Publications by authors named "Peter J de Jong"

190 Publications

Subjective disgust and facial electromyography responses towards unedited and morphed overweight self-pictures in women with varying levels of eating disorder symptomatology.

Eur Eat Disord Rev 2022 Aug 5. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Individuals with an eating disorder (ED) often report to be disgusted by their body. Body-related self-disgust could play an important role in the development and maintenance of EDs. We investigated if women with relatively high ED symptom scores indeed respond with disgust upon exposure to their body as indexed by facial electromyography (fEMG) of the m. levator labii superioris and self-report. Given that one's self-disgust may increase/decrease depending on the relative distance of the own body to the thin ideal, we also assessed women's disgust for overweight- and thin-morphs of their body. Female undergraduate students (N = 104) were photographed and presented with their (morphed) body pictures, next to disgust-relevant and overweight body control pictures. Higher levels of ED symptoms were associated with stronger self-reported disgust to unedited body-pictures and overweight-morphs. Disgust to thin-morphs was unrelated to ED symptoms. Participants generally showed heightened facial disgust towards overweight morphs, yet the strength of facial disgust was unrelated to ED symptoms. Thus, the findings provide evidence for the involvement of heightened body-related self-disgust in ED symptomatology, albeit only on the basis of self-report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/erv.2940DOI Listing
August 2022

Interpersonal responses to facial expressions of disgust, anger, and happiness in individuals with varying levels of social anxiety.

PLoS One 2022 7;17(4):e0263990. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Background And Objectives: Facial expression recognition has been studied extensively, including in relation to social anxiety. Nonetheless, a limited number of studies examined recognition of disgust expressions. Results suggest that disgust is perceived as more threatening than anger, and thus may invite more extreme responses. However, few studies have examined responses to facial expressions. These studies have focused on approach-avoidance responses. Our primary aim was to examine to what extent anger and disgust expressions might invite interpersonal responses in terms of quarrelsomeness-agreeableness and dominance-submissiveness. As social anxiety has been previously associated with a heightened sensitivity to anger and disgust expressions, as well as with alterations in quarrelsomeness-agreeableness and dominance-submissiveness, our secondary aim was to examine whether social anxiety would moderate these responses.

Methods: Participants were 55 women and 43 men who completed social anxiety measures, including the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, and two tasks that involved "targets" expressing anger, disgust, or happiness at 0%, 50%, or 100%. Participants first indicated how quarrelsome or agreeable and how dominant or submissive they would be towards each target, and then how much they would avoid or approach each target.

Results: While 100% disgust and anger expressions invited similar levels of quarrelsomeness and avoidance, 50% disgust invited more quarrelsomeness and stronger avoidance than 50% anger. While these patterns were not meaningfully moderated by social anxiety, individuals with higher BFNE scores showed a relatively strong approach of happy faces.

Limitations: Actual interpersonal behaviour in response to facial expressions was not assessed.

Conclusions: Findings support the relevance of disgust as an interpersonal signal and suggest that, especially at mild intensity, disgust may have a stronger impact than anger on people's quarrelsomeness and avoidance responses. Findings provided no support for the view that people with social anxiety would be particularly responsive to disgust (or anger) expressions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0263990PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8989355PMC
April 2022

Punishment sensitivity and the persistence of anorexia nervosa: High punishment sensitivity is related to a less favorable course of anorexia nervosa.

Int J Eat Disord 2022 05 29;55(5):697-702. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Objective: Cross-sectional research provides robust evidence that individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) report higher punishment sensitivity (PS) than individuals without an eating disorder (ED). High PS might interfere with treatment motivation and the ability to learn from experience. The current study took a longitudinal approach to test predictions that follow from the proposed relevance of PS as a factor in the persistence of AN symptoms. More specifically we tested (1) if higher PS at the start of treatment was related to less improvement in ED symptoms after one year, and (2) if a decrease in ED symptoms was associated with a concurrent decrease in PS.

Method: Participants were 69 adolescents with a diagnosis of AN at the start of treatment of whom 62 participated again one year later. ED symptom severity and PS were assessed at both time points.

Results: Findings showed that (1) higher PS at the start of treatment was related to less improvement in ED symptoms, and (2) an improvement in ED symptoms was related to a decrease in PS.

Discussion: These findings are consistent with the proposed relevance of PS in the persistence of AN and suggest that it might be beneficial to address high PS in treatment.

Public Significance: Consistent with the view that punishment sensitivity (PS) is related to the persistence of anorexia nervosa, high PS at the start of treatment was related to less improvement in eating disorder symptoms in patients with anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, an improvement in eating disorder symptoms was associated with a concurrent decrease in PS, suggesting that PS can be subject to change and may be a relevant target for treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9313888PMC
May 2022

Satisfaction with normative life domains and the course of anorexia nervosa.

Int J Eat Disord 2022 04 25;55(4):553-563. Epub 2022 Feb 25.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Objective: Satisfaction with normative life domains has been proposed as an important factor in the persistence of anorexia nervosa (AN). Initial evidence from a cross-sectional study indicated that individuals with AN reported lower satisfaction with normative life domains than individuals without an eating disorder. As an important next step in understanding causal relations, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine whether an improvement in AN symptoms is paralleled by an increase in satisfaction with normative life domains from baseline to follow-up and whether relatively low satisfaction with normative life domains at baseline is related to less improvement in AN symptoms.

Methods: During baseline and at 1-year follow-up, adolescents with AN (N = 69) completed the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale to measure satisfaction with normative life domains (e.g., friendships, school experience). Furthermore, eating disorder symptoms and BMI were measured.

Results: Improvement in eating disorder symptoms, but not in BMI, was paralleled by an increase in satisfaction with normative life domains. Relatively low satisfaction with normative life domains at baseline was not prospectively related to less improvement in eating disorder symptoms or BMI at follow-up.

Discussion: Our findings provide initial evidence that satisfaction with normative life domains is a malleable factor which fluctuates with symptom severity in AN. The results of this exploratory study point to the relevance of examining whether targeting satisfactory engagement with specific life domains optimizes treatment effectiveness.

Public Significance: We explored whether an improvement in anorexia nervosa symptoms from start of treatment to 1-year follow-up would be paralleled by an increase in satisfaction with normative life domains. Improvement in eating disorder symptoms (but not BMI) was indeed related to a concurrent increase in satisfaction with normative life domains. These preliminary results point to the promising possibility that targeting satisfactory engagement with specific life domains may potentially enhance treatment effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.23691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9305581PMC
April 2022

Eating disorder-specific rumination moderates the association between attentional bias to high-calorie foods and eating disorder symptoms: Evidence from a reliable free-viewing eye-tracking task.

Appetite 2022 04 17;171:105934. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Clinical Psychology & Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Cognitive theories of eating disorders implicate Attentional Bias (AB) towards food-related information in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Empirical evidence for this proposal, however, has been inconsistent, and the measures used to examine AB to food-related stimuli typically showed poor reliability. The aim of the current study was twofold. Firstly, we aimed to examine the psychometric properties of a newly devised eye-tracking task for the assessment of AB in the context of eating disorders. Secondly, we examined the role of Eating Disorder-specific (ED-specific) rumination as a potential moderator of the association between attentional bias to food images and eating disorder symptoms. One hundred and three female students were recruited and completed an eye-tracking task comprising 21 matrices that each contained 8 low-calorie and 8 high-calorie food images. Each matrix was presented for 6 s. First fixation location, first fixation latency, and total dwell time were assessed for low and high-calorie food images and the dwell-time based AB measure showed good reliability based on Cronbach's alpha, McDonald's Omega, and split-half method. In addition, the results revealed that the ED-specific rumination plays the hypothesized moderating role. Specifically, while participants with high levels of ED-specific rumination exhibited a positive association between AB to high-calorie foods and eating disorder symptoms, this association was not present among participants with lower levels of ED-specific rumination. The employed free-viewing task seems a reliable measure of AB to food-related stimuli, and the moderation analysis emphasizes the critical role of ED-specific rumination for eating disorder symptoms. Implications, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2022.105934DOI Listing
April 2022

Desired attachment and breakup distress relate to automatic approach of the ex-partner.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2022 06 9;75:101713. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Department of Clinical Psychology & Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background And Objectives: Romantic relationship breakups can lead to severe emotional disturbances including major depression. Anxious attachment and desired attachment with the ex-partner are hypothesized to elicit repetitive thought about the breakup and the former partner and attempts to reunite with (i.e. approach) the ex-partner, which fuel breakup distress. Since prior research on this topic has mostly used survey methodology, the study aim was to examine the relations between above-mentioned variables employing a behavioral measure of approach of the ex-partner.

Methods: Automatic approach-avoidance tendencies toward the former partner were assessed with an Approach Avoidance Task (AAT). Sixty-two students (76% female) moved a manikin towards or away from stimuli pictures (ex-partner, matched stranger, landscape) as fast as possible based on the stimulus frame color (blue, yellow). Participants also completed questionnaires assessing anxious attachment, desired attachment, repetitive thought about the breakup (rumination) and the ex-partner (yearning), and breakup distress (prolonged grief symptoms).

Results: Anxious attachment related positively to rumination and breakup distress. Desired attachment related positively to yearning, automatic approach bias toward the ex-partner, and breakup distress. Both anxious and desired attachment, rumination, yearning, and approach bias related positively to breakup distress.

Limitations: The use of a student sample may limit generalizability. A correlational design precludes causal conclusions.

Conclusions: Together with prior work, results suggests anxious attachment hampers psychological adaptation to a breakup by increasing the use of ruminative coping. Desire to retain an attachment bond with the ex-partner, expressed in yearning and approach of the ex-partner, may also worsen breakup distress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2021.101713DOI Listing
June 2022

Escaping from revulsion - disgust and escape in response to body-relevant autobiographical memories.

Memory 2022 02 11;30(2):104-116. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

University of Groningen, Department of Psychology (Expertise Group: Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology), Groningen, The Netherlands.

The term (RBI) refers to a schematic construct combining body-directed self-disgust and other negative body image features, that is assumed to bias information processing, including autobiographical memory retrieval. When specific memories about the own body are retrieved, intense self-disgust may arise and trigger urges to escape from those memories. We asked 133 women with high (H; = 63) and low (L; = 70) levels of habitual body-directed self-disgust to recall autobiographical memories in response to 11 concrete body-related cue words in a minimal instructions Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT). Despite an overall low level of memory specificity, we found that RBI levels were associated with stronger disgust reactions and stronger motivations to escape from body-related memories. In addition, disgust reactions to body-related memories accounted for the association between habitual levels of self-disgust and urges to escape from these memories. Thus, the findings indicated that women with body image concerns showed disgust-based urges to escape from body-related memories. This disgust-based urge to avert from body-related autobiographical memories might counteract the correction of an RBI, thereby contributing to the persistence of body image concerns and associated psychopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2021.1993923DOI Listing
February 2022

Victims of Bullying: Emotion Recognition and Understanding.

Front Psychol 2021 14;12:729835. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Victims of bullying often show interpersonal problems, such as having less high-quality interpersonal relationships compared to non-involved individuals. Research suggests that interpersonal struggles are associated with diminished emotional intelligence and competence and can lead to mental health problems such as depression. Therefore, we examined emotion recognition abilities, empathic accuracy, and behavioral responses to emotions in bullying victims and non-involved individuals. Based on previous research, we expected victims to show diminished skills in all three domains. Adolescents (M=17years; 67% female; no "other" gender participants) with (=24) and without (=21) a self-reported history of bullying victimization in high school completed a Virtual Reality facial emotion recognition task (ERT-VR), an empathic accuracy task (EAT) using videos of people recounting real-life autobiographical events, and a computer task in which they indicated their likely behavioral responses to facial emotions. The two groups only significantly differed in recognizing emotions when taking their depression symptoms into account. Across emotions, victims had lower recognition accuracy than non-involved individuals. When examining emotion-specific differences, victims showed lower accuracy for neutral faces which they mainly mistook for angry faces. In contrast to expectations, adolescents with a high-school history of bullying victimization mostly showed similar emotional intelligence and competence skills as non-involved individuals. Nonetheless, we found some subtle differences regarding emotion recognition. Victims misjudged neutral as angry faces. This suggests a hostile attribution bias which might help explain victims' interpersonal problems as well as their increased risk for mental health problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.729835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8551375PMC
October 2021

Psychological risk factors and the course of depression and anxiety disorders: A review of 15 years NESDA research.

J Affect Disord 2021 12 1;295:1347-1359. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, and Department of Psychiatry, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; N=2981) is an ongoing longitudinal, multi-site, naturalistic, cohort study examining the etiology, course, and consequences of depression and anxiety. In this article we synthesize and evaluate fifteen years of NESDA research on prominent psychological risk factors for the onset, persistence, recurrence, and comorbidity of affective disorders.

Methods: A narrative review of 62 NESDA articles examining the specificity and predictive value of neuroticism, behavioral inhibition, repetitive negative thinking, experiential avoidance, cognitive reactivity, locus of control, (implicit) self-esteem, (implicit) disorder-specific self-associations, and attentional bias for the course of affective disorders.

Results: All self-reported risk factors showed cross-sectional relationships with singular and comorbid affective disorders, and prospective relationships with the development and chronicity of depression and anxiety disorders. High neuroticism, low self-esteem, and negative repetitive thinking showed most prominent transdiagnostic relationships, whereas cognitive reactivity showed most pronounced depression-specific associations. Implicit self-esteem showed predictive validity for the persistence and recurrence of anxiety and depression over and above self-reported risk factors. Automatic approach-avoidance behavior and attentional bias for negative, positive, or threat words showed no relationship with affective disorders.

Conclusion: NESDA identified both (a) transdiagnostic factors (e.g., neuroticism, low implicit self-esteem, repetitive negative thinking) that may help explain the comorbidity between affective disorders and overlap in symptoms, and (b) indications for disorder-specific risk factors (e.g., cognitive responsivity) which support the relevance of distinct disorder categories and disorder-specific mechanisms. Thus, the results point to the relevance of both transdiagnostic and disorder-specific targets for therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.08.086DOI Listing
December 2021

Treating Speech Anxiety in Youth: A Randomized Controlled Microtrial Testing the Efficacy of Exposure Only Versus Exposure Combined With Anxiety Management Strategies.

Behav Ther 2021 11 6;52(6):1377-1394. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

University of Groningen.

CBT for anxious youth usually combines anxiety management strategies (AMS) with exposure, with exposure assumed to be critical for treatment success. To limit therapy time while retaining effectiveness, one might optimize CBT by restricting treatment to necessary components. This study tested whether devoting all sessions to exposure is more effective in reducing speech anxiety in youth than devoting half to AMS including cognitive or relaxation strategies and half to exposure. After a 6-week waitlist period, adolescents with speech anxiety (N = 65; age 12-15; 42 girls) were randomized to a 5-session in-school group-based CBT training consisting of either (1) exposure-only (EXP+EXP) or (2) cognitive strategies followed by exposure (COG+EXP) or (3) relaxation strategies followed by exposure (REL+EXP). Clinical interviews, speech tests, and self-report measures were assessed at pretest, posttest, and follow-up. For all conditions (a) the intervention period resulted in a stronger decline of speech anxiety than waitlist period; (b) there was a large sized reduction of speech anxiety that was maintained at six-week follow-up; (c) there was no meaningful difference in the efficacy of EXP+EXP versus COG+EXP or REL+EXP. These findings suggest that devoting all sessions to exposure is not more effective than combining exposure with AMS. AMS appeared neither necessary for CBT to be effective, nor necessary for youth to tolerate exposure. This indicates that CBT can be optimized by restricting treatment to exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2021.03.010DOI Listing
November 2021

Effectiveness of attentional bias modification training as add-on to regular treatment in alcohol and cannabis use disorder: A multicenter randomized control trial.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252494. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Attentional bias for substance-relevant cues has been found to contribute to the persistence of addiction. Attentional bias modification (ABM) interventions might, therefore, increase positive treatment outcome and reduce relapse rates. The current study investigated the effectiveness of a newly developed home-delivered, multi-session, internet-based ABM intervention, the Bouncing Image Training Task (BITT), as an add-on to treatment as usual (TAU).

Methods: Participants (N = 169), diagnosed with alcohol or cannabis use disorder, were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: the experimental ABM group (50%; TAU+ABM); or the control group (50%; split in two subgroups the TAU+placebo group and TAU-only group, 25% each). Participants completed baseline, post-test, and 6 and 12 months follow-up measures of substance use and craving allowing to assess long-term treatment success and relapse rates. In addition, attentional bias (both engagement and disengagement), as well as secondary physical and psychological complaints (depression, anxiety, and stress) were assessed.

Results: No significant differences were found between conditions with regard to substance use, craving, relapse rates, attentional bias, or physical and psychological complaints.

Conclusions: The findings may reflect unsuccessful modification of attentional bias, the BITT not targeting the relevant process (engagement vs. disengagement bias), or may relate to the diverse treatment goals of the current sample (i.e., moderation or abstinence). The current findings provide no support for the efficacy of this ABM approach as an add-on to TAU in alcohol or cannabis use disorder. Future studies need to delineate the role of engagement and disengagement bias in the persistence of addiction, and the role of treatment goal in the effectiveness of ABM interventions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252494PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177423PMC
November 2021

Why Dieters Succeed or Fail: The Relationship Between Reward and Punishment Sensitivity and Restrained Eating and Dieting Success.

Front Psychol 2021 13;12:636432. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Background: The current study set out to improve our understanding of the characteristics of individuals who are motivated to restrict their food intake yet who nevertheless fail to do so. We examined whether punishment sensitivity (PS) was related to restrained eating, and reward sensitivity (RS) to perceived dieting success. Additionally, it was examined whether executive control (EC) moderates the association between RS and perceived dieting success.

Methods: Female student participants ( = 290, aged 17-29, BMI between 18.5 and 38.0) completed questionnaires on restrained eating, perceived dieting success, RS and PS, and carried out a behavioral task to index EC.

Results: PS was indeed positively related to restrained eating. RS was positively related to perceived dieting success, yet, EC did not moderate this association.

Conclusion: The current study adds to the evidence that PS is related to individuals' motivation to restrict their food intake. Furthermore, it shows support for the suggestion that RS may food restriction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.636432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155680PMC
May 2021

The revolting body: Self-disgust as a key factor in anorexia nervosa.

Curr Opin Psychol 2021 10 31;41:78-83. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS, Groningen, the Netherlands.

In this article, we present a theoretical model that points to disgust-induced avoidance as a mechanism that can help explain the persistent and excessive food restriction in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN). Disgust is characterized by intense negative feelings of revulsion and an overwhelming and irresistible urge to avoid potential disgust elicitors. When eating, or even the prospect of eating, elicits overwhelming feelings of disgust in individuals with AN, this could explain why food restriction persists even when someone is in a state of starvation. Following this model, disgust is elicited by the expected impact of food on the own body ("becoming fat") resulting in body-related self-disgust. We argue that limiting food intake may serve to avoid self-disgust. This implies that when self-disgust remains unchanged after treatment of AN, residual levels of self-disgust after treatment could make individuals vulnerable to relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2021.03.008DOI Listing
October 2021

Individual differences in avoiding feelings of disgust: Development and construct validity of the disgust avoidance questionnaire.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(3):e0248219. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Psychology (Expertise Group: Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology), University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

We developed and examined the construct validity of the Disgust Avoidance Questionnaire (DAQ) as a measure of people's inclination to prevent experiencing disgust (disgust prevention) and to escape from the experience of disgust (disgust escape). In a stepwise item-reduction (Study 1; N = 417) using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) based on a 4-subscale distinction (behavioral prevention, cognitive prevention, behavioral escape, cognitive escape), we selected 17 items from a pool of potential items. In order to incorporate the conceptual overlap between dimensions of disgust avoidance, focus (prevention vs. escape), and strategy (behavioral avoidance vs. cognitive avoidance), we specified an adapted model. In this model, we allowed each item to load on one type of dimension and one type of strategy, resulting in four overlapping factors (prevention, escape, behavioral avoidance, cognitive avoidance). Evaluation of this overlapping 4-factor model (Study 2; N = 513) using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed promising model fit indices, factor loadings, factor correlations, and reliability estimates for three of the four factors (prevention, behavioral avoidance, cognitive avoidance). Those three subscales also showed good convergent validity. In contrast, the results related to the escape factor may call the suitability of self-report to assess disgust escape into question. In light of the exploratory nature of the project, future examinations of the DAQ's validity and applicability to more diverse samples are essential. A critical next step for future research would be to examine the DAQ's criterion validity and the distinctive roles of the DAQ subscales in (clinical) psychological constructs and processes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248219PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946286PMC
October 2021

Attentional Bias in Alcohol and Cannabis Use Disorder Outpatients as Indexed by an Odd-One-Out Visual Search Task: Evidence for Speeded Detection of Substance Cues but Not for Heightened Distraction.

Front Psychol 2021 15;12:626326. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Current cognitive models of addiction imply that speeded detection and increased distraction from substance cues might both independently contribute to the persistence of addictive behavior. Speeded detection might lower the threshold for experiencing craving, whereas increased distraction might further increase the probability of entering a bias-craving-bias cycle, thereby lowering the threshold for repeated substance use. This study was designed to examine whether indeed both attentional processes are involved in substance use disorders. Both attentional processes were indexed by an Odd-One-Out visual search task in individuals diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD; = 63) and cannabis use disorder (CUD; = 28). To test whether the detection and/or the distraction component are characteristic for AUD and CUD, their indices were compared with matched individuals without these diagnoses (respectively, = 63 and = 28). Individuals with CUD showed speeded detection of cannabis cues; the difference in detection between AUD and the comparison group remained inconclusive. Neither the AUD nor the CUD group showed more distraction than the comparison groups. The sample size of the CUD group was relatively small. In addition, participants made relatively many errors in the attentional bias (AB) task, which might have lowered its sensitivity to detect ABs. The current study provided no support for the proposed role of increased distraction in CUD and AUD. The findings did, however, provide support for the view that speeded detection might be involved in CUD. Although a similar trend was evident for AUD, the evidence was weak and remained therefore inconclusive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.626326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928358PMC
February 2021

A Promising Candidate to Reliably Index Attentional Bias Toward Alcohol Cues-An Adapted Odd-One-Out Visual Search Task.

Front Psychol 2021 10;12:630461. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Attentional bias (AB) has been suggested to contribute to the persistence of substance use behavior. However, the empirical evidence for its proposed role in addiction is inconsistent. This might be due to the inability of commonly used measures to differentiate between attentional engagement and attentional disengagement. Attesting to the importance of differentiating between both components of AB, a recent study using the odd-one-out task (OOOT) showed that substance use was differentially related to engagement and disengagement bias. However, the AB measures derived from the OOOT showed insufficient reliability to be used as a solid measure of individual differences. Therefore, the current study aimed to improve the reliability of the AB measures derived from the OOOT by using more distinct contrast stimuli, adding practice trials, increasing the number of trials, and by having participants perform the task in an alcohol-relevant context. We contrasted the original OOOT with the adapted OOOT (i.e., OOOT-adapt) and assessed AB in low- and high-drinking individuals. Participants were 245 undergraduate students who typically tend to drink either low or high amounts of alcohol. In one condition, AB was measured with the original OOOT in a typical laboratory context, whereas in the other condition, AB was measured with the OOOT-adapt in a bar (i.e., alcohol-relevant) context. The OOOT-adapt showed superior internal consistency, especially for the high-drinking group. Further, specifically the OOOT-adapt differentiated between low- and high-drinking participants showing that high drinkers engaged faster with alcohol cues than did low drinkers. Thus, the OOOT-adapt was found to be a promising candidate to reliably index AB in the context of alcohol use. The OOOT-adapt further showed superior criterion validity as it could differentiate between low- and high-drinking individuals, thereby adding to the evidence that AB might be involved in substance use behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.630461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7902689PMC
February 2021

The Causal Influence of Life Meaning on Weight and Shape Concerns in Women at Risk for Developing an Eating Disorder.

Front Psychol 2021 11;12:593393. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Although previous studies have shown an inverse relation between life meaning and eating disorder symptoms, the correlational nature of this evidence precludes causal inferences. Therefore, this study used an experimental approach to test the causal impact of life meaning on individuals' weight and shape concerns. Female students at risk for developing an eating disorder ( = 128) were randomly assigned to the control or the meaning condition, which involved thinking about and committing to pursue intrinsically valued life goals. A color-naming interference task was used to assess the motivational salience of body-related stimuli, and self-report measures were used to assess participants' overvaluation of weight and shape. The meaning manipulation was effective in activating intrinsically valued life goals. However, it did not result in lower self-reported overvaluation of weight and shape or lower color-naming interference effects of body-related stimuli, compared to the control condition. analyses suggested that baseline meaning in life was related to the impact of the manipulation. This experimental study did not provide evidence for a causal influence of life meaning on the overvaluation of weight and shape in a high-risk group. The current findings suggest that we first need to examine the relationship between life meaning and eating disorder symptoms in more detail, before implementing brief meaning manipulations in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.593393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905029PMC
February 2021

Low satisfaction with normative life domains in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

Clin Psychol Psychother 2021 Sep 2;28(5):1266-1274. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Objective: Low satisfaction with normative life domains might be an important factor in the persistence of anorexia nervosa (AN). Initial evidence in non-clinical samples showed that lower satisfaction with normative life domains was related to more intense eating disorder symptoms. As a critical next step, the current study examined satisfaction with normative life domains in a clinical sample. Specifically, the present study tested whether adolescents with AN reported lower satisfaction with normative life domains than adolescents without an eating disorder.

Method: Adolescents with AN (n = 69) and adolescents without an eating disorder matched on age, gender and educational level (n = 69) completed the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale to assess satisfaction with five life domains (family, friendships, school, self and living location) and life in general.

Results: Adolescents with AN reported significantly lower satisfaction with normative life domains than the comparison group. Subsequent analyses showed that this overall group difference was primarily driven by adolescents with AN reporting lower satisfaction with the self, school experience and life in general.

Conclusions: Findings supported the hypothesis that adolescents with AN show relatively low satisfaction with meaningful, non-AN-related life domains. This points to the potential relevance of enhancing satisfaction with specific life domains to optimize treatment effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpp.2574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8596741PMC
September 2021

Inter-identity amnesia for neutral episodic self-referential and autobiographical memory in Dissociative Identity Disorder: An assessment of recall and recognition.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(2):e0245849. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Amnesia is a core diagnostic criterion for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), however previous research has indicated memory transfer. As DID has been conceptualised as being a disorder of distinct identities, in this experiment, behavioral tasks were used to assess the nature of amnesia for episodic 1) self-referential and 2) autobiographical memories across identities. Nineteen DID participants, 16 DID simulators, 21 partial information, and 20 full information comparison participants from the general population were recruited. In the first study, participants were presented with two vignettes (DID and simulator participants received one in each of two identities) and asked to imagine themselves in the situations outlined. The second study used a similar methodology but with tasks assessing autobiographical experience. Subjectively, all DID participants reported amnesia for events that occurred in the other identity. On free recall and recognition tasks they presented a memory profile of amnesia similar to simulators instructed to feign amnesia and partial information comparisons. Yet, on tests of recognition, DID participants recognized significantly more of the event that occurred in another identity than simulator and partial information comparisons. As such, results indicate that the DID performance profile was not accounted for by true or feigned amnesia, lending support to the idea that reported amnesia may be more of a perceived than actual memory impairment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245849PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880432PMC
July 2021

Inter-identity amnesia for neutral episodic self-referential and autobiographical memory in Dissociative Identity Disorder: An assessment of recall and recognition.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(2):e0245849. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Amnesia is a core diagnostic criterion for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), however previous research has indicated memory transfer. As DID has been conceptualised as being a disorder of distinct identities, in this experiment, behavioral tasks were used to assess the nature of amnesia for episodic 1) self-referential and 2) autobiographical memories across identities. Nineteen DID participants, 16 DID simulators, 21 partial information, and 20 full information comparison participants from the general population were recruited. In the first study, participants were presented with two vignettes (DID and simulator participants received one in each of two identities) and asked to imagine themselves in the situations outlined. The second study used a similar methodology but with tasks assessing autobiographical experience. Subjectively, all DID participants reported amnesia for events that occurred in the other identity. On free recall and recognition tasks they presented a memory profile of amnesia similar to simulators instructed to feign amnesia and partial information comparisons. Yet, on tests of recognition, DID participants recognized significantly more of the event that occurred in another identity than simulator and partial information comparisons. As such, results indicate that the DID performance profile was not accounted for by true or feigned amnesia, lending support to the idea that reported amnesia may be more of a perceived than actual memory impairment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0245849PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880432PMC
July 2021

Predictive value of implicit and explicit self-esteem for the recurrence of depression and anxiety disorders: A 3-year follow-up study.

J Abnorm Psychol 2020 Nov 17;129(8):788-798. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology.

Anxiety and depressive disorders are characterized by high rates of recurrence, substantially contributing to the high burden associated with these disorders. It is therefore crucial to identify factors related to recurrence, as they may provide viable targets for preventative intervention. Previous studies have observed a link between low self-esteem and subsequent symptoms of depression and anxiety, and low levels of self-esteem in those recovered from a depression or an anxiety disorder. Research also suggests that it is crucial to differentiate more explicit self-esteem (ESE) from more implicit self-esteem (ISE). The current study is the first to test whether ISE and ESE predict recurrence of depression and recurrence of anxiety during a 3-year follow-up as determined with clinical interviews. The sample included those with a history of a depressive disorder ( = 559) and/or a history of an anxiety disorder ( = 458) who had been depression- and anxiety-free for at least six months at baseline. During the 3-year follow-up, 119 (21%) and 104 (23%) had a depression and anxiety recurrence, respectively. ISE predicted recurrence of both depression and anxiety, even when statistically controlling for residual symptoms and neuroticism at baseline. ESE also showed predictive value, although this was not over and above residual symptoms. Explorative analyses suggest that ESE and ISE improved little, or not at all, from currently having a depression or anxiety disorder to recovery. These results therefore suggest that ISE may be an important target for interventions to prevent the recurrence of both depression and anxiety disorders. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/abn0000634DOI Listing
November 2020

The effect of differential disgust conditioning and subsequent extinction versus counterconditioning procedures on women's sexual responses to erotic stimuli.

Behav Res Ther 2020 11 30;134:103714. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Department of Psychosomatic Gynecology and Sexology, Leiden University Medical Center, Rijnsburgerweg 10, 2333, AA, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Recent theoretical accounts point to disgust as an important factor in the development and persistence of sexual dysfunctions. This study tested if (i) contingent disgust experiences can render initially sexually arousing stimuli disgusting, and (ii) such acquired disgust responses could be best neutralized via a CS-only extinction or a counterconditioning procedure. Participants (N = 74) were exposed to a differential conditioning procedure that was followed by either a CS-only extinction or a counterconditioning procedure. Erotic films served as the CS+/CS-. A disgusting film served as the US. During the extinction procedure, the CS+ was no longer followed by the disgusting US. During counterconditioning the CS+ was paired with positive stimuli. After conditioning, the CS + elicited lower genital arousal and was rated as significantly more disgusting, less pleasant, and less sexually arousing than the CS-. These diminished genital and subjective sexual arousal responses to the CS+ were successfully restored after both the extinction and the counterconditioning procedure, whereas conditioned feelings of disgust and behavioral avoidance persisted. There was no evidence for differential effectiveness of either procedure. Thus, sexual responses can be attenuated by learned sex-disgust associations and restored by extinction and counterconditioning procedures, but conditioned feelings of disgust seem more resistant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103714DOI Listing
November 2020

Implicit Measures in Clinical Sex Research: A Critical Evaluation.

Sex Med Rev 2020 Oct 5;8(4):531-541. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Introduction: Current information-processing models of sexual arousal imply that both controlled and automatic affective-motivational processes are critically involved in sexual responding and suggest that dysfunctional automatic processes may be involved in the development and persistence of sexual dysfunctions. Because (dysfunctional) automatic processes and responses cannot be adequately captured by common self-report measures, implicit performance-based measures have been developed to index these processes.

Objectives: This review provides an overview of studies that used implicit tasks in clinical sexual research, and critically evaluates the contribution and promise of these measures to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in sexual dysfunctions.

Methods: 6 electronic main databases (AMED, MEDLINE, PsycArticles, Psychology & Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, and SocINDEX) were searched for studies involving implicit measurement techniques to measure automatic processes in clinical sex research.

Results: A series of studies examined if lowered (or heightened) attention for sex stimuli may be involved in low sexual arousal, low desire, and genital pain. Preliminary evidence showed that lowered attention is involved in low sexual arousal. The pattern with regard to desire and genital pain was mixed which may be due to heterogeneity in assessment instruments. A limited number of studies examined automatic memory associations with sexual cues. Preliminary evidence showed negative (sex-threat/sex-disgust) associations in women with genito-pelvic pain or penetration disorder, less positive associations in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, and sex-positive and sex-failure associations in men with sexual distress. Thus far, no studies have examined lowered (or heightened) automatic sexual approach tendencies related to sexual dysfunctions.

Conclusion: Implicit measures showed some promise as tools to index automatic sex-relevant cognitive mechanisms in sexual dysfunctions. Yet, more systematic research and the development of psychometrically sound measures are critical for a more comprehensive evaluation of the relevance of implicit measures in clinical sex research and their usefulness as indices of individual differences in clinical practice. Hinzmann J, Borg C, de Jong PJ. Implicit Measures in Clinical Sex Research: A Critical Evaluation. Sex Med Rev 2020;8:531-541.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sxmr.2020.06.005DOI Listing
October 2020

Visual attention to food cues and the course of anorexia nervosa.

Behav Res Ther 2020 May 30;132:103649. Epub 2020 May 30.

University of Groningen, Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, the Netherlands.

Previously, adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) showed reduced attentional engagement with food cues compared to adolescents without eating disorder (Jonker, Glashouwer, Hoekzema, Ostafin, & De Jong, 2019). This study tested whether (i) improvement in eating disorder symptoms and BMI are related to an increase in attentional engagement with food, and whether (ii) relatively low attentional engagement is related to persistent AN symptomatology, in the same sample of adolescents with AN (N = 69) from the study of Jonker et al. (2019). Eating disorder symptoms, BMI, and attention for food cues were measured during baseline and at one year follow-up. Adolescents with AN showed a substantial improvement in symptoms and BMI. However, their low attentional engagement with food cues remained unchanged. Change in attentional engagement with food was not related to change in symptoms, nor was low baseline attentional engagement with food predictive of symptom persistence. These findings indicate that improvement in AN symptoms does not seem to require an increase in attentional engagement with food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103649DOI Listing
May 2020

The clinical relevance of early identification and treatment of sleep disorders in mental health care: protocol of a randomized control trial.

BMC Psychiatry 2020 06 24;20(1):331. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

GGZ Drenthe Mental Health Institute, 9404 LA, Assen, The Netherlands.

Background: Sleep disorders are a risk factor for developing a variety of mental disorders, have a negative impact on their remission rates and increase the risk of relapse. Early identification and treatment of sleep disorders is therefore of paramount importance. Unfortunately, in mental health care sleep disorders are often poorly recognized and specific treatment frequently occurs late or not at all. This protocol-paper presents a randomized controlled trial investigating the clinical relevance of early detection and treatment of sleep disorders in mental health care. The two aims of this project are 1) to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders in different mental disorders, and 2) to investigate the contribution of early identification and adequate treatment of sleep disorders in individuals with mental disorders to their sleep, mental disorder symptoms, general functioning, and quality of life.

Methods: Patients newly referred to a Dutch mental health institute for psychiatric treatment will be screened for sleep disorders with the self-assessment Holland Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (HSDQ). Patients scoring above the cut-off criteria will be invited for additional diagnostic evaluation and, treatment of the respective sleep disorder. Participants will be randomly assigned to two groups: Immediate sleep diagnostics and intervention (TAU+SI-T0), or delayed start of sleep intervention (TAU+SI-T1; 6 months after inclusion). The effect of sleep treatment as add-on to treatment as usual (TAU) will be tested with regard to sleep disorder symptoms, general functioning, and quality of life (in collaboration with a psychiatric sleep centre).

Discussion: This trial will examine the prevalence of different sleep disorders in a broad range of mental disorders, providing information on the co-occurrence of specific sleep and mental disorders. Further, this study is the first to investigate the impact of early treatment of sleep disorders on the outcome of many mental disorders. Moreover, standard sleep interventions will be tailored to specific mental disorders, to increase their efficacy. The results of this trial may contribute considerably to the improvement of mental health care.

Trial Registration: This clinical trial has been retrospectively registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NL8389; https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/8389) on February 2th, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-020-02737-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7313112PMC
June 2020

Therapists' characteristics associated with the (non-)use of exposure in the treatment of anxiety disorders in youth: A survey among Dutch-speaking mental health practitioners.

J Anxiety Disord 2020 06 11;73:102230. Epub 2020 May 11.

University of Groningen, Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Introduction: Although there is consensus that exposure is the key ingredient in treating childhood anxiety disorders, several studies in the USA suggest exposure to be underused in clinical practice. Previous research pointed to therapists' beliefs about exposure, their age, experience, caseload, training and theoretical orientation, as well as the level of the therapists' own anxiety as important factors in the underusage of exposure in the treatment of adult anxiety disorders. This study examined what therapist characteristics may be involved in the (non-)use of exposure in treating childhood anxiety disorders.

Methods: An internet-based survey among 207 youth mental health care professionals in the Netherlands and Belgium was conducted to assess therapists' beliefs about exposure, their age, experience, caseload, training and theoretical orientation, as well as the level of the therapists' own anxiety, depression and stress.

Results: The current survey showed that therapists used exposure in about half of their cases of childhood anxiety and that the non-use was independently associated with the relatively strong negative beliefs about exposure, therapists' age, and non-CBT orientation.

Discussion: Findings point to the importance of addressing negative beliefs about exposure in therapists' training and supervision to resolve therapy drift away from exposure, and consequently improve utilization and delivery of exposure-based therapy for childhood anxiety disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102230DOI Listing
June 2020

Influence of hunger on attentional engagement with and disengagement from pictorial food cues in women with a healthy weight.

Appetite 2020 08 29;151:104686. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

University of Groningen, Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, the Netherlands.

Because of inconsistencies in the field of attentional bias to food cues in eating behavior, this study aimed to re-examine the assumption that hungry healthy weight individuals have an attentional bias to food cues, but satiated healthy weight individuals do not. Since attentional engagement and attentional disengagement have been proposed to play a distinct role in behavior, we used a performance measure that is specifically designed to differentiate between these two attentional processes. Participants were healthy weight women who normally eat breakfast. In the satiated condition (n = 54), participants were instructed to have breakfast just before coming to the lab. In the fasted condition (n = 50), participants fasted on average 14 h before coming into the lab. Satiated women showed no stronger attentional engagement or attentional disengagement bias to food cues than to neutral cues. Fasted women did show stronger attentional engagement to food cues than to neutral cues that were shown briefly (100 ms). They showed no bias in attentional engagement to food cues that were shown longer (500 ms) or in attentional disengagement from food cues. These findings are in line with the assumption that healthy weight individuals show an attentional bias to food cues when food stimuli are motivationally salient. Furthermore, the findings point to the importance of differentiating between attentional engagement and attentional disengagement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2020.104686DOI Listing
August 2020

Intrusions related to indirectly experienced events in clinical offspring of World War Two survivors.

J Anxiety Disord 2020 04 6;71:102209. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Department of Clinical Psychology & Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Negative events may not only linger on in the form of intrusive memories in the minds of those directly exposed but also in those who are only indirectly confronted with these events. The aim of the present study was to investigate if intrusions referring to indirectly experienced traumatic events do indeed occur, and to compare their frequency and characteristics to intrusions about directly experienced negative events. Participants (N = 98) were adult postwar offspring of World War Two survivors currently in treatment in one of two clinics specialized in the treatment of war victims. We examined the frequency and characteristics of intrusions about indirectly experienced (i.e., parent war-related) events and two types of directly (self-) experienced events: Self-experienced traumatic events and negative events related to participants' upbringing. Intrusions referring to indirectly experienced traumatic events did indeed occur. The frequency as well as other characteristics of these intrusions did not differ from those of both types of intrusions about directly experienced events. The similarities between intrusions related to different types of events emphasize the (re)constructive nature of memory. Our findings indicate that traumatic events not only affect those directly involved but may also continue to plague the next generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102209DOI Listing
April 2020

Heightened self-reported punishment sensitivity, but no differential attention to cues signaling punishment or reward in anorexia nervosa.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(3):e0229742. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

University of Groningen, department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, Groningen, The Netherlands.

This study examined whether adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) are more sensitive to punishment and less sensitive to reward than a non-eating disorder comparison group. Both self-report and performance measures were used to index reward and punishment sensitivity. Participants were adolescents with AN (n = 69) and an individually matched comparison group with healthy weight (n = 69). They completed the Behavioral Inhibition Scale/Behavioral Activation Scale and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire to index self-reported reward and punishment sensitivity, and performed the Spatial Orientation Task to index attention to cues signaling reward and punishment. There was extremely strong evidence (BF10 > 100), that adolescents with AN reported higher sensitivity to punishment than adolescents without an eating disorder. However, adolescents with AN did not differ from the comparison group on self-reported reward sensitivity, and attention to cues signaling reward or punishment. Adolescents with AN clearly show heightened punishment sensitivity, yet this was not paralleled by a heightened proneness to detect signals of punishment. An important next step would be to examine whether punishment sensitivity is a reliable risk factor for the development or maintenance of AN.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229742PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053765PMC
June 2020

A personalized approach-avoidance modification intervention to reduce negative body image. A placebo-controlled pilot study.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2020 09 17;68:101544. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Experimental Psychopathology, University of Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background And Objectives: Drive for thinness is considered an important factor in the onset and maintenance of negative body image and can be conceptualized as a motivational approach tendency towards thin bodies. The goal of this study was to test whether training thinness-related approach-avoidance tendencies is effective in improving body satisfaction using a personalized training with individuals' own body pictures.

Methods: Undergraduate women scoring high on drive for thinness (N = 104) were randomly assigned to an experimental, placebo or no training control condition. The experimental training consisted of four training sessions in which participants pushed away thin versions of their own body pictures and pulled closer realistic pictures of themselves. The same stimuli were shown with 50/50 contingency in the placebo training.

Results: The experimental training procedure did not show an effect on self-reported body satisfaction or drive for thinness after one session, four sessions, or one week later. While reaction time indices suggested a marginally significant change in approach-avoidance tendencies in the expected direction, this effect may have been driven by relatively strong thin-approach tendencies in the experimental condition before the start of the training.

Limitations: High error rates limit the interpretability of the effects on approach-avoidance tendencies. Selection was based on a single item assessing drive for thinness.

Conclusions: Taken together, our study did not provide evidence that training approach-avoidance tendencies is effective in improving negative body image.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2019.101544DOI Listing
September 2020
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