Publications by authors named "Peter J Kahrilas"

233 Publications

Validation of Clinically Relevant Thresholds of Esophagogastric Junction Obstruction Using FLIP Panometry.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago.

Background & Aims: This study aimed to assess the accuracy of functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry to detect esophagogastric junction (EGJ) obstruction assigned by high-resolution manometry (HRM) and the Chicago Classification version 4.0 (CCv4.0).

Methods: Six hundred eighty-seven adult patients who completed FLIP and HRM for primary esophageal motility evaluation and 35 asymptomatic volunteers (controls) were included. EGJ opening was evaluated with 16-cm FLIP during sedated endoscopy via EGJ-distensibility index (DI) and maximum EGJ diameter. HRM was classified according to CCv4.0 and focused on studies with a conclusive disorder of EGJ outflow (ie, achalasia subtypes I, II, or III; or EGJ outflow obstruction with abnormal timed barium esophagogram) or normal EGJ outflow.

Results: All 35 controls had EGJ-DI >3.0 mm/mmHg and maximum EGJ diameter >16 mm. Per HRM and CCv4.0, 245 patients had a conclusive disorder of EGJ outflow, and 314 patients had normal EGJ outflow. Among the 241 patients with reduced EGJ opening (EGJ-DI <2.0 mm/mmHg and maximum EGJ diameter <12 mm) on FLIP panometry, 86% had a conclusive disorder of EGJ outflow per CCv4.0. Among the 203 patients with normal EGJ opening (EGJ-DI ≥2.0 mm/mmHg and maximum EGJ diameter ≥16 mm) on FLIP panometry, 99% had normal EGJ outflow per CCv4.0.

Conclusions: FLIP panometry accurately identified clinically relevant conclusive EGJ obstruction as defined by CCv4.0 in patients evaluated for esophageal motor disorders. Thus, FLIP panometry is a valuable tool for both independent and complementary evaluation of esophageal motility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2021.06.040DOI Listing
June 2021

Validation of secondary peristalsis classification using FLIP panometry in 741 subjects undergoing manometry.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Jun 13:e14192. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background And Aims: This study aimed to systematically evaluate a classification scheme of secondary peristalsis using functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry through comparison with primary peristalsis on high-resolution manometry (HRM).

Methods: 706 adult patients that completed FLIP and HRM for primary esophageal motility evaluation and 35 asymptomatic volunteers ("controls") were included. Secondary peristalsis, that is, contractile responses (CRs), was classified on FLIP panometry by the presence and pattern of contractility as normal (NCR), borderline (BCR), impaired/disordered (IDCR), absent (ACR), or spastic-reactive (SRCR). Primary peristalsis on HRM was assessed according to the Chicago Classification.

Results: All 35 of the controls had antegrade contractions on FLIP panometry with either NCR (89%) or BCR (11%). The average percentages of normal swallows on HRM varied across contractile response patterns from 84% in NCR, 68% in BCR, 39% in IDCR, to 11% in ACR, as did the percentage of failed swallows on HRM: 4% in NCR, 12% in BCR, 36% in IDCR, and 79% in ACR. SRCR on FLIP panometry was observed in 18/57 (32%) patients with type III achalasia, 4/15 (27%) with distal esophageal spasm, and 7/15 (47%) with hypercontractile esophagus on HRM.

Conclusions: The FLIP panometry contractile response patterns reflect a pathophysiologic transition from normal to abnormal esophageal peristaltic function with shared features with primary peristaltic function/dysfunction on HRM. Thus, these patterns of the contractile response to distension can facilitate the evaluation of esophageal motility using FLIP panometry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.14192DOI Listing
June 2021

Umbrella review of 42 systematic reviews with meta-analyses: the safety of proton pump inhibitors.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 07 11;54(2):129-143. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Feinberg School of Medicine at Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat and prevent acid-related disorders. Despite high efficacy, PPI safety has been increasingly scrutinised. However, no comprehensive review summarising investigations of various adverse events is available.

Aims: To perform an umbrella review to comprehensively assess associations between adverse events and PPI use.

Methods: In accordance with PRISMA, an umbrella review of systematic reviews with meta-analyses was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched from 2015 to July 2019. AMSTAR 2 and GRADE were used to assess quality and certainty of evidence. Author-reported quality assessments were also reviewed.

Results: Forty-two systematic reviews with meta-analyses, supported predominantly by observational evidence, were included. The most comprehensive studies reported statistically significant associations with PPI use for several outcomes, including: fractures (eg, hip; RR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.14-1.28; n = 2 103 800), kidney disease (eg, acute kidney injury; RR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.16-2.22; n = 2 396 640), infections (eg, Clostridioides difficile; OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.73-2.30; n = 356 683), gastric cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.74-3.85; n = 943 070) and gastrointestinal events (eg, fundic gland polyps; OR = 2.46; 95% CI = 1.42-4.27; n = 40 218). No associations with non-gastric cancers, or neurological disease were concluded, with conflicting evidence for cardiovascular outcomes. Certainty based on GRADE was very low for most outcomes.

Conclusions: This review identified several published associations between PPIs and adverse outcomes, however, further investigation is needed to understand their clinical significance and the likelihood of causal relationship. If higher quality evidence is generated substantiating the potential risks, it may be necessary for clinicians to consider alternative treatment strategies, especially when PPI efficacy is suboptimal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.16407DOI Listing
July 2021

Development of quality indicators for the diagnosis and management of achalasia.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Mar 15:e14118. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Division of Gastroenterology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: The management of achalasia has improved due to diagnostic and therapeutic innovations. However, variability in care delivery remains and no established measures defining quality of care for this population exist. We aimed to use formal methodology to establish quality indicators for achalasia patients.

Methods: Quality indicator concepts were identified from the literature, consensus guidelines and clinical experts. Using RAND/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method, experts in achalasia independently ranked proposed concepts in a two-round modified Delphi process based on 1) importance, 2) scientific acceptability, 3) usability, and 4) feasibility. Highly valid measures required strict agreement (≧ 80% of panelists) in the range of 7-9 for across all four categories.

Key Results: There were 17 experts who rated 26 proposed quality indicator topics. In round one, 2 (8%) quality measures were rated valid. In round two, 19 measures were modified based on panel suggestions, and experts rated 10 (53%) of these measures as valid, resulting in a total of 12 quality indicators. Two measures pertained to patient education and five to diagnosis, including discussing treatment options with risk and benefits and using the most recent version of the Chicago Classification to define achalasia phenotypes, respectively. Other indicators pertained to treatment options, such as the use of botulinum toxin for those not considered surgical candidates and management of reflux following achalasia treatment.

Conclusions & Inferences: Using a robust methodology, achalasia quality indicators were identified, which can form the basis for establishing quality gaps and generating fully specified quality measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.14118DOI Listing
March 2021

Estimation of mechanical work done to open the esophagogastric junction using functional lumen imaging probe panometry.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 05 3;320(5):G780-G790. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

In this study, we quantify the work done by the esophagus to open the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and create a passage for bolus flow into the stomach. Work done on the EGJ was computed using functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) panometry. Eighty-five individuals underwent FLIP panometry with a 16-cm catheter during sedated endoscopy including asymptomatic controls ( = 14), 45 patients with achalasia ( = 15 each, three subtypes), those with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; = 13), those with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE; = 8), and those with systemic sclerosis (SSc; = 5). Luminal cross-sectional area (CSA) and pressure were measured by the FLIP catheter positioned across the EGJ. Work done on the EGJ (EGJW) was computed (millijoules, mJ) at 40-mL distension. Additionally, a separate method was developed to estimate the "work required" to fully open the EGJ (EGJROW) when it did not open during the procedure. EGJW for controls had a median [interquartile range (IQR)] value of 75 (56-141) mJ. All achalasia subtypes showed low EGJW compared with controls ( < 0.001). Subjects with GERD and EoE had EGJW 54.1 (6.9-96.3) and 65.9 (10.8-102.3) mJ, similar to controls ( < 0.08 and < 0.4, respectively). The scleroderma group showed low values of EGJW, 12 mJ ( < 0.001). For patients with achalasia, EGJROW was the greatest and had a value of 210.4 (115.2-375.4) mJ. Disease groups with minimal or absent EGJ opening showed low values of EGJW. For patients with achalasia, EGJROW significantly exceeded EGJW values of all other groups, highlighting its unique pathophysiology. Balancing the relationship between EGJW and EGJROW is potentially useful for calibrating achalasia treatments and evaluating treatment response. Changes in pressure and diameter occur at the EGJ during esophageal emptying. Similar changes can be observed during FLIP panometry. Data from healthy and diseased individuals were used to estimate the mechanical work done on the EGJ during distension-induced relaxation or, in instances of failed opening, work required to open the EGJ. Quantifying these parameters is potentially valuable to calibrate treatments and gauge treatment efficacy for subjects with disorders of EGJ function, especially achalasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00032.2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8202198PMC
May 2021

Chicago Classification update (v4.0): Technical review of high-resolution manometry metrics for EGJ barrier function.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 Mar 2:e14113. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, California, USA.

Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) barrier function is of fundamental importance in the pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Impaired EGJ barrier function leads to excessive distal esophageal acid exposure or, in severe cases, esophagitis. Hence, proposed high-resolution manometry (HRM) metrics assessing EGJ integrity are clinically important and were a focus of the Chicago Classification (CC) working group for inclusion in CC v4.0. However, the EGJ is a complex sphincter comprised of both crural diaphragm (CD) and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) component, each of which is subject to independent physiological control mechanisms and pathophysiology. No single metric can capture all attributes of EGJ barrier function. The working group considered several potential metrics of EGJ integrity including LES-CD separation, the EGJ contractile integral (EGJ-CI), the respiratory inversion point (RIP), and intragastric pressure. Strong recommendations were made regarding LES-CD separation as indicative of hiatus hernia, although the numerical threshold for defining hiatal hernia was not agreed upon. There was no agreement on the significance of the RIP, only that it could localize either above the LES or between the LES and CD in cases of hiatus hernia. There was agreement on how to measure the EGJ-CI and that it should be referenced to gastric pressure in units of mmHg cm, but the numerical threshold indicative of a hypotensive EGJ varied widely among reports and was not agreed upon. Intragastric pressure was endorsed as an important metric worthy of further study but there was no agreement on a numerical threshold indicative of abdominal obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.14113DOI Listing
March 2021

Mechanics informed fluoroscopy of esophageal transport.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2021 Jun 2;20(3):925-940. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL, 60208, USA.

Fluoroscopy is a radiographic procedure for evaluating esophageal disorders such as achalasia, dysphasia and gastroesophageal reflux disease. It performs dynamic imaging of the swallowing process and provides anatomical detail and a qualitative idea of how well swallowed fluid is transported through the esophagus. In this work, we present a method called mechanics informed fluoroscopy (FluoroMech) that derives patient-specific quantitative information about esophageal function. FluoroMech uses a convolutional neural network to perform segmentation of image sequences generated from the fluoroscopy, and the segmented images become input to a one-dimensional model that predicts the flow rate and pressure distribution in fluid transported through the esophagus. We have extended this model to identify and estimate potential physiomarkers such as esophageal wall stiffness and active relaxation ahead of the peristaltic wave in the esophageal musculature. FluoroMech requires minimal computational time and hence can potentially be applied clinically in the diagnosis of esophageal disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10237-021-01420-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159889PMC
June 2021

Pumping Patterns and Work Done During Peristalsis in Finite-Length Elastic Tubes.

J Biomech Eng 2021 Jul;143(7)

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208.

Balloon dilation catheters are often used to quantify the physiological state of peristaltic activity in tubular organs and comment on their ability to propel fluid which is important for healthy human function. To fully understand this system's behavior, we analyzed the effect of a solitary peristaltic wave on a fluid-filled elastic tube with closed ends. A reduced order model that predicts the resulting tube wall deformations, flow velocities, and pressure variations is presented. This simplified model is compared with detailed fluid-structure three-dimensional (3D) immersed boundary (IB) simulations of peristaltic pumping in tube walls made of hyperelastic material. The major dynamics observed in the 3D simulations were also displayed by our one-dimensional (1D) model under laminar flow conditions. Using the 1D model, several pumping regimes were investigated and presented in the form of a regime map that summarizes the system's response for a range of physiological conditions. Finally, the amount of work done during a peristaltic event in this configuration was defined and quantified. The variation of elastic energy and work done during pumping was found to have a unique signature for each regime. An extension of the 1D model is applied to enhance patient data collected by the device and find the work done for a typical esophageal peristaltic wave. This detailed characterization of the system's behavior aids in better interpreting the clinical data obtained from dilation catheters. Additionally, the pumping capacity of the esophagus can be quantified for comparative studies between disease groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.4050284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086188PMC
July 2021

Esophageal motility disorders on high-resolution manometry: Chicago classification version 4.0.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 01;33(1):e14058

Department of Gastroenterology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Chicago Classification v4.0 (CCv4.0) is the updated classification scheme for esophageal motility disorders using metrics from high-resolution manometry (HRM). Fifty-two diverse international experts separated into seven working subgroups utilized formal validated methodologies over two-years to develop CCv4.0. Key updates in CCv.4.0 consist of a more rigorous and expansive HRM protocol that incorporates supine and upright test positions as well as provocative testing, a refined definition of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction (EGJOO), more stringent diagnostic criteria for ineffective esophageal motility and description of baseline EGJ metrics. Further, the CCv4.0 sought to define motility disorder diagnoses as conclusive and inconclusive based on associated symptoms, and findings on provocative testing as well as supportive testing with barium esophagram with tablet and/or functional lumen imaging probe. These changes attempt to minimize ambiguity in prior iterations of Chicago Classification and provide more standardized and rigorous criteria for patterns of disorders of peristalsis and obstruction at the EGJ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.14058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034247PMC
January 2021

ESNM/ANMS consensus paper: Diagnosis and management of refractory gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 04 28;33(4):e14075. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Division of Gastroenterology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Up to 40% of patients with symptoms suspicious of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) do not respond completely to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. The term "refractory GERD" has been used loosely in the literature. A distinction should be made between refractory symptoms (ie, symptoms may or may not be GERD-related), refractory GERD symptoms (ie, persisting symptoms in patients with proven GERD, regardless of relationship to ongoing reflux), and refractory GERD (ie, objective evidence of GERD despite adequate medical management). The present ESNM/ANMS consensus paper proposes use the term "refractory GERD symptoms" only in patients with persisting symptoms and previously proven GERD by either endoscopy or esophageal pH monitoring. Even in this context, symptoms may or may not be reflux related. Objective evaluation, including endoscopy and esophageal physiologic testing, is requisite to provide insights into mechanisms of symptom generation and evidence of true refractory GERD. Some patients may have true ongoing refractory acid or weakly acidic reflux despite PPIs, while others have no evidence of ongoing reflux, and yet others have functional esophageal disorders (overlapping with proven GERD confirmed off therapy). In this context, attention should also be paid to supragastric belching and rumination syndrome, which may be important contributors to refractory symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.14075DOI Listing
April 2021

What is new in Chicago Classification version 4.0?

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 01 19;33(1):e14053. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Since publication of Chicago Classification version 3.0 in 2015, the clinical and research applications of high-resolution manometry (HRM) have expanded. In order to update the Chicago Classification, an International HRM Working Group consisting of 52 diverse experts worked for two years and utilized formally validated methodologies. Compared with the prior iteration, there are four key modifications in Chicago Classification version 4.0 (CCv4.0). First, further manometric and non-manometric evaluation is required to arrive at a conclusive, actionable diagnosis of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) outflow obstruction (EGJOO). Second, EGJOO, distal esophageal spasm, and hypercontractile esophagus are three manometric patterns that must be accompanied by obstructive esophageal symptoms of dysphagia and/or non-cardiac chest pain to be considered clinically relevant. Third, the standardized manometric protocol should ideally include supine and upright positions as well as additional manometric maneuvers such as the multiple rapid swallows and rapid drink challenge. Solid test swallows, postprandial testing, and pharmacologic provocation can also be considered for particular conditions. Finally, the definition of ineffective esophageal motility is more stringent and now encompasses fragmented peristalsis. Hence, CCv4.0 no longer distinguishes between major versus minor motility disorders but simply separates disorders of EGJ outflow from disorders of peristalsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.14053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098672PMC
January 2021

Advances in the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

BMJ 2020 11 23;371:m3786. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Chicago, IL USA

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a multifaceted disorder encompassing a family of syndromes attributable to, or exacerbated by, gastroesophageal reflux that impart morbidity, mainly through troublesome symptoms. Major GERD phenotypes are non-erosive reflux disease, GERD hypersensitivity, low or high grade esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, reflux chest pain, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and regurgitation dominant reflux. GERD is common throughout the world, and its epidemiology is linked to the Western lifestyle, obesity, and the demise of Because of its prevalence and chronicity, GERD is a substantial economic burden measured in physician visits, diagnostics, cancer surveillance protocols, and therapeutics. An individual with typical symptoms has a fivefold risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma, but mortality from GERD is otherwise rare. The principles of management are to provide symptomatic relief and to minimize potential health risks through some combination of lifestyle modifications, diagnostic testing, pharmaceuticals (mainly to suppress or counteract gastric acid secretion), and surgery. However, it is usually a chronic recurring condition and management needs to be personalized to each case. While escalating proton pump inhibitor therapy may be pertinent to healing high grade esophagitis, its applicability to other GERD phenotypes wherein the modulating effects of anxiety, motility, hypersensitivity, and non-esophageal factors may dominate is highly questionable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3786DOI Listing
November 2020

Four-dimensional impedance manometry derived from esophageal high-resolution impedance-manometry studies: a novel analysis paradigm.

Therap Adv Gastroenterol 2020 24;13:1756284820969050. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: This study aimed to introduce a novel analysis paradigm, referred to as 4-dimensional (4D) manometry based on biophysical analysis; 4D manometry enables the visualization of luminal geometry of the esophagus and esophagogastric junction (EGJ) using high-resolution-impedance-manometry (HRIM) data.

Methods: HRIM studies from two asymptomatic controls and one type-I achalasia patient were analyzed. Concomitant fluoroscopy images from one control subject were used to validate the calculated temporal-spatial luminal radius and time-history of intraluminal bolus volume and movement. EGJ analysis computed diameter threshold for emptying, emptying time, flow rate, and distensibility index (DI), which were compared with bolus flow time (BFT) analysis.

Results: For normal control, calculated volumes for 5 ml swallows were 4.1 ml-6.7 ml; for 30 ml swallows 21.3 ml-21.8 ml. With type-I achalasia, >4 ml of intraesophageal bolus residual was present both pre- and post-swallow. The four phases of bolus transit were clearly illustrated on the time-history of bolus movement, correlating well with the fluoroscopic images. In the control subjects, the EGJ diameter threshold for emptying was 8 mm for 5 ml swallows and 10 mm for 30 ml swallows; emptying time was 1.2-2.2 s for 5 ml swallows (BFT was 0.3-3 s) and 3.25-3.75 s for 30 ml swallows; DI was 2.4-3.4 mm/mmHg for 5 ml swallows and 4.2-4.6 mm/mmHg for 30 ml swallows.

Conclusions: The 4D manometry system facilitates a comprehensive characterization of dynamic esophageal bolus transit with concurrent luminal morphology and pressure from conventional HRIM measurements. Calculations of flow rate and wall distensibility provide novel measures of EGJ functionality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756284820969050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592175PMC
October 2020

Assessment of esophageal body peristaltic work using functional lumen imaging probe panometry.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2021 02 11;320(2):G217-G226. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.

The goal of this study was to conceptualize and compute measures of "mechanical work" done by the esophagus using data generated during functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) panometry and compare work done during secondary peristalsis among patients and controls. Eighty-five individuals were evaluated with a 16-cm FLIP during sedated endoscopy, including asymptomatic controls ( = 14) and those with achalasia subtypes I, II, and III ( = 15, each); gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD; = 13); eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE; = 9); and systemic sclerosis (SSc; = 5). The FLIP catheter was positioned to have its distal segment straddling the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) during stepwise distension. Two metrics of work were assessed: "active work" (during bag volumes ≤ 40 mL where contractility generates substantial changes in lumen area) and "work capacity" (for bag volumes ≥ 60 mL when contractility cannot substantially alter the lumen area). Controls showed median [interquartile range (IQR)] of 7.3 (3.6-9.2) mJ of active work and 268.6 (225.2-332.3) mJ of work capacity. Patients with all achalasia subtypes, GERD, and SSc showed lower active work done than controls ( ≤ 0.003). Patients with achalasia subtypes I and II, GERD, and SSc had lower work capacity compared with controls ( < 0.001, 0.004, 0.04, and 0.001, respectively). Work capacity was similar between controls and patients with achalasia type III and EoE. Mechanical work of the esophagus differs between healthy controls and patient groups with achalasia, EoE, SSc, and GERD. Further studies are needed to fully explore the utility of this approach, but these work metrics would be valuable for device design (artificial esophagus), to measure the efficacy of peristalsis, to gauge the physiological state of the esophagus, and to comment on its pumping effectiveness. Functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) panometry assesses esophageal response to distension and provides a simultaneous assessment of pressure and dimension during contractility. This enables an objective assessment of "mechanical work" done by the esophagus. Eighty-five individuals were evaluated, and two work metrics were computed for each subject. Controls showed greater values of work compared with individuals with achalasia, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and systemic sclerosis (SSc). These values can quantify the mechanical behavior of the distal esophagus and assist in the estimation of muscular integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00324.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948118PMC
February 2021

Editorial: alginates-navigating beyond the 'raft' and acid pocket.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 09;52(6):1071-1072

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15970DOI Listing
September 2020

Repetitive Antegrade Contractions: A novel response to sustained esophageal distension is modulated by cholinergic influence.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2020 Oct 7. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Gastroenterology, Northwestern University, United States.

Background & Aims: A unique motor response to sustained esophageal distension, repetitive antegrade contractions (RACs), is observed using functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry. However, physiologic mechanisms related to this response are unexplored. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cholinergic inhibition with atropine on the esophageal contractile response to sustained distention, including RACs, among healthy volunteers.

Methods: 8 asymptomatic volunteers (ages 22-45) were evaluated in a crossover study design with 16-cm FLIP positioned across the esophagogastric junction and distal esophagus during sedated upper endoscopy. The FLIP study involving stepwise volumetric distension was performed twice in each subject, at baseline and again after atropine (15 mcg/kg) was administered intravenously. FLIP panometry was analyzed to assess the contractile response to distension.

Results: Antegrade contractions, lumen-occluding contractions, and a RAC pattern were observed in 8/8, 8/8, and 7/8(88%) subjects, respectively, at baseline and in 5/8 (63%), 2/8 (25%) and 2/8 (25%) subjects after atropine. The rate of contractions in the RAC pattern was similar (6-7 contractions per minute) before and after atropine. Compared with the baseline study, distension-induced contractility was triggered at higher fill volumes after atropine. FLIP pressures were lower in response to volumetric filling after atropine than at baseline.

Conclusions: The vigor and triggering of the esophageal contractile response to distension is reduced by cholinergic inhibition in asymptomatic controls. The observation that the rate of contractions did not change when patients developed repetitive contractile responses suggests that this rate is not modified by cholinergic inhibition once contractility is triggered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00305.2020DOI Listing
October 2020

Ambulatory Reflux Monitoring Guides Proton Pump Inhibitor Discontinuation in Patients With Gastroesophageal Reflux Symptoms: A Clinical Trial.

Gastroenterology 2021 01 16;160(1):174-182.e1. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Division of Gastroenterology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy fails to provide adequate symptom control in up to 50% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Although a proportion do not require ongoing PPI therapy, a diagnostic approach to identify candidates appropriate for PPI cessation is not available. This study aimed to examine the clinical utility of prolonged wireless reflux monitoring to predict the ability to discontinue PPIs.

Methods: This double-blinded clinical trial performed over 3 years at 2 centers enrolled adults with troublesome esophageal symptoms of heartburn, regurgitation, and/or chest pain and inadequate PPI response. Participants underwent prolonged wireless reflux monitoring (off PPIs for ≥7 days) and a 3-week PPI cessation intervention. Primary outcome was tolerance of PPI cessation (discontinued or resumed PPIs). Symptom burden was quantified using the Reflux Symptom Questionnaire electronic Diary (RESQ-eD).

Results: Of 128 enrolled, 100 participants met inclusion criteria (mean age, 48.6 years; 41 men). Thirty-four participants (34%) discontinued PPIs. The strongest predictor of PPI discontinuation was number of days with acid exposure time (AET) > 4.0% (odds ratio, 1.82; P < .001). Participants with 0 days of AET > 4.0% had a 10 times increased odds of discontinuing PPI than participants with 4 days of AET > 4.0%. Reduction in symptom burden was greater among the discontinued versus resumed PPI group (RESQ-eD, -43.7% vs -5.3%; P = .04).

Conclusions: Among patients with typical reflux symptoms, inadequate PPI response, and absence of severe esophagitis, acid exposure on reflux monitoring predicted the ability to discontinue PPIs without symptom escalation. Upfront reflux monitoring off acid suppression can limit unnecessary PPI use and guide personalized management. (ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: NCT03202537).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.09.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755671PMC
January 2021

Blown-out myotomy: an adverse event of laparoscopic Heller myotomy and peroral endoscopic myotomy for achalasia.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 04 25;93(4):861-868.e1. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background And Aims: Although laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) or peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is highly effective, 10% to 20% of patients with achalasia remain symptomatic after treatment. In evaluating such patients, we have observed a pattern of failure associated with a pseudodiverticulum, or blown-out myotomy (BOM), in the distal esophagus. We aimed to assess risk factors and patient-reported outcomes associated with a BOM.

Methods: We reviewed our manometry database for patients with achalasia previously treated with LHM or POEM. We included patients who had a post-treatment esophagram within 1 year of their follow-up manometry. A BOM was defined radiographically as a wide-mouthed outpouching (>50% increase in esophageal diameter) in the area of the myotomy.

Results: One hundred twenty-nine patients with achalasia who underwent treatment were included; 23 (17.8%) had a BOM. Comparing patients with a BOM with those without, post-treatment Eckardt scores were significantly greater (5 vs 2, P = .002), type III achalasia was more common (39.1% vs 14.2%, P = .005), and LHM was more common than POEM (73.9% vs 26.1%, P = .013). The integrated relaxation pressure was also significantly greater in the BOM group (15.0 mm Hg vs 11.0 mm Hg, P = .025).

Conclusions: BOM is a common adverse event after myotomy for achalasia but is not seen after pneumatic dilation. Pretreatment type III achalasia, LHM as opposed to POEM, and a greater post-treatment integrated relaxation pressure were risk factors for developing a BOM. We speculate that esophageal wall strain in the area weakened by myotomy, whether from residual spastic contractility or continued esophageal outflow obstruction, may be the underlying mechanism of BOM development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2020.07.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855725PMC
April 2021

Regurgitation matters.

Authors:
Peter J Kahrilas

Gut 2021 Mar 21;70(3):445-446. Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Medicine, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321786DOI Listing
March 2021

Achalasia subtypes can be identified with functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry using a supervised machine learning process.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2021 03 1;33(3):e13932. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Background: Achalasia subtypes on high-resolution manometry (HRM) prognosticate treatment response and help direct management plan. We aimed to utilize parameters of distension-induced contractility and pressurization on functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry and machine learning to predict HRM achalasia subtypes.

Methods: One hundred eighty adult patients with treatment-naïve achalasia defined by HRM per Chicago Classification (40 type I, 99 type II, 41 type III achalasia) who underwent FLIP panometry were included: 140 patients were used as the training cohort and 40 patients as the test cohort. FLIP panometry studies performed with 16-cm FLIP assemblies were retrospectively analyzed to assess distensive pressure and distension-induced esophageal contractility. Correlation analysis, single tree, and random forest were adopted to develop classification trees to identify achalasia subtypes.

Key Results: Intra-balloon pressure at 60 mL fill volume, and proportions of patients with absent contractile response, repetitive retrograde contractile pattern, occluding contractions, sustained occluding contractions (SOC), contraction-associated pressure changes >10 mm Hg all differed between HRM achalasia subtypes and were used to build the decision tree-based classification model. The model identified spastic (type III) vs non-spastic (types I and II) achalasia with 90% and 78% accuracy in the train and test cohorts, respectively. Achalasia subtypes I, II, and III were identified with 71% and 55% accuracy in the train and test cohorts, respectively.

Conclusions And Inferences: Using a supervised machine learning process, a preliminary model was developed that distinguished type III achalasia from non-spastic achalasia with FLIP panometry. Further refinement of the measurements and more experience (data) may improve its ability for clinically relevant application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775338PMC
March 2021

Esophagogastric Junction Opening Parameters Are Consistently Abnormal in Untreated Achalasia.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 11;19(5):1058-1060.e1. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Achalasia is a disorder of impaired lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and failed peristalsis traditionally characterized by manometry. As impaired LES relaxation is a mechanism of reduced esophagogastric junction (EGJ) opening, abnormally reduced EGJ distensibility assessed with functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) was reported among patients with untreated achalasia. Therefore, we aimed to describe the performance characteristics of EGJ opening parameters on FLIP panometry among a large cohort of treatment-naïve achalasia patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.03.069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554071PMC
May 2021

Editorial: upright manometry-a lot more to swallow.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 05;51(9):913-914

Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15690DOI Listing
May 2020

Normal Functional Luminal Imaging Probe Panometry Findings Associate With Lack of Major Esophageal Motility Disorder on High-Resolution Manometry.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 02 20;19(2):259-268.e1. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: A normal esophageal response to distension on functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry during endoscopy might indicate normal esophageal motor function. We aimed to investigate the correlation of normal FLIP panometry findings with esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM) and outcomes of discrepant patients.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study using data from a registry of patients who completed FLIP during sedated endoscopy. We identified 111 patients with normal FLIP panometry findings (mean age, 42 y; 69% female) and corresponding HRM data. A normal FLIP panometry was defined as an esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility index greater than 3.0 mm/mm Hg, an absence of repetitive retrograde contractions, and a repetitive antegrade contraction pattern that met the Rule-of-6s: ≥6 consecutive antegrade contractions of ≥6-cm in length, at a rate of 6 ± 3 contractions per minute. HRM findings were classified by the Chicago classification system version 3.0.

Results: HRM results were classified as normal motility in 78 patients (70%), ineffective esophageal motility in 10 patients (9%), EGJ outflow obstruction in 20 patients (18%), and 3 patients (3%) as other. In patients with EGJ outflow obstruction based on HRM, the integrated relaxation pressure normalized on adjunctive swallows in 16 of 20 patients (80%), and in 8 of 9 patients (88%) who completed a barium esophagram and had normal barium clearance. Thus, although 23 of 111 patients (21%) with normal FLIP panometry had abnormal HRM findings, these HRMs often were considered to be false-positive or equivocal results. All patients with an abnormal result from HRM were treated conservatively.

Conclusions: In a retrospective cohort study, we found that patients with normal FLIP panometry results did not have a clinical impression of a major esophageal motor disorder. Normal FLIP panometry results can exclude esophageal motility disorders at the time of endoscopy, possibly negating the need for HRM in select patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.03.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7502471PMC
February 2021

Esophageal Hypervigilance and Visceral Anxiety Are Contributors to Symptom Severity Among Patients Evaluated With High-Resolution Esophageal Manometry.

Am J Gastroenterol 2020 03;115(3):367-375

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Objectives: Symptoms are inconsistently associated with esophageal motor findings on high-resolution manometry (HRM). We aimed to evaluate predictors of dysphagia severity, including esophageal hypervigilance and visceral anxiety, among patients evaluated with HRM.

Methods: Adult patients undergoing HRM at 4 academic medical centers (United States and France) were prospectively evaluated. HRM was completed and analyzed per the Chicago Classification v3.0. Validated symptom scores, including the Brief Esophageal Dysphagia Questionnaire and Esophageal Hypervigilance and Anxiety Scale, were completed at the time of HRM.

Results: Two hundred thirty-six patients, aged 18-85 (mean 53) years, 65% female, were included. Approximately 59 (25%) patients had a major motor disorder on HRM: 19 achalasia, 24 esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction, 12 absent contractility, and 4 jackhammer. Approximately 177 (75%) patients did not have a major motor disorder: 71 ineffective esophageal motility and 106 normal motility. Having a major motor disorder was a significant predictor of dysphagia severity (Radj = 0.049, P < 0.001), but the Esophageal Hypervigilance and Anxiety Scale score carried a predictive relationship of Brief Esophageal Dysphagia Questionnaire that was 2-fold higher than having a major motor disorder: Radj = 0.118 (P < 0.001). This finding remained when evaluated by the major motor disorder group. HRM metrics were nonsignificant.

Discussion: In a prospective, international multicenter study, we found that esophageal hypervigilance and visceral anxiety were the strongest predictors of dysphagia severity among patients evaluated with HRM. Thus, an assessment of esophageal hypervigilance and visceral anxiety is important to incorporate when evaluating symptom severity in clinical practice and research studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071929PMC
March 2020

Functional Luminal Imaging Probe Panometry Identifies Achalasia-Type Esophagogastric Junction Outflow Obstruction.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 09 25;18(10):2209-2217. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

Background & Aims: The etiologies of esophagogastric junction outflow obstruction (EGJOO) vary, as do their therapeutic implications. We aimed to identify patients with EGJOO most likely to benefit from achalasia-type treatment, based on findings from functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry.

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 34 patients who received a diagnosis of EGJOO from January 2015 through July 2017. Our analysis included patients who had been evaluated with timed barium esophagram, FLIP, or upper endoscopy.

Results: Among the 34 patients with idiopathic EGJOO, 7 (21%) had a normal esophagogastric junction distensibility index (EGJ-DI), based on FLIP panometry, and all had repetitive antegrade contractions. None of the patients had radiographic evidence of EGJOO (RAD-EGJOO), defined as liquid barium retention and/or barium tablet impaction. On the other hand, all 18 patients with RAD-EGJOO had an EGJ-DI less than 2 mm/mm Hg. Nine of the 18 patients with RAD-EGJOO and EGJ-DI less than 2 mm/mm Hg underwent achalasia-type treatment, and 77.8% of these (7 of 9) had improvements in Eckardt score. Of the 6 patients with a normal EGJ-DI (>3 mm/mm Hg) who were treated conservatively and followed up, 100% had improvements in subsequent Eckardt scores.

Conclusions: We found that FLIP is useful in identifying patients with EGJOO who are most likely to benefit from achalasia-type therapy. Patients with a low EGJ-DI responded well to achalasia-type treatment, whereas patients with normal results from FLIP panometry had good outcomes from conservative management. FLIP panometry might help select management strategies for this difficult population of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2019.11.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246143PMC
September 2020

How I Approach Dysphagia.

Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2019 Aug 20;21(10):49. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, 676 St Clair St, 14th floor, Chicago, IL, 60611-2951, USA.

Purpose Of Review: This review presents an overview of the diagnostic approach to esophageal dysphagia and summarizes recent epidemiological trends and technical advancements.

Recent Findings: The evaluation of dysphagia begins with a detailed history followed by endoscopy to evaluate for any structural abnormalities including malignancy. This is especially true given the emergence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) as a dominant cause of esophageal dysphagia. In fact, it is now standard practice to obtain esophageal biopsies during endoscopy performed to evaluate dysphagia, since EoE can present without the characteristic mucosal features of rings, furrows, and exudate. Achalasia is also more frequently encountered since the introduction of high-resolution manometry (HRM) and the Chicago Classification into clinical practice. The Chicago Classification provides a stepwise diagnostic algorithm for evaluating HRM studies and systematically diagnosing esophageal motility disorders. Lastly, the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) is a novel technology that has added insight into both achalasia and EoE. Measuring esophageal distensibility with FLIP has useful prognostic implications for both diseases, and FLIP can identify motility abnormalities in achalasics not detected with HRM. A careful history is key to the efficient evaluation of dysphagia, and endoscopy is usually the first diagnostic study to obtain. For patients with prominent reflux symptoms, an empiric trial with proton pump inhibitors is reasonable then because reflux disease is such a common cause of dysphagia. Thereafter, patients should undergo HRM to evaluate for a motility disorder, and FLIP can provide complementary data to guide management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11894-019-0718-1DOI Listing
August 2019

Phenotypes of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Where Rome, Lyon, and Montreal Meet.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 04 15;18(4):767-776. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is now one of the most common diagnoses made in a gastroenterology practice. From a conventional pathophysiological perspective, GERD is conceptualized as incompetence of the antireflux barrier at the esophagogastric junction; the more severe that incompetence, the worse the disease. However, it is increasingly clear that many presentations of GERD represent distinct phenotypes with unique predisposing cofactors and pathophysiology outside of this paradigm. Three major consensus initiatives have grappled with this dilemma (the Montreal Consensus, The Rome Foundation, and the Lyon Consensus), each from a different perspective. Montreal struggled to define the disease, Rome sought to characterize its functional attributes, while Lyon examined its physiological attributes. Here, we merge the 3 perspectives, developing the concept that what has come to be known as GERD is actually a family of syndromes with a complex matrix of contributing pathophysiology. A corollary to this is that the concept of one size fits all to therapeutics does not apply, and that although escalating treatment with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may be pertinent to healing esophagitis, its applicability beyond that is highly questionable. Similarly, failing to recognize the modulating effects of anxiety, hypervigilance, and visceral and central hypersensitivity on symptom severity has greatly oversimplified the problem. That oversimplification has led to excessive use of PPIs for everything captured under the GERD umbrella and shown a broad spectrum of syndromes less amenable to PPI therapy in any dose. It is with this in mind that we delineate this precision medicine concept of GERD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2019.07.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960363PMC
April 2020

Effect of Peroral Endoscopic Myotomy vs Pneumatic Dilation on Symptom Severity and Treatment Outcomes Among Treatment-Naive Patients With Achalasia: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2019 07;322(2):134-144

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Case series suggest favorable results of peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for treatment of patients with achalasia. Data comparing POEM with pneumatic dilation, the standard treatment for patients with achalasia, are lacking.

Objective: To compare the effects of POEM vs pneumatic dilation as initial treatment of treatment-naive patients with achalasia.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This randomized multicenter clinical trial was conducted at 6 hospitals in the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Hong Kong, and the United States. Adult patients with newly diagnosed achalasia and an Eckardt score greater than 3 who had not undergone previous treatment were included. The study was conducted between September 2012 and July 2015, the duration of follow-up was 2 years after the initial treatment, and the final date of follow-up was November 22, 2017.

Interventions: Randomization to receive POEM (n = 67) or pneumatic dilation with a 30-mm and a 35-mm balloon (n = 66), with stratification according to hospital.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was treatment success (defined as an Eckardt score ≤3 and the absence of severe complications or re-treatment) at the 2-year follow-up. A total of 14 secondary end points were examined among patients without treatment failure, including integrated relaxation pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter via high-resolution manometry, barium column height on timed barium esophagogram, and presence of reflux esophagitis.

Results: Of the 133 randomized patients, 130 (mean age, 48.6 years; 73 [56%] men) underwent treatment (64 in the POEM group and 66 in the pneumatic dilation group) and 126 (95%) completed the study. The primary outcome of treatment success occurred in 58 of 63 patients (92%) in the POEM group vs 34 of 63 (54%) in the pneumatic dilation group, a difference of 38% ([95% CI, 22%-52%]; P < .001). Of the 14 prespecified secondary end points, no significant difference between groups was demonstrated in 10 end points. There was no significant between-group difference in median integrated relaxation pressure (9.9 mm Hg in the POEM group vs 12.6 mm Hg in the pneumatic dilation group; difference, 2.7 mm Hg [95% CI, -2.1 to 7.5]; P = .07) or median barium column height (2.3 cm in the POEM group vs 0 cm in the pneumatic dilation group; difference, 2.3 cm [95% CI, 1.0-3.6]; P = .05). Reflux esophagitis occurred more often in the POEM group than in the pneumatic dilation group (22 of 54 [41%] vs 2 of 29 [7%]; difference, 34% [95% CI, 12%-49%]; P = .002). Two serious adverse events, including 1 perforation, occurred after pneumatic dilation, while no serious adverse events occurred after POEM.

Conclusions And Relevance: Among treatment-naive patients with achalasia, treatment with POEM compared with pneumatic dilation resulted in a significantly higher treatment success rate at 2 years. These findings support consideration of POEM as an initial treatment option for patients with achalasia.

Trial Registration: Netherlands Trial Register number: NTR3593.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.8859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6618792PMC
July 2019

Esophageal motility classification can be established at the time of endoscopy: a study evaluating real-time functional luminal imaging probe panometry.

Gastrointest Endosc 2019 12 4;90(6):915-923.e1. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background And Aims: A novel device that provides real-time depiction of functional luminal image probe (FLIP) panometry (ie, esophagogastric junction [EGJ] distensibility and distension-induced contractility) was evaluated. We aimed to compare real-time FLIP panometry interpretation at the time of sedated endoscopy with high-resolution manometry (HRM) in evaluating esophageal motility.

Methods: Forty consecutive patients (aged 24-81 years; 60% women) referred for endoscopy with a plan for future HRM from 2 centers were prospectively evaluated with real-time FLIP panometry during sedated upper endoscopy. The EGJ distensibility index and contractility profile were applied to derive a FLIP panometry classification at the time of endoscopy and again (post-hoc) using a customized program. HRM was classified according to the Chicago classification.

Results: Real-time FLIP panometry motility classification was abnormal in 29 patients (73%), 19 (66%) of whom had a subsequent major motility disorder on HRM. All 9 patients with an HRM diagnosis of achalasia had abnormal real-time FLIP panometry classifications. Eleven patients (33%) had normal motility on real-time FLIP panometry and 8 (73%) had a subsequent HRM without a major motility disorder. There was excellent agreement (κ = .939) between real-time and post-hoc FLIP panometry interpretation of abnormal motility.

Conclusions: This prospective, multicentered study demonstrated that real-time FLIP panometry could detect abnormal esophageal motility, including achalasia, at the endoscopic encounter. Additionally, normal motility on FLIP panometry was predictive of a benign HRM. Thus, real-time FLIP panometry incorporated with endoscopy appears to provide a suitable and well-tolerated point-of-care esophageal motility assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2019.06.039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6875629PMC
December 2019

Editorial: gastric bypass for GERD in class II & III obesity-still the best option?

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2019 06;49(12):1535-1536

Department of Medicine, The Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.15295DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039688PMC
June 2019
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