Publications by authors named "Peter Konstantin Kurotschka"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of Prior Antibiotic Use in Primary Care on Resistance to Third Generation Cephalosporins: A Case-Control Study.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Cagliari, 09124 Cagliari, Italy.

Research is lacking on the reversibility of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Thus, we aimed to determine the influence of previous antibiotic use on the development and decay over time of third generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistance of . Using the database of hospital laboratories of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen (Italy), anonymously linked to the database of outpatient pharmaceutical prescriptions and the hospital discharge record database, this matched case-control study was conducted including as cases all those who have had a positive culture from any site for 3GC resistant (3GCREC) during a 2016 hospital stay. Data were analyzed by conditional logistic regression. 244 cases were matched to 1553 controls by the date of the first isolate. Male sex (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-2.01), older age (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21), the number of different antibiotics taken in the previous five years (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.08-1.33), at least one antibiotic prescription in the previous year (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.36-2.71), and the diagnosis of diabetes (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.08-2.30) were independent risk factors for 3GCREC colonization/infection. Patients who last received an antibiotic prescription two years or three to five years before hospitalization showed non-significant differences with controls (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.68-1.38 and OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.59-1.24), compared to an OR of 1.92 (95% CI 1.36-2.71) in those receiving antibiotics in the year preceding hospitalization. The effect of previous antibiotic use on 3GC-resistance of is highest after greater cumulative exposure to any antibiotic as well as to 3GCs and in the first 12 months after antibiotics are taken and then decreases progressively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10040451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073604PMC
April 2021

Risk of COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality in rheumatic patients treated with hydroxychloroquine or other conventional DMARDs in Italy.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Italian Society of Pharmacology, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: To ascertain if hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)/chloroquine (CLQ) and other conventional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) use, and rheumatic diseases per se, may be associated with COVID-19-related risk of hospitalization and mortality.

Methods: This case-control study nested within a cohort of cDMARD users was conducted in the Lombardy, Veneto, Tuscany and Lazio regions and Reggio Emilia province. Claims databases were linked to COVID-19 surveillance registries. Risk of COVID-19-related outcomes was estimated using a multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, comparing HCQ/CLQ vs methotrexate, vs other cDMARDs and vs non-use of these drugs. Presence of rheumatic diseases vs their absence in a non-nested population was investigated.

Results: 1275 cases hospitalized due to COVID-19 were matched to 12 734 controls. Compared with recent use of methotrexate, no association between HCQ/CLQ monotherapy and COVID-19 hospitalization (OR 0.83 [95%CI, 0.69-1.00]) or mortality (OR 1.19 [95%CI, 0.85-1.67]) was observed. A lower risk was found when comparing HCQ/CLQ use to the concomitant use of other cDMARDs and glucocorticoids. HCQ/CLQ was not associated with COVID-19 hospitalization as compared with non-use. An increased risk for recent use of either methotrexate monotherapy (OR 1.19 [95% CI, 1.05-1.34]) or other cDMARDs (OR 1.21 [95% CI, 1.08-1.36]) vs non-use was found. Rheumatic diseases were not associated with COVID-19-related outcomes.

Conclusion: HCQ/CLQ use in rheumatic patients was not associated with a protective effect against COVID-19-related outcomes. Use of other cDMARDs was associated with an increased risk when compared with non-use, and, if concomitantly used with glucocorticoids, also vs HCQ/CLQ, probably to be ascribed to immunosuppressive action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/keab348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8083276PMC
April 2021

Risk and protective factors for cannabis, cocaine, and opioid use disorders: An umbrella review of meta-analyses of observational studies.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 07 15;126:243-251. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Early Psychosis: Interventions and Clinical-Detection (EPIC) Lab, Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, London, UK; Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Outreach and Support in South London (OASIS) Service, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Several meta-analyses of observational studies have addressed the association between risk and protective factors and cannabis/cocaine/opioid use disorders, but results are conflicting. No umbrella review has ever graded the credibility of this evidence (not significant/weak/suggestive/highly suggestive/convincing). We searched Pubmed-MEDLINE/PsycInfo, last search September 21, 2020. We assessed the quality of meta-analyses with the AMSTAR-2 tool. Out of 3,072 initial references, five were included, providing 19 associations between 12 putative risk/protective factors and cannabis/cocaine/opioid use disorders (cases: 4539; N = 1,118,872,721). While 84 % of the associations were statistically significant, none was convincing. One risk factor (smoking) had highly suggestive evidence for association with nonmedical use of prescription opioid medicines (OR = 3.07, 95 %CI:2.27 to 4.14). Convincing evidence emerged in sensitivity analyses on antisocial behavior and cannabis use disoder (OR 3.34, 95 %CI 2.53-4.41). Remaining associations had weak evidence. The quality of meta-analyses was rated as moderate in two (40 %), low in one (20 %), and critically low in two (40 %). Future research is needed to better profile risk/protective factors for cannabis/cocaine/opioid use disorders disorders informing preventive approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2021.03.014DOI Listing
July 2021

General Practitioners' Experiences During the First Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Italy: A Critical Incident Technique Study.

Front Public Health 2021;9:623904. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Qualitative Research Unit, Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale - IRCCS di Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.

Since February 2020, when coronavirus disease began to spread in Italy, general practitioners (GPs) were called to manage a growing number of health situations. The challenges experienced by Italian GPs remained unrevealed. This study aimed at exploring Italian GPs' care experiences and practices associated with critical incidents during the first wave of the pandemic. A qualitative study design involving the critical incident technique through an online survey was applied. Sociodemographic data and open-ended responses were collected. While participants' characteristics were analyzed through descriptive statistics, qualitative data were thematically analyzed employing the framework method. 149 GPs responded to the survey and 99 participants completed the survey (dropout rate = 33%). Eight themes emerged indicating factors related to the organization of the healthcare system and factors related to the clinical management of patients, that were perceived as impacting on the GPs' care provision. The analysis revealed difficulties in communicating with other local services. This, together with the lack of coordination among services, was reported as a major challenge. Primary care was perceived as having been undervalued and criticalities in the organization of GP courses, led in a bureaucratic fashion, posed at risk some trainees to be infected. The digital technologies adopted for remote patient consultations were seen as useful tools for daily practice helping the GPs to stay emotionally connected with their patients. Besides, the improvement in the GP-patient relationship in terms of solidarity between patients and doctors and compliance to rules, had a positive impact. Moreover, many respondents addressed the importance of professional collaboration and teamwork, in terms of both support in practical issues (to find PPE, diagnostics and guidelines) and emotional support. At the same time, the lack of resources (e.g., PPE, swabs) and of specific guidelines and protocols impacted on the care provision. Our findings suggest that GPs in Italy are at risk of being left behind within the epidemic management. Communication and coordination among services are essential and should be substantially improved, and primary care research should be initiated to collect the context-specific evidence necessary to enhance the system's preparedness to public health emergencies and the quality of primary care services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.623904DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888233PMC
March 2021

An umbrella review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses evaluating positive and negative outcomes of Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine therapy.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Feb 11;103:599-606. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Clinical and Experimental Medicine PhD Program, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; Primary Care Department, USL Toscana Sud Est-Grosseto, Grosseto, Italy.

Background & Aims: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and chloroquine (CQ) are anti-malarial drugs frequently used in the rheumatologic field. They were recently identified as potential therapeutic options for Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). The present study aims to map and grade the diverse health outcomes associated with HCQ/CQ using an umbrella review approach.

Methods: Umbrella review of systematic reviews of observational and intervention studies. For observational studies, random-effects summary effect size, 95% confidence interval, and 95% prediction interval were estimated. We also assessed heterogeneity, evidence for small-study effect, and evidence for excess significance bias. The quality of evidence was then graded using validated criteria from highly convincing to weak. The evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was graded using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) tool.

Results: From 313 articles returned in the literature search, six meta-analyses were included (n = 25 outcomes). Among meta-analyses (MAs) of observational studies, HCQ/CQ are weakly associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular events and diabetes when used for autoimmune diseases and with spontaneous abortion; they are also associated with a higher risk of death in COVID-19 patients. Among MAs of RCTs, HCQ/CQ are associated with an improvement of articular manifestations of rheumatic diseases.

Conclusions: There is high evidence of the efficacy of HCQ/CQ in the rheumatologic field. The lack of evidence for efficacy and the risk of death associated with the use of HCQ/CQ for COVID-19 indicate the inappropriateness of their inclusion in recent COVID-19 therapy guidelines and the urgent need for RCTs to determine eventual appropriateness as a COVID-19 therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833426PMC
February 2021

An itchy erythematous papular skin rash as a possible early sign of COVID-19: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2020 Nov 9;14(1):216. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Azienda USL di Modena, Via Bernardino Ramazzini 90, 41121, Modena MO, Emilia Romagna Region, Italy.

Background: Several recent studies suggest the possibility of a skin rash being a clinical presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The purpose of this case report is to bring attention to skin manifestations in the early stage of COVID-19 in order to support frontline physicians in their crucial activity of case identification.

Case Presentation: The patient is an Italian 32-year-old female nurse who had several close contacts with multiple patients with COVID-19 as part of her professional workload. On March 13, 2020, the patient developed an itchy, erythematous papular rash (sparing only her face, scalp, and abdomen), which lasted for 10 days. The rash was accompanied by a feeling of general fatigue that gradually worsened over the following days and has continued for 5 months (until the end of July 2020). During the first week of remote assessment carried out by her general practitioner, the patient gradually developed a dry cough, intermittent fever, and diarrhoea and then had a positive test result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Her skin manifestations disappeared completely 48 days after the onset of the disease, followed by the disappearance of the dry cough.

Conclusions: In light of recent studies, this case report suggests that skin manifestations, when taken into account with other situational factors (such as profession and patient history) should be taken into proper consideration by frontline physicians as possibly being caused by SARS-CoV-2. Early identification of COVID-19 is a key part of the strategy of case detection and case isolation. To enhance this activity, further research is needed to establish frequency, symptoms, signs, and pathogenesis of skin manifestations in patients with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13256-020-02538-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7649709PMC
November 2020

Broad Spectrum project: factors determining the quality of antibiotic use in primary care: an observational study protocol from Italy.

BMJ Open 2020 07 6;10(7):e038843. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

National Centre for Pre-Clinical and Clinical Drug Research and Surveillance (CNRVF), Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: The overuse of antibiotics is causing worldwide spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Compared with other countries, Italy has both high antibiotic consumption rates and high rates of AMR. Due to the fact that around 90% of antibiotics are prescribed by general practitioners (GPs), this study aims to measure the impact of knowledge, attitudes and sociodemographic and workplace-related factors on the quality of antibiotic prescriptions filled by GPs in the Italian Region of Sardinia.

Methods And Analysis: Knowledge, attitude, sociodemographic and workplace-related factors deemed to influence physicians prescribing behaviour will be evaluated in a cross-sectional study conducted among all GPs of the Italian Region of Sardinia (n=1200). A knowledge and attitudes questionnaire (Knowledge and Attitudes on Antibiotics and Resistance - Italian version: ITA-KAAR) accompanied by a sociodemographic form will be linked to drug prescription data reimbursed by the National Health System. European Surveillance of Antibiotic Consumption quality indicators for outpatient antibiotic use will be calculated from drug prescription records. Every GP will be deemed to have demonstrated an adequate quality of prescriptions of antibiotics if half of the indicator score plus one is better than the median of the region. A multivariate Poisson regression model with robust variance estimation will be used to evaluate the impact of the determinants of antibiotic prescriptions on the actual prescribing quality of each physician.

Ethics And Dissemination: The project has been approved by the ethics committee of the Regional Health Trust of Sardinia (176/2019/CE, 24 September 2019). The results will be useful to inform evidence-based interventions to tackle irrational antibiotic use in the community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7342852PMC
July 2020
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