Publications by authors named "Peter Kan"

259 Publications

Commentary: Direct Transverse Sinus Cannulation for Coil Embolization of a Transverse-Sigmoid Sinus Dural Arteriovenous Fistula: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opab090DOI Listing
April 2021

Crossing the Carotid Siphon: Techniques to Facilitate Distal Access in Tortuous Anatomy: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

As capabilities for endovascular treatment of intracranial vascular pathologies continue to expand, the need for access to the distal internal carotid artery with rigid support catheter systems continues to increase. One of the dominant factors limiting this access is patient anatomy, specifically vessel tortuosity. Increased tortuosity of the carotid siphon is a frequently encountered anatomic variant and may complicate endovascular procedures in adults and children.1,2 Failed attempts to navigate the carotid siphon with a distal access catheter carry a risk of vessel injury and treatment failure. For this reason, techniques that aid in supporting safe advancement of a distal access catheter across a tortuous carotid siphon are essential.3,4 In this video, we demonstrate 2 ways in which this may be accomplished. The first technique uses a larger diameter microcatheter, such as the AXS Offset catheter (Stryker, Kalamazoo, Michigan), to increase support for the distal access catheter, while the second uses a buddy wire technique to accomplish this increased support. Both of these techniques can help increase the safety of navigating a tortuous carotid siphon and increase the likelihood of successful treatment.  The procedures shown were performed with the informed consent of the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opab084DOI Listing
April 2021

Techniques of Onyx Embolization of Arteriovenous Malformation: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Advances in endovascular techniques and tools have allowed for treatment of complex arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), which historically may have posed unacceptable risk for open surgical resection. Endovascular treatment may be employed as an adjunct to surgical resection or as definitive therapy. Improvements in embolization materials have made endovascular AVM treatment safer for patients and useful across a variety of lesions. While many techniques are employed for transarterial AVM embolization, the essential tenets apply to all procedures: (1) great care should be taken to cannulate only vessels directly supplying the lesion, and not en passage vessels, prior to injecting embolisate; (2) embolisate should travel into the nidus, but not into the draining veins; (3) embolistate reflux proximal to the microcatheter should be avoided. There are several techniques that accomplish these goals, including the plug and push method, or using a balloon to prevent embolisate reflux. We use controlled injection of liquid Onyx (Medtronic), with increasing pressure over multiple injections pushing the embolisate forward into the AVM. This is repeated in multiple feeding vessels to decrease or eliminate supply to the AVM. Here, we present a 36-yr-old female with a right parietal AVM discovered on workup of headaches. After informed consent was obtained, she underwent preoperative embolization using this technique prior to uncomplicated surgical resection. The video shows the endovascular Onyx embolization of multiple feeding vessels over staged treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opab061DOI Listing
March 2021

Double-barrel STA-MCA bypass for cerebral revascularization: lessons learned from a 10-year experience.

J Neurosurg 2021 Mar 19:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

4St. Luke's Health System, Boise, Idaho.

Objective: In select patients, extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass remains an important tool for cerebral revascularization. Traditionally, superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass was performed using one limb of the STA only. In an attempt to augment flow and to direct flow to different ischemic areas of the brain, the authors adopted a "double-barrel" technique in which both branches of the STA are used to revascularize distinct MCA territories.

Methods: A series of consecutive double-barrel STA-MCA bypasses performed between 2010 and 2020 were reviewed. Each anastomosis was directed to augment flow to a territory most at risk based on preoperative perfusion studies, cerebral angiography, and intraoperative indocyanine green data. CT perfusion and CTA were routinely used to evaluate postoperative augmentation and graft patency. Patient perioperative outcomes, surgical complications, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at the last follow-up were reported.

Results: Forty-four patients (16 males, 28 females) successfully underwent double-barrel STA-MCA bypass on 54 cerebral hemispheres: 28 operations were for moyamoya disease, 23 for atherosclerotic disease refractory to medical therapy, 2 for complex cerebral aneurysms, and 1 for carotid occlusion as a sequela of cavernous meningioma growth. Ten patients underwent multiple operations, 9 of whom had moyamoya disease/syndrome, with the subsequent operation on the contralateral hemisphere. The average patient age at surgery was 45.1 years (range 14-73 years), with a mean follow-up time of 22.1 months. Intraoperative graft patency was confirmed in 100% of cases, and 101 (98.1%) of the 103 anastomoses with imaging follow-up were patent. Perfusion to the revascularized hemisphere was improved in 88.2% of cases. Perioperative ischemic and hemorrhagic complications occurred in 8 procedures (2 were asymptomatic), whereas remote ischemic and hemorrhagic events occurred in 7 cases. There was no mortality in the series, and the mean patient mRS scores were 1.72 at presentation and 1.15 at the last follow-up.

Conclusions: The high rates of intraoperative and postoperative patency support the feasibility of dual-anastomosis STA-MCA bypass for revascularization. The perioperative complication rate is not significantly different from that of single-anastomosis bypass. The functional outcomes at follow-up and perfusion improvement postoperatively support the efficacy and safety of this method as a treatment strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.9.JNS201976DOI Listing
March 2021

Pivotal trial of the Neuroform Atlas stent for treatment of posterior circulation aneurysms: one-year outcomes.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Neuroscience, St Vincent Mercy Hospital, Toledo, Ohio, USA.

Background: Stent-assisted coiling of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms (IAs) using the Neuroform Atlas Stent System (Atlas) has shown promising results.

Objective: To present the primary efficacy and safety results of the ATLAS Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) trial in a cohort of patients with posterior circulation IAs.

Methods: The ATLAS trial is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study of unruptured, wide-necked, IAs treated with the Atlas stent and adjunctive coiling. This study reports the results of patients with posterior circulation IAs. The primary efficacy endpoint was complete aneurysm occlusion (Raymond-Roy (RR) class I) on 12-month angiography, in the absence of re-treatment or parent artery stenosis >50%. The primary safety endpoint was any major ipsilateral stroke or neurological death within 12 months. Adjudication of the primary endpoints was performed by an imaging core laboratory and a Clinical Events Committee.

Results: The ATLAS trial enrolled and treated 116 patients at 25 medical centers with unruptured, wide-necked, posterior circulation IAs (mean age 60.2±10.5 years, 81.0% (94/116) female). Stents were placed in all patients with 100% technical success rate. A total of 95/116 (81.9%) patients had complete angiographic follow-up at 12 months, of whom 81 (85.3%) had complete aneurysm occlusion (RR class I). The primary effectiveness outcome was achieved in 76.7% (95% CI 67.0% to 86.5%) of patients. Overall, major ipsilateral stroke and secondary persistent neurological deficit occurred in 4.3% (5/116) and 1.7% (2/116) of patients, respectively.

Conclusions: In the ATLAS IDE posterior circulation cohort, the Neuroform Atlas Stent System with adjunctive coiling demonstrated high rates of technical and safety performance. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02340585.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017115DOI Listing
March 2021

Cavernous Malformation Surgery in the United States: Validation of a Novel International Classification of Disease, 10th Edition, Clinical Modification Code Search Algorithm and Volume-Driven Surgical Outcomes.

World Neurosurg 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: The surgical decision-making process for cavernous malformation (CM) must weigh the risks of surgery against the burden of patient symptoms/hemorrhage and anticipated natural history. Here, we sought to internally validate an International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 search algorithm for CM surgery to use to analyze a nationwide administrative database.

Methods: Institutional records were accessed to test the validity of a novel ICD-10 search algorithm for CM surgery. The algorithm identified patients with positive predictive value (92%), specificity (100%), and sensitivity of 55%. The algorithm was applied to extract our target population from the Nationwide Readmissions Database. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to identify factors influencing patient outcomes.

Results: We identified 1235 operations for supratentorial (87%) or infratentorial (13%) CM surgery from the Nationwide Readmissions Database (2016-2017). The overall rate of adverse disposition and 30-day readmission were 19.7% and 7.5%, respectively. The rate of adverse disposition was significantly higher for infratentorial (vs. supratentorial cases) (34.3% vs. 17.6%, P = 0.001) and brainstem (vs. cerebellar) cases (55% vs. 28%, P = 0.03). Hospital case-volume percentile was associated with decreasing rates of adverse disposition (1-74th: 22%, 75th: 16%, 90th: 13%, 95th: 7%). Treatment at HVCs was also associated with shorter average length of stay (4.6 vs. 7.3 days, P < 0.001) without significant changes to average cost of hospitalization (P = 0.60).

Conclusions: Our ICD-10 coding algorithm reliably identifies CM surgery with minimal false positives. Outcomes were influenced by patient age, clinical presentation, location of CM, and experience of institution. Centralization of care may improve outcomes and warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.02.081DOI Listing
February 2021

Is a picture-perfect thrombectomy necessary in acute ischemic stroke?

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Neurosurgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.

Background: The benefit of complete reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (mTICI) 3) over near-complete reperfusion (≥90%, mTICI 2c) remains unclear. The goal of this study is to compare clinical outcomes between mechanical thrombectomy (MT)-treated stroke patients with mTICI 2c versus 3.

Methods: This is a retrospective study from the Stroke Thrombectomy and Aneurysm Registry (STAR) comprising 33 centers. Adults with anterior circulation arterial vessel occlusion who underwent MT yielding mTICI 2c or mTICI 3 reperfusion were included. Patients were categorized based on reperfusion grade achieved. Primary outcome was modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2 at 90 days. Secondary outcomes were mRS scores at discharge and 90 days, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at discharge, procedure-related complications, and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.

Results: The unmatched mTICI 2c and mTICI 3 cohorts comprised 519 and 1923 patients, respectively. There was no difference in primary (42.4% vs 45.1%; p=0.264) or secondary outcomes between the unmatched cohorts. Reperfusion status (mTICI 2c vs 3) was also not predictive of the primary outcome in non-imputed and imputed multivariable models. The matched cohorts each comprised 191 patients. Primary (39.8% vs 47.6%; p=0.122) and secondary outcomes were also similar between the matched cohorts, except the 90-day mRS which was lower in the matched mTICI 3 cohort (p=0.049). There were increased odds of the primary outcome with mTICI 3 in patients with baseline mRS ≥2 (36% vs 7.7%; p=0.011; p=0.014) and a history of stroke (42.3% vs 15.4%; p=0.027; p=0.041).

Conclusions: Complete and near-complete reperfusion after MT appear to confer comparable outcomes in patients with acute stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-017193DOI Listing
February 2021

Commentary: Safety, Efficacy, and Durability of Stent Plus Balloon-Assisted Coiling for the Treatment of Wide-Necked Intracranial Bifurcation Aneurysms.

Neurosurgery 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyab006DOI Listing
February 2021

Safety of the APOLLO Onyx delivery microcatheter for embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations: results from a prospective post-market study.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Catheter retention and difficulty in retrieval have been observed during embolization of brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) with the Onyx liquid embolic system (Onyx). The Apollo Onyx delivery microcatheter (Apollo) is a single lumen catheter designed for controlled delivery of Onyx into the neurovasculature, with a detachable distal tip to aid catheter retrieval. This study evaluates the safety of the Apollo for delivery of Onyx during embolization of bAVMs.

Methods: This was a prospective, non-randomized, single-arm, multicenter, post-market study of patients with a bAVM who underwent Onyx embolization with the Apollo between May 2015 and February 2018. The primary endpoint was any catheter-related adverse event (AE) at 30 days, such as unintentional tip detachment or malfunction with clinical sequelae, or retained catheter. Procedure-related AEs (untoward medical occurrence, disease, injury, or clinical signs) and serious AEs (life threatening illness or injury, permanent physiological impairment, hospitalization, or requiring intervention) were also recorded.

Results: A total of 112 patients were enrolled (mean age 44.1±17.6 years, 56.3% men), and 201 Apollo devices were used in 142 embolization procedures. The mean Spetzler-Martin grade was 2.38. The primary endpoint was not observed (0/112, 0%). The catheter tip detached during 83 (58.5%) procedures, of which 2 (2.4%) were unintentional and did not result in clinical sequelae. At 30 days, procedure related AEs occurred in 26 (23.2%) patients, and procedure-related serious AEs in 12 (10.7%). At 12 months, there were 3 (2.7%) mortalities, including 2 (1.8%) neurological deaths, none of which were device-related.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the safety of Apollo for Onyx embolization of bAVMs.

Clinical Trial Registration: CNCT02378883.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016830DOI Listing
February 2021

Intraarterial delivery of virotherapy for glioblastoma.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 02;50(2):E7

3Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have been used in the treatment of cancer, in a focused manner, since the 1990s. These OVs have become popular in the treatment of several cancers but are only now gaining interest in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) in recent clinical trials. In this review, the authors discuss the unique applications of intraarterial (IA) delivery of OVs, starting with concepts of OV, how they apply to IA delivery, and concluding with discussion of the current ongoing trials. Several OVs have been used in the treatment of GBM, including specifically several modified adenoviruses. IA delivery of OVs has been performed in the hepatic circulation and is now being studied in the cerebral circulation to help enhance delivery and specificity. There are some interesting synergies with immunotherapy and IA delivery of OVs. Some of the shortcomings are discussed, specifically the systemic response to OVs and feasibility of treatment. Future studies can be performed in the preclinical setting to identify the ideal candidates for translation into clinical trials, as well as the nuances of this novel delivery method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.11.FOCUS20845DOI Listing
February 2021

Distal Access Catheters for Coaxial Radial Access for Posterior Circulation Interventions.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jan 21. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: The neurointerventional field is moving towards transradial access (TRA). Among the favorable indications for TRA is for posterior circulation/vertebrobasilar interventions. For some neurointerventions, a triaxial system (guide catheter, distal access catheter [DAC], and microcatheter) is typically used for optimal support. We describe application of a new technique in which we forgo use of the guide catheter, using the DAC only for coaxial access via the radial approach and its potential advantages.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed of our institutional database for cases using our coaxial distal access catheter technique for posterior circulation interventions. Patient characteristics and radiographic and clinical information were reviewed. All reviews were approved by institutional review board and ethics committee, and all patient identifiers were removed.

Results: A total of 12 patients were found that met our criteria. Successful access and procedural completion was achieved in 11 of 12 (92%). Mechanical thrombectomy accounted for 7 cases; 2 of these patients were also stented via the same approach/technique. Other cases included 2 successful aneurysm treatments (1 flow diverter, 1 coil embolization), a balloon test occlusion for a cervical chordoma, and an arteriovenous malformation embolization.

Conclusions: TRA with a distal access catheter provides support equivalent to a triaxial system with a coaxial construct in the posterior circulation. This has the advantage of using a smaller system in the radial and vertebrobasilar artery without losing stability. This technique can be used effectively and safely for a variety of posterior circulation neuroendovascular interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.01.048DOI Listing
January 2021

Direct Carotid Puncture for Emergent Thrombectomy: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Jan;20(2):E126-E127

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Emergent thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion is now a standard procedure within neurosurgery. In general, thrombectomy is attempted via a femoral artery puncture. However, due to anatomic variability and arterial tortuosity, target vessels cannot be catheterized in roughly 5% of patients.1 Radial artery access is an alternative to femoral artery access; however, target arteries for thrombectomy cannot be catheterized via the femoral or radial arteries in a small subset of patients. Direct carotid puncture is an alternative route of access for emergent thrombectomy in acute stroke.2,3 In this video, we present a patient with an acute right middle cerebral artery occlusion who was taken for emergent thrombectomy after consenting for the procedure. Because of unfavorable arterial anatomy, the right internal carotid artery could not be successfully catheterized via femoral or radial arterial punctures. We ultimately catheterized the right internal carotid artery and middle cerebral artery via a direct carotid puncture. We review the technique for direct carotid puncture, and discuss the outcomes associated with this method of access in the setting of acute large vessel occlusion. We also discuss complications associated with direct carotid puncture. Direct carotid puncture is an acceptable bail-out technique in the setting of emergent thrombectomy when femoral and/or radial access is not possible. Figure at 2:18 republished from Sekhar LN, Iwai Y, Wright DC, Bloom M. Vein graft replacement of the middle cerebral artery after unsuccessful embolectomy: case report. Neurosurgery. 1993;33(4):723-727, by permission of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. Table at 6:05 modified from Roche A, Griffin E, Looby S, et al. Direct carotid puncture for endovascular thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke. J NeuroIntervent Surg. 2019;11(7):647-652, ©The Authors, 2019, with permission from Dr Sarah Power. Table at 6:22 reproduced from Jadkhav AP, Ribo M, Grandhi R, et al. Transcervical access in acute ischemic stroke. J NeuroIntervent Surg. 2014:6(9):652-657, ©2013, with permission from the BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opaa379DOI Listing
January 2021

Forming the Simmons Catheter for Cerebral Angiography and Neurointerventions via the Transradial Approach-Techniques and Operative Videos.

World Neurosurg 2021 Mar 17;147:e351-e353. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Transradial access has been used increasingly for diagnostic cerebral angiography and neurointerventions. This requires development of a new skillset. Forming the Simmons catheter to catheterize the cerebral vessels is the most fundamental. Patient anatomy can complicate the formation of the Simmons catheter and the success of the procedure. The aim of this paper is to identify and describe the techniques that can be used transradially to facilitate the formation of the Simmons catheter for catheterization of the cerebral vessels.

Methods: We reviewed our series of 85 cerebral angiograms performed via a transradial approach at our institution between 2018 and 2019. We identified the techniques employed to form the Simmons catheter and compiled operative videos demonstrating each technique and its nuances.

Results: We have identified 7 techniques used to form the Simmons catheter from a right radial approach: in the ascending aorta, in the descending aorta, in the aortic arch, by deflecting the catheter off of the aortic valve with the glidewire in the common carotid artery, by deflecting the catheter off of the aortic valve with the glidewire in the descending aorta, and directly in the right or left common carotid arteries. We have identified that formation of the Simmons catheter from a left radial approach is most easily done in the descending aorta.

Conclusions: Transradial artery access has become increasingly common in cerebral angiography and neurointerventions. We describe techniques used for the formation of the Simmons catheter, a fundamental skill necessary for transradial cerebral angiogram or neurointervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.12.054DOI Listing
March 2021

Differential effect of mechanical thrombectomy and intravenous thrombolysis in atrial fibrillation associated stroke.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Neurosurgery and Radiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) associated ischemic stroke has worse functional outcomes, less effective recanalization, and increased rates of hemorrhagic complications after intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). Limited data exist about the effect of AF on procedural and clinical outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy (MT).

Objective: To determine whether recanalization efficacy, procedural speed, and clinical outcomes differ in AF associated stroke treated with MT.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of the Stroke Thrombectomy and Aneurysm Registry (STAR) from January 2015 to December 2018 and identified 4169 patients who underwent MT for an anterior circulation stroke, 1517 (36.4 %) of whom had comorbid AF. Prospectively defined baseline characteristics, procedural outcomes, and clinical outcomes were reported and compared.

Results: AF predicted faster procedural times, fewer passes, and higher rates of first pass success on multivariate analysis (p<0.01). AF had no effect on intracranial hemorrhage (aOR 0.69, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.12) or 90-day functional outcomes (aOR 1.17, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.50) after MT, although patients with AF were less likely to receive IVT (46% vs 54%, p<0.0001).

Conclusions: In patients treated with MT, comorbid AF is associated with faster procedural time, fewer passes, and increased rates of first pass success without increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage or worse functional outcomes. These results are in contrast to the increased hemorrhage rates and worse functional outcomes observed in AF associated stroke treated with supportive care and or IVT. These data suggest that MT negates the AF penalty in ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016720DOI Listing
December 2020

Ambulatory neurosurgery in the COVID-19 era: patient and provider satisfaction with telemedicine.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 12;49(6):E13

2Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas.

Objective: Telemedicine has rapidly expanded in the recent years as technologies have afforded healthcare practitioners the ability to diagnose and treat patients remotely. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, nonessential clinical visits were greatly limited, and much of the outpatient neurosurgical practice at the authors' institution was shifted quickly to telehealth. Although there are prior data suggesting that the use of telemedicine is satisfactory in other surgical fields, data in neurosurgery are limited. This study aimed to investigate both patient and provider satisfaction with telemedicine and its strengths and limitations in outpatient neurosurgery visits.

Methods: This quality improvement study was designed to analyze provider and patient satisfaction with telemedicine consultations in an outpatient neurosurgery clinic setting at a tertiary care, large-volume, academic center. The authors designed an 11-question survey for neurosurgical providers and a 13-question survey for patients using both closed 5-point Likert scale responses and multiple choice responses. The questionnaires were administered to patients and providers during the period when the clinic restricted in-person visits. At the conclusion of the study, the overall data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively.

Results: During the study period, 607 surveys were sent out to patients seen by telehealth at the authors' academic center, and 122 responses were received. For the provider survey, 85 surveys were sent out to providers at the authors' center and other academic centers, and 40 surveys were received. Ninety-two percent of patients agreed or strongly agreed that they were satisfied with that particular telehealth visit. Eighty-eight percent of patients agreed that their telehealth visit was more convenient for them than an in-person visit, but only 36% of patients stated they would like their future visits to be telehealth. Sixty-three percent of providers agreed that telehealth visits were more convenient for them than in-person visits, and 85% of responding providers stated that they wished to incorporate telehealth into their future practice.

Conclusions: Although the authors' transition to telehealth was both rapid and unexpected, most providers and patients reported positive experiences with their telemedicine visits and found telemedicine to be an effective form of ambulatory neurosurgical care. Not all patients preferred telemedicine visits over in-person visits, but the high satisfaction with telemedicine by both providers and patients is promising to the future expansion of telehealth in ambulatory neurosurgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.9.FOCUS20596DOI Listing
December 2020

Virtual education in neurosurgery during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 12;49(6):E17

Departments of1Neurosurgery and.

Objective: Neurosurgical education in the US has changed significantly as a consequence of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. Institutional social distancing requirements have resulted in many neurosurgical programs utilizing video conferencing for educational activities. However, it is unclear how or if these practices should continue after the pandemic. The objective of this study was to characterize virtual education in neurosurgery and understand how it should be utilized after COVID-19.

Methods: A 24-question, 3-part online survey was administered anonymously to all 117 US neurosurgical residency programs from May 15, 2020, to June 15, 2020. Questions pertained to the current use of virtual conferencing, preferences over traditional conferences, and future inclinations. The Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree, 3 = neutral, 5 = strongly agree) was used. Comparisons were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Statistical significance was set at 0.05.

Results: One-hundred eight responses were recorded. Overall, 38 respondents (35.2%) were attendings and 70 (64.8%) were trainees. Forty-one respondents (38.0%) indicated attending 5-6 conferences per week and 70 (64.8%) attend national virtual conferences. When considering different conference types, there was no overall preference (scores < 3) for virtual conferences over traditional conferences. In regard to future use, respondents strongly agreed that they would continue the practice at some capacity after the pandemic (median score 5). Overall, respondents agreed that virtual conferences would partially replace traditional conferences (median score 4), whereas they strongly disagreed with the complete replacement of traditional conferences (median score 1). The most common choices for the partial replacement of tradition conferences were case conferences (59/108, 55%) and board preparation (64/108, 59%). Lastly, there was a significant difference in scores for continued use of virtual conferencing in those who attend nationally sponsored conferences (median score 5, n = 70) and those who do not (median score 4, n = 38; U = 1762.50, z = 2.97, r = 0.29, p = 0.003).

Conclusions: Virtual conferences will likely remain an integral part of neurosurgical education after the COVID-19 pandemic has abated. Across the country, residents and faculty report a preference for continued use of virtual conferencing, especially virtual case conferences and board preparation. Some traditional conferences may even be replaced with virtual conferences, in particular those that are more didactic. Furthermore, nationally sponsored virtual conferences have a positive effect on the preferences for continued use of virtual conferences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.9.FOCUS20672DOI Listing
December 2020

National Institutes of Health grant opportunities for the neurointerventionalist: preparation and choosing the right mechanism.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Neurosurgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA.

Objective: The goal of this article is to provide recommendations for the early career neurointerventionalist in writing a successful grant application to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and similar funding agencies.

Methods: The authors reviewed NIH rules and regulations and also reflected on their own collective experience in writing NIH grant proposals in the area of cerebrovascular disease and neurointerventional surgery.

Results: A strong proposal should address an important scientific problem where there is a gap in knowledge. The solution offered needs to be innovative but at the same time based on a strong scientific premise. The proposed research must be feasible to implement and investigate in the researcher's environment.

Conclusion: Successful grant writing is critical in funding and enhancing research. The information in the article may aid in the preparation stage of grant writing for early career neurointerventionalists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016743DOI Listing
November 2020

Strategies for writing a successful National Institutes of Health grant proposal for the early-career neurointerventionalist.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Neurological Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Objective: The goal of this article is to provide a succinct review of the key components of a NIH grant application and the NIH reviewprocess for the early career neurointerventionalist.

Methods: The authors reviewed NIH rules and regulations and also reflected on their own collective experiencein writing NIH grant proposals in the area of cerebrovascular disease andneurointerventional surgery.

Results: Key components of theresearch strategy include specific aims, significance, innovation and approach.The specific aims page is the most important page of the application and should be written first. The NIH review isbased on these key components along with an assessment of the appropriatenessof the investigators and environment for the research.

Conclusion: Detailed knowledge ofthe key components of the research grant is critical to a successful application.The information in the article may aid in the grant writing for early careerneurointerventionalists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016964DOI Listing
November 2020

Assessment of Aptamer-Targeted Contrast Agents for Monitoring of Blood Clots in Computed Tomography and Fluoroscopy Imaging.

Bioconjug Chem 2020 12 24;31(12):2737-2749. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada.

Random formation of thrombi is classified as a pathological process that may result in partial or complete obstruction of blood flow and limited perfusion. Further complications include pulmonary embolism, thrombosis-induced myocardial infraction, ischemic stroke, and others. Location and full delineation of the blood clot are considered to be two clinically relevant aspects that could streamline proper diagnosis and treatment follow-up. In this work, we prepared two types of X-ray attenuating contrast formulations, using fibrinogen aptamer as the clot-seeking moiety. Two novel aptamer-targeted formulations were designed. Iodine-modified bases were directly incorporated into a fibrinogen aptamer (iodo-FA). Isothermal titration calorimetry was used to confirm that these modifications did not negatively impact target binding. Iodo-FA was tested for its ability to produce concentration-dependent contrast enhancement in a phantom CT. It was subsequently tested with clotted human and swine blood. This allowed for translation into testing, using fluoroscopy. FA was also used to functionalize gold nanoparticles (FA-AuNPs), and contrast capabilities were confirmed. This formulation was tested using clotted human blood in a CT scan. Unmodified FA and iodo-FA demonstrated a nearly identical affinity toward fibrin, confirming that base modifications did not impact target binding. Iodo-FA and FA-AuNPs both demonstrated excellent concentration-dependent contrast enhancement capabilities (40.5 HU mM and 563.6 HU μM, respectively), which were superior to the clinically available agent, iopamidol. CT testing revealed that iodo-FA is able to penetrate into the blood clots, producing contrast enhancement throughout, while FA-AuNPs only accumulated on the surface of the clot. Iodo-FA was thereby translated to testing, confirming target-binding associated accumulation of the contrast material at the location of the clot within the dilation of the external carotid artery. This resulted in a 34% enhancement of the clot. Both iodo-FA and FA-AuNPs were confirmed to be effective contrast formulations in CT. Targeting of fibrin, a major structural constituent of thrombi, with these novel contrast agents would allow for higher contrast enhancement and better clot delineation in CT and fluoroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.0c00525DOI Listing
December 2020

Endovascular Selective Intra-Arterial Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Loaded With Delta-24 in a Canine Model.

Neurosurgery 2020 12;88(1):E102-E113

Department of Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background: Delta-24-RGD, an oncolytic adenovirus, shows promise against glioblastoma. To enhance virus delivery, we recently demonstrated that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells loaded with Delta-24-RGD (hMSC-D24) can eradicate glioblastomas in mouse models. There are no studies examining the safety of endovascular selective intra-arterial (ESIA) infusions of MSC-D24 in large animals simulating human clinical situations.

Objective: To perform canine preclinical studies testing the feasibility and safety of delivering increasing doses of hMSCs-D24 via ESIA infusions.

Methods: ESIA infusions of hMSC-D24 were performed in the cerebral circulation of 10 normal canines in the target vessels (internal carotid artery [ICA]/P1) via transfemoral approach using commercially available microcatheters. Increasing concentrations of hMSC-D24 or particles (as a positive control) were injected into 1 hemisphere; saline (negative control) was infused contralaterally. Toxicity (particularly embolic stroke) was assessed on postinfusion angiography, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, clinical exam, and necropsy.

Results: ESIA injections were performed in the ICA (n = 7) or P1 (n = 3). In 2 animals injected with particles (positive control), strokes were detected by all assays. Of 6 canines injected with hMSC-D24 through the anterior circulation, escalating dose from 2 × 106 cells/20 mL to 1 × 108 cells/10 mL resulted in no strokes. Two animals had ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes after posterior cerebral artery catheterization. A survival experiment of 2 subjects resulted in no complications detected for 24-h before euthanization.

Conclusion: This novel study simulating ESIA infusion demonstrates that MSCs-D24 can be infused safely at least up to doses of 1 × 108 cells/10 mL (107 cells/ml) in the canine anterior circulation using commercially available microcatheters. These findings support a clinical trial of ESIA infusion of hMSCs-D24.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735865PMC
December 2020

Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal direct access and Onyx embolization of a dural arteriovenous fistula mimicking a carotid-cavernous fistula: case report.

J Neurosurg 2020 Nov 13:1-5. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

1Department of Neurosurgery and.

The classic presentation of a carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is unilateral painful proptosis, chemosis, and vision loss. Just as the goal of treatment for a dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is obliteration of the entire fistulous connection and the proximal draining vein, the modern treatment of CCF is endovascular occlusion of the cavernous sinus via a transvenous or transarterial route. Here, the authors present the case of a woman with a paracavernous dAVF mimicking the clinical and radiographic presentation of a CCF. Without any endovascular route available to access the fistulous connection and venous drainage, the authors devised a novel direct hybrid approach by performing an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal direct puncture and Onyx embolization of the fistula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.7.JNS201737DOI Listing
November 2020

Readmission following extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery in the United States: nationwide rates, causes, risk factors, and volume-driven outcomes.

J Neurosurg 2020 Nov 6:1-9. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

5Department of Neurosurgery, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Objective: Extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery remains an important treatment option for patients with moyamoya disease (MMD), intracranial arteriosclerotic disease (ICAD) with symptomatic stenosis despite the best medical management, and complex aneurysms. The therapeutic benefit of cerebral bypass surgery depends on optimal patient selection and the minimization of periprocedural complications. The nationwide burden of readmissions and associated complications following EC-IC bypass surgery has not been previously described. Therefore, the authors sought to analyze a nationwide database to describe the national rates, causes, risk factors, complications, and morbidity associated with readmission following EC-IC bypass surgery for MMD, ICAD, and aneurysms.

Methods: The Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) was queried for the years 2010-2014 to identify patients who had undergone EC-IC bypass for MMD, medically failed symptomatic ICAD, or unruptured aneurysms. Predictor variables included demographics, preexisting comorbidities, indication for surgery, and hospital bypass case volume. A high-volume center (HVC) was defined as one that performed 10 or more cases/year. Outcome variables included perioperative stroke, discharge disposition, length of stay, total hospital costs, and readmission (30 days, 90 days). Multivariable analysis was used to identify predictors of readmission and to study the effect of treatment at HVCs on quality outcomes.

Results: In total, 2500 patients with a mean age of 41 years were treated with EC-IC bypass surgery for MMD (63.1%), ICAD (24.5%), or unruptured aneurysms (12.4%). The 30- and 90-day readmission rates were 7.5% and 14.0%, respectively. Causes of readmission included new stroke (2.5%), wound complications (2.5%), graft failure (1.5%), and other infection (1.3%). In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for readmission included Medicaid/self-pay (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4, vs private insurance), comorbidity score (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.4, per additional comorbidity), and treatment at a non-HVC (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.0). Treatment at an HVC (17% of patients) was associated with significantly lower rates of nonroutine discharge dispositions (13.4% vs 26.7%, p = 0.004), ischemic stroke within 90 days (0.8% vs 2.9%, p = 0.03), 30-day readmission (3.9% vs 8.2%, p = 0.03), and 90-day readmission (8.6% vs 15.2%, p = 0.01). These findings were confirmed in a multivariable analysis. The authors estimate that centralization to HVCs may result in 333 fewer nonroutine discharges (50% reduction), 12,000 fewer hospital days (44% reduction), 165 fewer readmissions (43%), and a cost savings of $15.3 million (11% reduction).

Conclusions: Readmission rates for patients after EC-IC bypass are comparable with those after other common cranial procedures and are primarily driven by preexisting comorbidities, socioeconomic status, and treatment at low-volume centers. Periprocedural complications, including stroke, graft failure, and wound complications, occurred at the expected rates, consistent with those in prior clinical series. The centralization of care may significantly reduce perioperative complications, readmissions, and hospital resource utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.JNS202117DOI Listing
November 2020

Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization for Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Multi-Center Experience of 154 Consecutive Embolizations.

Neurosurgery 2021 01;88(2):268-277

Neurosurgical Service, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization has emerged as a promising treatment for chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH).

Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of MMA embolization.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent MMA embolization for cSDH (primary treatment or recurrence after conventional surgery) at 15 centers were included. Clinical details and follow-up were collected prospectively. Primary clinical and radiographic outcomes were the proportion of patients requiring additional surgical treatment within 90 d after index treatment and proportion with > 50% cSDH thickness reduction on follow-up computed tomography imaging within 90 d. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scale were also clinical outcomes.

Results: A total of 138 patients were included (mean age: 69.8, 29% female). A total of 15 patients underwent bilateral interventions for 154 total embolizations (66.7% primary treatment). At presentation, 30.4% and 23.9% of patients were on antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy, respectively. Median admission cSDH thickness was 14 mm. A total of 46.1% of embolizations were performed under general anesthesia, and 97.4% of procedures were successfully completed. A total of 70.2% of embolizations used particles, and 25.3% used liquid embolics with no significant outcome difference between embolization materials (P > .05). On last follow-up (mean 94.9 d), median cSDH thickness was 4 mm (71% median thickness reduction). A total of 70.8% of patients had >50% improvement on imaging (31.9% improved clinically), and 9 patients (6.5%) required further cSDH treatment. There were 16 complications with 9 (6.5%) because of continued hematoma expansion. Mortality rate was 4.4%, mostly unrelated to the index procedure but because of underlying comorbidities.

Conclusion: MMA embolization may provide a safe and efficacious minimally invasive alternative to conventional surgical techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa379DOI Listing
January 2021

Endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration of an intraparenchymal hematoma in a newborn.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Oct 2:1-6. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

1Department of Neurosurgery, Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas; and.

Neonatal intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Treatment is largely conservative, though interventions to evacuate intraventricular and intraparenchymal hematomas (IPHs) have been applied. Endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration for the treatment of IPH has increasingly been shown to be a useful strategy in adults; however, it has not been studied in children, and the technology has been more commonly applied to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Here, the authors describe, to the best of their knowledge, the first use of endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration for IPH in a newborn.An 8-week-old female presented with IPH secondary to left M3 aneurysm rupture, which was treated with coil embolization for aneurysm securement and vessel sacrifice, followed by IPH evacuation using endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration. Through applying this approach in a newborn, the authors gained technical insight not previously reported in the application of this technique in similar cases in adults or in cases of IVH. They highlight this case to share learning points and technical challenges regarding the application of endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration in a newborn along with learning points for imaging and visualization. Endoscopic ultrasonic aspiration can be used to treat IPH in select newborns. Further study is needed to improve efficacy and ease when applying this approach in very young patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.PEDS2042DOI Listing
October 2020

Middle meningeal artery embolization treatment of nonacute subdural hematomas in the elderly: a multiinstitutional experience of 151 cases.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 10;49(4):E5

1Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neuroscience Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Objective: The incidence of already common chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) and other nonacute subdural hematomas (NASHs) in the elderly is expected to rise as the population ages over the coming decades. Surgical management is associated with recurrence and exposes elderly patients to perioperative and operative risks. Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization offers the potential for a minimally invasive, less morbid treatment in this age group. The clinical and radiographic outcomes after MMA embolization treatment for NASHs have not been adequately described in elderly patients. In this paper, the authors describe the clinical and radiographic outcomes after 151 cases of MMA embolization for NASHs among 121 elderly patients.

Methods: In a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database across 15 US academic centers, the authors identified patients aged ≥ 65 years who underwent MMA embolization for the treatment of NASHs between November 2017 and February 2020. Patient demographics, comorbidities, clinical and radiographic factors, treatment factors, and clinical outcomes were abstracted. Subgroup analysis was performed comparing elderly (age 65-79 years) and advanced elderly (age > 80 years) patients.

Results: MMA embolization was successfully performed in 98% of NASHs (in 148 of 151 cases) in 121 patients. Seventy elderly patients underwent 87 embolization procedures, and 51 advanced elderly patients underwent 64 embolization procedures. Elderly and advanced elderly patients had similar rates of embolization for upfront (46% vs 61%), recurrent (39% vs 33%), and prophylactic (i.e., with concomitant surgical intervention; 15% vs 6%) NASH treatment. Transfemoral access was used in most patients, and the procedure time was approximately 1 hour in both groups. Particle embolization with supplemental coils was most common, used in 51% (44/87) and 44% (28/64) of attempts for the elderly and advanced elderly groups, respectively. NASH thickness decreased significantly from initial thickness to 6 weeks, with additional decrease in thickness observed in both groups at 90 days. At longest follow-up, the treated NASHs had stabilized or improved in 91% and 98% of the elderly and advanced elderly groups, respectively, with > 50% improvement seen in > 60% of patients for each group. Surgical rescue was necessary in 4.6% and 7.8% of cases, and the overall mortality was 8.6% and 3.9% for elderly and advanced elderly patients, respectively.

Conclusions: MMA embolization can be used safely and effectively as an alternative or adjunctive minimally invasive treatment for NASHs in elderly and advanced elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.7.FOCUS20518DOI Listing
October 2020

Trends in academic productivity in the COVID-19 era: analysis of neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional literature.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Nov 30;12(11):1049-1052. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, USA

Background: Academic physicians aim to provide clinical and surgical care to their patients while actively contributing to a growing body of scientific literature. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in procedural-based specialties across the United States witnessing a sharp decline in their clinical volume and surgical cases.

Objective: To assess the impact of COVID-19 on neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional academic productivity.

Methods: The study compared the neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional academic output during the pandemic lockdown with the same time period in previous years. Editors from a sample of neurosurgical, stroke neurology, and neurointerventional journals provided the total number of original manuscript submissions, broken down by months, from the year 2016 to 2020. Manuscript submission was used as a surrogate metric for academic productivity.

Results: 8 journals were represented. The aggregated data from all eight journals as a whole showed that a combined average increase of 42.3% was observed on original submissions for 2020. As the average yearly percent increase using the 2016-2019 data for each journal exhibited a combined average increase of 11.2%, the rise in the yearly increase for 2020 in comparison was nearly fourfold. For the same journals in the same time period, the average percent of COVID-19 related publications from January to June of 2020 was 6.87%.

Conclusion: There was a momentous increase in the number of original submissions for the year 2020, and its effects were uniformly experienced across all of our represented journals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528313PMC
November 2020

Impact of off-hour endovascular therapy on outcomes for acute ischemic stroke: insights from STAR.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Sep 8. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Neurological Surgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Background: The off-hour effect has been observed in the medical care of acute ischemic stroke. However, it remains unclear if time of arrival affects revascularization rates and outcomes after endovascular therapy (EVT) for emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO). We aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of EVT between on-hour and off-hour admissions.

Methods: Patients who underwent EVT for ELVO from January 2013 to June 2019 from the STAR Registry were included. Patients were grouped based on time of groin puncture: on-hour period (Monday through Friday, 7:00 am-4:59 pm) and off-hour period (overnight 5:00pm-6:59am and the weekends). Primary outcome was final modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days on mRS-shift analysis.

Results: A total of 1919 patients were included in the study from six centers. The majority of patients (1169, 60.9%) of patients presented during the off-hour period. The mean age was 68.1 years and 50.5% were women. Successful reperfusion, as defined by a Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score of ≥2B, was achieved in 88.8% in the on-hour group and 88.0% in the off-hour group. Good clinical outcome (mRS 0-2) was obtained in 34.4% of off-hour patients and 37.7% of on-hour patients. On multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis, time of presentation was not associated with worsened outcome (OR 1.150; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.37; P=0.122). Age, admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), baseline mRS, and final TICI score were significantly associated with worse outcomes.

Conclusion: There is no statistical difference in functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients who underwent EVT during on-hours versus off-hours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016474DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparison of First-Pass Efficacy Among Four Mechanical Thrombectomy Techniques: A Single-Center Experience.

World Neurosurg 2020 Dec 3;144:e533-e540. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: First-pass efficacy (FPE) is an established marker of technical and clinical efficacy among mechanical thrombectomy (MT) techniques. It is unclear what the optimal approach is in achieving FPE. We present a single-center experience comparing rates of FPE among 2 MT techniques and evaluate the potential predictors of FPE among other outcomes.

Methods: A single-center retrospective analysis was carried out of patients with consecutive large-vessel occlusion strokes (LVOS) of anterior circulation from September 2015 to April 2019 who underwent MT and for whom data were available on the status of FPE. Four MT techniques were identified: ADAPT (a direct first-pass aspiration), SrADAPT (stent retriever with aspiration), SRBG (stent retriever with balloon guide catheter), and STRAP (stent retriever-aspiration and proximal flow arrest). The primary outcome was FPE and secondary outcomes included the rate of successful reperfusion.

Results: Among 226 patients with LVOS of the anterior circulation who underwent MT, data were available for 164 on FPE for the 4 MT techniques. SRBG was the most prevalent technique. No significant difference was found in rates of FPE among the 4 MT techniques (P = 0.332). No independent predictors of FPE were identified on multivariable analysis. STRAP had the highest rate of successful reperfusion compared with the other techniques (P = 0.049) and was the only independent predictor of that outcome (P = 0.027).

Conclusions: Among patients with LVOS of the anterior circulation, the rate of FPE did not differ among the 4 MT techniques. There were no predictors of FPE among the studied variables. STRAP was the only predictor of successful reperfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.08.209DOI Listing
December 2020