Publications by authors named "Peter J Kourlas"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS) in a Recently Released Prisoner with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE).

Am J Case Rep 2018 Jun 22;19:734-738. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Rheumatology, Columbus Arthritis Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

BACKGROUND Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has myriad manifestations that can affect any organ system in the body. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a disease of uncontrolled lymphocyte and macrophage proliferation and activation, which has various triggers, including autoimmune disorder, viral infection, and malignancy. We report here on MAS as a complication of adult SLE, a rare association in the literature, in a patient with an unknown past medical history. CASE REPORT A 38-year-old male patient presented with severe muscle weakness, diffuse abdominal cramps with vomiting and incontinence of stool, confusion, cough, and sweating increasing in severity for about 1 week. He was unable to give a coherent history and according to his family had been released from prison 3 weeks prior, having been in the corrections system for much of his adult life. The diagnosis of new-onset fulminant SLE complicated by MAS was made, noting the profound degree of bone marrow involvement, neuropsychiatric changes, and hyperferritinemia. CONCLUSIONS Many of the symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings of SLE overlap with those of MAS, and concomitant presence of both of these disease poses unique diagnostic challenges as well as extreme risk to the patient. A robust set of criteria for identifying MAS in the setting of a confounding underlying rheumatological illness does not exist in the adult population; this case illustrates the approach taken by our team to come to this diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/AJCR.906154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047585PMC
June 2018

Cyclosporine or steroids as an adjunct to plasma exchange in the treatment of immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

Blood Adv 2017 Oct 23;1(23):2075-2082. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

Although steroids are routinely used as an adjunct to plasma exchange (PEX) therapy in the treatment of immune-mediated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP), limited data regarding their efficacy or effect on ADAMTS13 biomarkers are available. We report the results of a prospective, randomized study that compared the effectiveness of prednisone or cyclosporine (CSA) as adjuncts to PEX in the treatment of iTTP. A total of 26 of the planned 72 subjects were enrolled and treated from November 2007 until February 2014 before the study was halted after a planned interim analysis. Fourteen patients were randomly assigned to the prednisone arm, and 12 to the CSA arm of the study. One patient died in each arm of the study, and 2 patients in the prednisone arm of the study failed to achieve a response and crossed over to the CSA arm, leaving 11 patients in each arm of the study evaluable for the primary end point of exacerbation. One of the 11 prednisone-treated subjects (9%) suffered an exacerbation, whereas 3 of the 11 (27%) patients in the CSA arm suffered an exacerbation. Although there was no significant difference in the exacerbation rate, suppression of the anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies and improvement in ADAMTS13 activity in the first month after stopping PEX were significantly better in the prednisone-treated subjects. Side effects were manageable and comparable in both arms of the study. These data demonstrate the superiority of prednisone over CSA as an adjunct to PEX in the suppression of the anti-ADAMTS13 antibodies and improvement in ADAMTS13 activity. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00713193.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2017009308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5728286PMC
October 2017

Germ-line PHD1 and PHD2 mutations detected in patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma-polycythemia.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2015 Jan 30;93(1):93-104. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

Surgical Neurology Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Unlabelled: We have investigated genetic/pathogenetic factors associated with a new clinical entity in patients presenting with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PHEO/PGL) and polycythemia. Two patients without hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2A) mutations, who presented with similar clinical manifestations, were analyzed for other gene mutations, including prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) mutations. We have found for the first time a germ-line mutation in PHD1 in one patient and a novel germ-line PHD2 mutation in a second patient. Both mutants exhibited reduced protein stability with substantial quantitative protein loss and thus compromised catalytic activities. Due to the unique association of patients' polycythemia with borderline or mildly elevated erythropoietin (EPO) levels, we also performed an in vitro sensitivity assay of erythroid progenitors to EPO and for EPO receptor (EPOR) expression. The results show inappropriate hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to EPO in these patients, indicating increased EPOR expression/activity. In addition, the present study indicates that HIF dysregulation due to PHD mutations plays an important role in the pathogenesis of these tumors and associated polycythemia. The PHD1 mutation appears to be a new member contributing to the genetic landscape of this novel clinical entity. Our results support the existence of a specific PHD1- and PHD2-associated PHEO/PGL-polycythemia disorder.

Key Message: • A novel germ-l i n e PHD1 mutation causing heochromocytoma/paraganglioma and polycythemia. • Increased EPOR activity and inappropriate hypersensitivity of erythroid progenitors to EPO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-014-1205-7DOI Listing
January 2015

Phase 1 and pharmacodynamic studies of G3139, a Bcl-2 antisense oligonucleotide, in combination with chemotherapy in refractory or relapsed acute leukemia.

Blood 2003 Jan 22;101(2):425-32. Epub 2002 Aug 22.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, and the Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.

Overexpression of Bcl-2 is a potential mechanism for chemoresistance in acute leukemia and has been associated with unfavorable clinical outcome. We hypothesized that down-regulation of Bcl-2 would restore chemosensitivity in leukemic cells. To test this hypothesis, we performed a phase 1 study of G3139 (Genasense, Genta, Berkeley Heights, NJ), an 18-mer phosphorothioate Bcl-2 antisense, with fludarabine (FL), cytarabine (ARA-C), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (FLAG) salvage chemotherapy in patients with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia. Twenty patients with refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were enrolled. G3139 was delivered by continuous infusion on days 1 to 10. FLAG chemotherapy was administered on days 5 to 10. Common side effects of this combination included fever, nausea, emesis, electrolyte imbalance, and fluid retention that were not dose limiting. Plasma pharmacokinetics of G3139 demonstrated steady-state concentration (Css) within 24 hours. Of the 20 patients, 9 (45%) had disease response, 6 (5 AML, 1 ALL) with complete remission (CR) and 3 (2 AML and 1 ALL) with no evidence of disease but failure to recover normal neutrophil and/or platelet counts or to remain in remission for at least 30 days (incomplete remission). Bcl-2 mRNA levels were down-regulated in 9 of the 12 (75%) evaluable patients. This study demonstrates that G3139 can be administered safely with FLAG chemotherapy and down-regulate its target, Bcl-2. The encouraging clinical and laboratory results justify the current plans for a phase 3 study in previously untreated high-risk AML (ie, age at least 60 years).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-06-1899DOI Listing
January 2003