receptor protection from clearance, IgG-based monoclonal antibodies in general may have significantly higher clearance and lower concentrations in IgG MM patients compared with non-IgG MM patients. Careful evaluation of the impact of exposure and patient and disease characteristics on safety and efficacy is warranted for all IgG-based monoclonal antibodies used in MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40262-017-0598-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5856888PMC
April 2018

Investigation of a gene signature to predict response to immunomodulatory derivatives for patients with multiple myeloma: an exploratory, retrospective study using microarray datasets from prospective clinical trials.

Lancet Haematol 2017 Sep;4(9):e443-e451

Department of Hematologic Oncology and Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute/Carolinas HealthCare System, Charlotte, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Immunomodulatory derivatives (IMiDs), along with proteasome inhibitors, are key components of treatment regimens for multiple myeloma. Nonetheless, outcomes vary among treated individuals. Drug-specific gene-expression profile (GEP) signatures that aid the prediction of favourable and unfavourable outcomes can provide patients with the most effective therapy for their individual disease. We aimed to develop and validate a gene expression signature to suggest which patients would benefit most from IMiD-based therapies.

Methods: For this exploratory retrospective study, we selected a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who were treated in clinical trials with IMiD-containing regimens. Cohorts were eligible if they had publicly available GEP data from patients' bone marrow plasma cells, with long-term follow-up and clinicopathological data. In the development stage of the model, we identified 176 IMiD response genes that were differentially expressed before and after IMiD exposure using pharmacogenomic GEP data from patients who had bone marrow samples taken before and 48 h after a test dose exposure with thalidomide (n=42), lenalidomide (n=18), or pomalidomide (n=18). 14 of these genes had p values less than 0·05 for associations with progression-free survival in patients who received thalidomide in induction and maintenance therapy in the Total Therapy (TT) 2 trial (ie, the training cohort). We combined the 14 genes to create a continuous IMiD-14 score and an optimal cutoff. The subgroup with an IMiD-14 score higher than the cutoff was deemed to be IMiD-resistant. We obtained validation cohorts from four studies of IMiD combination regimens: the TT3a trial (thalidomide in induction and maintenance), the TT3b trial (thalidomide in induction and lenalidomide in maintenance), the TT6 trial (thalidomide in induction and lenalidomide in maintenance), and the vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (VAD) group of the HOVON65/GMMG-HD4 trial (thalidomide in maintenance). The primary endpoint was to show the prognostic value of the IMiD-14 gene signature for progression-free survival.

Findings: In the training cohort, progression-free survival was significantly shorter in the 83 patients with IMiD-14 high scores than in the 92 patients with IMiD-14 low scores; 3 year progression-free survival was 52% (95% CI 42-64) for the IMiD-14 high group versus 85% (78-92) for the IMiD-14 low group, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2·51 (95% CI 1·72-3·66; p<0·0001). These findings were supported by the results in the validation cohorts, TT3a (115 patients with IMiD-14 high vs 160 patients with IMiD-14 low; 3 year progression-free survival 63% [95% CI 55-73] vs 87% [82-92]; HR 1·54 [1·11-2·15], p=0·010), TT3b (77 patients with IMiD-14 high vs 89 patients with IMiD-14 low; 62% [52-74] vs 80% [72-89]; HR 2·07 [1·28-3·34], p=0·0024), TT6 (20 patients with IMiD-14 high vs 36 patients with IMiD-14 low; 39% [22-68] vs 74% [61-90]; HR 2·40 [1·09-5·30], p=0·026), and the VAD group of HOVON65/GMMG-HD4 (65 patients with IMiD-14 high vs 77 patients with IMiD-14 low; 16% [9-28] vs 54% [44-67]; HR 2·29 [1·52-3·45], p<0·0001).

Interpretation: Our results suggest that the IMiD-14 model has prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma who are treated with IMiDs. Some genes in the model could provide novel targets for IMiD resistance and therapeutic intervention. The IMiD-14 model warrants evaluation in prospective studies.

Funding: Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Young Investigator Award and the Carolinas Myeloma Research Fund.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(17)30143-6DOI Listing
September 2017

Final Results of a Phase 1 Study of Vorinostat, Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin, and Bortezomib in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2017 07 10;17(7):424-432. Epub 2017 May 10.

Section on Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center of Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC.

Introduction/background: Deacetylase inhibitors have synergistic activity in combination with proteasome inhibitors and anthracyclines in preclinical models of multiple myeloma (MM). We therefore evaluated the safety and efficacy of the deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) and bortezomib in relapsed/refractory MM.

Patients And Methods: Thirty-two patients were treated with PLD and bortezomib in combination with escalating doses of vorinostat on days 4 to 11 or 1 to 14.

Results: The maximum tolerated dose of vorinostat was 400 mg on days 4 to 11. Neutropenia and thrombocytopenia attributable to protocol therapy were seen in 59% and 94% of patients, of which 37% and 47% were of grade 3 or higher severity, respectively. Constitutional and gastrointestinal adverse events of all grades were common, the majority of which were less than grade 3 in severity. The overall response rate (partial response rate or better) was 65% and the clinical benefit rate (minimal response rate or better) 74%. The overall response rate was 83%, 71%, and 45% for patients with bortezomib-naive, -sensitive, and -refractory MM, respectively. The median progression-free survival was 13.9 months and the 3-year overall survival 77%. Whole blood proteasome activity assays demonstrated a potential impact of vorinostat on the chymotryptic-like activity of the proteasome.

Conclusion: Further evaluation of PLD, bortezomib, and deacetylase inhibitor combinations is warranted, with special attention directed toward strategies to improve tolerability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2017.05.007DOI Listing
July 2017

Clinical potential of SLAMF7 antibodies - focus on elotuzumab in multiple myeloma.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2017 20;11:893-900. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

Department of Hematologic Oncology & Blood Disorders, Levine Cancer Institute, Carolinas Healthcare System, UNC School of Medicine, Charlotte, NC, USA.

Elotuzumab is one of the first monoclonal antibodies to be approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. It is a humanized immunoglobulin G kappa (IgGκ) antibody that targets signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 7 (SLAMF7), a surface marker that is highly expressed on normal and malignant plasma cells. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical data that led to the approval of elotuzumab, along with a discussion on the ongoing and future clinical investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S98053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5367738PMC
May 2017