Publications by authors named "Peter Hillmen"

193 Publications

Pooled analysis of safety data from clinical trials evaluating acalabrutinib monotherapy in mature B-cell malignancies.

Leukemia 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Willamette Valley Cancer Institute/US Oncology, Eugene, OR, USA.

Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition is an effective therapy for many B-cell malignancies. Acalabrutinib is a next-generation, potent, highly selective, covalent BTK inhibitor. To characterize acalabrutinib tolerability, we pooled safety data from 1040 patients with mature B-cell malignancies treated with acalabrutinib monotherapy in nine clinical studies (treatment-naïve: n = 366 [35%], relapsed/refractory: n = 674 [65%]; median [range] age: 67 [32-90] years; median [range] prior treatments: 1 [0-13]; median [range] duration of exposure: 24.6 [0.0-58.5] months). The most common adverse events (AEs) were headache (38%), diarrhea (37%), upper respiratory tract infection (22%), contusion (22%), nausea (22%), fatigue (21%), and cough (21%). Serious AEs (SAEs) occurred in 39% of patients; pneumonia (6%) was the only SAE that occurred in ≥2%. Deaths due to AEs occurred in 52 patients (5%); pneumonia (n = 8) was the only fatal AE to occur in ≥3 patients. AEs led to treatment discontinuation in 9%. Rates for the AEs of interest (all grades) included infections (67%), hemorrhages (46%), neutropenia (16%), anemia (14%), second primary malignancies (12%), thrombocytopenia (9%), hypertension (8%), and atrial fibrillation (4%). This pooled analysis confirmed acalabrutinib's tolerability and identified no newly emerging late toxicities, supporting acalabrutinib as a long-term treatment for patients with mature B-cell malignancies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01252-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Acalabrutinib in Treatment-Naïve Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Blood 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States.

Acalabrutinib has demonstrated significant efficacy and safety in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The efficacy and safety of acalabrutinib monotherapy was evaluated in a treatment-naïve CLL cohort of a single-arm phase 1/2 clinical trial (ACE-CL-001). Adults were eligible for enrollment if chemotherapy was declined or deemed inappropriate due to comorbidities (N = 99). Patient demographics included a median age of 64 years and 47% with Rai stage III/IV disease. Acalabrutinib was administered orally either 200 mg once daily (QD) or 100 mg twice daily (BID) until progression or intolerance. A total of 99 patients were treated; 57 (62%) had unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene (IGHV), and 12 (18%) had TP53 aberrations. After a median follow-up of 53 months, 85 patients remain on treatment; 14 patients discontinued treatment, mostly due to adverse events (AEs) (n = 6) or disease progression (n = 3). Overall response rate was 97% (90% partial response; 7% complete response), with similar outcomes among all prognostic subgroups. Due to improved trough BTK occupancy with BID dosing, all patients were transitioned to 100 mg BID. The median duration of response (DOR) was not reached; the 48-month DOR rate was 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90%, 99%). Serious AEs were reported in 38 patients (38%). AEs required discontinuation in 6 patients (6%) due to second primary cancers (n = 4) and infection (n = 2). Grade ≥3 events of special interest included infection (15%), hypertension (11%), bleeding events (3%), and atrial fibrillation (2%). The durable efficacy and long-term safety of acalabrutinib in this trial provide support for its use in clinical management of symptomatic, untreated CLL patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020009617DOI Listing
March 2021

Pegcetacoplan versus Eculizumab in Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria.

N Engl J Med 2021 03;384(11):1028-1037

From the Department of Haematology, St. James's University Hospital, Leeds (P.H., M.G.), and Lisa Tan Pharma Consulting, Cambridge (L.T.) - both in the United Kingdom; the Department of Clinical Haematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Center and Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia (J.S.); Jane Anne Nohl Division of Hematology, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles (I.W.); the Department of Hematology, West German Cancer Center University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen (A. Röth), the Institute of Transfusion Medicine, University of Ulm and Institute of Clinical Transfusion Medicine and Immunogenetics, German Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service and University Hospital Ulm, Ulm (B.H.), and the Department of Oncology, Hematology, Hemostaseology and Stem Cell Transplantation, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen (J.P.) - all in Germany; the Department of Hematology, NTT Medical Center Tokyo, Tokyo (K.U.), and the Department of Hematology and Oncology, Okayama University Hospital, Okayama (H.N.) - both in Japan; Centre d'Investigations Cliniques (J.-J.K.) and the French Reference Center for Aplastic Anemia and Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria (R.P.T.), Hôpital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université de Paris, Paris; the Department of Medicine, Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Duke University, Durham, NC (C.C.); Apellis Pharmaceuticals, Waltham, MA (M.H., P.D., C.F., F.G., T.A.); and the Hematology and BMT Unit, AORN San Giuseppe Moscati, Avellino, Italy (A. Risitano).

Background: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired disease characterized by chronic complement-mediated hemolysis. C5 inhibition controls intravascular hemolysis in untreated PNH but cannot address extravascular hemolysis. Pegcetacoplan, a pegylated peptide targeting proximal complement protein C3, potentially inhibits both intravascular and extravascular hemolysis.

Methods: We conducted a phase 3 open-label, controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of pegcetacoplan as compared with eculizumab in adults with PNH and hemoglobin levels lower than 10.5 g per deciliter despite eculizumab therapy. After a 4-week run-in phase in which all patients received pegcetacoplan plus eculizumab, we randomly assigned patients to subcutaneous pegcetacoplan monotherapy (41 patients) or intravenous eculizumab (39 patients). The primary end point was the mean change in hemoglobin level from baseline to week 16. Additional clinical and hematologic markers of hemolysis and safety were assessed.

Results: Pegcetacoplan was superior to eculizumab with respect to the change in hemoglobin level from baseline to week 16, with an adjusted (least squares) mean difference of 3.84 g per deciliter (P<0.001). A total of 35 patients (85%) receiving pegcetacoplan as compared with 6 patients (15%) receiving eculizumab no longer required transfusions. Noninferiority of pegcetacoplan to eculizumab was shown for the change in absolute reticulocyte count but not for the change in lactate dehydrogenase level. Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scores improved from baseline in the pegcetacoplan group. The most common adverse events that occurred during treatment in the pegcetacoplan and eculizumab groups were injection site reactions (37% vs. 3%), diarrhea (22% vs. 3%), breakthrough hemolysis (10% vs. 23%), headache (7% vs. 23%), and fatigue (5% vs. 15%). There were no cases of meningitis in either group.

Conclusions: Pegcetacoplan was superior to eculizumab in improving hemoglobin and clinical and hematologic outcomes in patients with PNH by providing broad hemolysis control, including control of intravascular and extravascular hemolysis. (Funded by Apellis Pharmaceuticals; PEGASUS ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03500549.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2029073DOI Listing
March 2021

Genome-wide association study identifies risk loci for progressive chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Nat Commun 2021 01 28;12(1):665. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Centre for Atherothrombosis and Metabolic Disease, Hull York Medical School, Hull, UK.

Prognostication in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is challenging due to heterogeneity in clinical course. We hypothesize that constitutional genetic variation affects disease progression and could aid prognostication. Pooling data from seven studies incorporating 842 cases identifies two genomic locations associated with time from diagnosis to treatment, including 10q26.13 (rs736456, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.47-2.15; P = 2.71 × 10) and 6p (rs3778076, HR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.55-2.55; P = 5.08 × 10), which are particularly powerful prognostic markers in patients with early stage CLL otherwise characterized by low-risk features. Expression quantitative trait loci analysis identifies putative functional genes implicated in modulating B-cell receptor or innate immune responses, key pathways in CLL pathogenesis. In this work we identify rs736456 and rs3778076 as prognostic in CLL, demonstrating that disease progression is determined by constitutional genetic variation as well as known somatic drivers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20822-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843618PMC
January 2021

A platform trial in practice: adding a new experimental research arm to the ongoing confirmatory FLAIR trial in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Trials 2021 Jan 8;22(1):38. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

St James's Institute of Oncology, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK.

Background: The FLAIR trial in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia has a randomised, controlled, open-label, confirmatory, platform design. FLAIR was successfully amended to include an emerging promising experimental therapy to expedite its assessment, greatly reducing the time to reach the primary outcome compared to running a separate trial and without compromising the validity of the research or the ability to recruit to the trial and report the outcomes. The methodological and practical issues are presented, describing how they were addressed to ensure the amendment was a success.

Methods: FLAIR was designed as a two-arm trial requiring 754 patients. In stage 2, two new arms were added: a new experimental arm and a second control arm to protect the trial in case of a change in practice. In stage 3, the original experimental arm was closed as its planned recruitment target was reached. In total, 1516 participants will be randomised to the trial.

Results: The changes to the protocol and randomisation to add and stop arms were made seamlessly without pausing recruitment. The statistical considerations to ensure the results for the original and new hypotheses are unbiased were approved following peer review by oversight committees, Cancer Research UK, ethical and regulatory committees and pharmaceutical partners. These included the use of concurrent comparators in case of any stage effect, appropriate control of the type I error rate and consideration of analysis methods across trial stages. The operational aspects of successfully implementing the amendments are described, including gaining approvals and additional funding, data management requirements and implementation at centres.

Conclusions: FLAIR is an exemplar of how an emerging experimental therapy can be assessed within an existing trial structure without compromising the conduct, reporting or validity of the trial. This strategy offered considerable resource savings and allowed the new experimental therapy to be assessed within a confirmatory trial in the UK years earlier than would have otherwise been possible. Despite the clear efficiencies, treatment arms are rarely added to ongoing trials in practice. This paper demonstrates how this strategy is acceptable, feasible and beneficial to patients and the wider research community.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN01844152 . Registered on August 08, 2014.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04971-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792072PMC
January 2021

No increased bleeding events in patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma treated with idelalisib.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 04 10;62(4):837-845. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Swedish Cancer Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.

The advent of novel B-cell receptor pathway targeting agents like ibrutinib dramatically changed management of B-cell malignancies. However, with concomitant anticoagulation (AC) and antiplatelet (AP) therapy, ibrutinib is associated with increased bleeding. This analysis aimed to determine the role of AC/AP therapy in patients with idelalisib-treated B-cell malignancies and to establish if it contributes to increased bleeding events. Data from two idelalisib trials (rituximab ± idelalisib in chronic lymphocytic leukemia [CLL] and idelalisib monotherapy in indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma [iNHL]) were analyzed. Antithrombotic therapy was common (36%-63%), with comparable bleeding incidence across treatment groups (14%-19%;  = 0.56). Bleeding events of grade ≥3 occurred in 0.9% and 3.2% of the idelalisib-treated CLL and iNHL cohorts, respectively. Our findings demonstrate no increase in bleeding events with simultaneous AC/AP treatment and idelalisib use. Hemorrhagic risk is prevalent in these patients and an important consideration when evaluating available treatment options. : NCT01539512 and NCT01282424.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1845339DOI Listing
April 2021

Zanubrutinib monotherapy for patients with treatment naïve chronic lymphocytic leukemia and 17p deletion.

Haematologica 2020 Oct 13;Online ahead of print. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma whose tumors carry deletion of chromosome 17p13.1 [del(17p)] have an unfavorable prognosis and respond poorly to standard chemoimmunotherapy. Zanubrutinib is a selective next-generation Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of zanubrutinib 160 mg twice daily in treatment-naïve patients with del(17p) disease enrolled in a dedicated, nonrandomized cohort (Arm C) of the phase 3 SEQUOIA trial. A total of 109 patients (median age, 70 years; range, 42 - 86) with centrally confirmed del(17p) were enrolled and treated. After a median of 18.2 months (range, 5.0 - 26.3), seven patients had discontinued study treatment due to progressive disease, four due to an adverse event, and one due to withdrawal of consent. The overall response rate was 94.5% with 3.7% of patients achieving complete response with or without incomplete hematologic recovery. The estimated 18-month progression-free survival rate was 88.6% (95% CI, 79.0 - 94.0) and the estimated 18-month overall survival rate was 95.1% (95% CI, 88.4 - 98.0). Most common all-grade adverse events included contusion (20.2%), upper respiratory tract infection (19.3%), neutropenia/neutrophil count decreased (17.4%), and diarrhea (16.5%). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events were reported in 53 patients (48.6%), most commonly neutropenia (12.9%) and pneumonia (3.7%). An adverse event of atrial fibrillation was reported in three patients (2.8%). Zanubrutinib was active and well tolerated in this large, prospectively enrolled treatment cohort of previously untreated patients with del(17p) chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT03336333.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.259432DOI Listing
October 2020

Prognostic and predictive role of gene mutations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results from the pivotal phase III study COMPLEMENT1.

Haematologica 2020 10 1;105(10):2440-2447. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.

Next generation sequencing studies in Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have revealed novel genetic variants that have been associated with disease characteristics and outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of recurrent molecular abnormalities in patients with CLL. Therefore, we assessed their incidences and associations with other clinical and genetic markers in the prospective multicenter COMPLEMENT1 trial (treatment naive patients not eligible for intensive treatment randomized to chlorambucil (CHL) vs. ofatumumab-CHL (O-CHL)). Baseline samples were available from 383 patients (85.6%) representative of the total trial cohort. Mutations were analyzed by amplicon-based targeted next generation sequencing (tNGS). In 52.2% of patients we found at least one mutation and the incidence was highest in NOTCH1 (17.0%), followed by SF3B1 (14.1%), ATM (11.7%), TP53 (10.2%), POT1 (7.0%), RPS15 (4.4%), FBXW7 (3.4%), MYD88 (2.6%) and BIRC3 (2.3%). While most mutations lacked prognostic significance, TP53 (HR2.02,p<0.01), SF3B1 (HR1.66,p=0.01) and NOTCH1 (HR1.39,p=0.03) were associated with inferior PFS in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent prognostic role of TP53 for PFS (HR1.71,p=0.04) and OS (HR2.78,p=0.02) and of SF3B1 for PFS only (HR1.52,p=0.02). Notably, NOTCH1 mutation status separates patients with a strong and a weak benefit from ofatumumab addition to CHL (NOTCH1wt:HR0.50,p<0.01, NOTCH1mut:HR0.81,p=0.45). In summary, TP53 and SF3B1 were confirmed as independent prognostic and NOTCH1 as a predictive factor for reduced ofatumumab efficacy in a randomized chemo (immune)therapy CLL trial. These results validate NGS-based mutation analysis in a multicenter trial and provide a basis for expanding molecular testing in the prognostic workup of patients with CLL. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00748189.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.229161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556677PMC
October 2020

Venetoclax Plus Rituximab in Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: 4-Year Results and Evaluation of Impact of Genomic Complexity and Gene Mutations From the MURANO Phase III Study.

J Clin Oncol 2020 12 28;38(34):4042-4054. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Royal Melbourne Hospital, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Purpose: In previous analyses of the MURANO study, fixed-duration venetoclax plus rituximab (VenR) resulted in improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared with bendamustine plus rituximab (BR) in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). At the 4-year follow-up, we report long-term outcomes, response to subsequent therapies, and the predictive value of molecular and genetic characteristics.

Patients And Methods: Patients with CLL were randomly assigned to 2 years of venetoclax (VenR for the first six cycles) or six cycles of BR. PFS, overall survival (OS), peripheral-blood minimal residual disease (MRD) status, genomic complexity (GC), and gene mutations were assessed.

Results: Of 389 patients, 194 were assigned to VenR and 195 to BR. Four-year PFS and OS rates were higher with VenR than BR, at 57.3% and 4.6% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.19; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.25), and 85.3% and 66.8% (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.65), respectively. Undetectable MRD (uMRD) at end of combination therapy (EOCT) was associated with superior PFS compared with low MRD positivity (HR, 0.50) and high MRD positivity (HR, 0.15). Patients in the VenR arm who received ibrutinib as their first therapy after progression (n = 12) had a reported response rate of 100% (10 of 10 evaluable patients); patients subsequently treated with a venetoclax-based regimen (n = 14) had a reported response rate of 55% (six of 11 evaluable patients). With VenR, the uMRD rate at end of treatment (EOT) was lower in patients with GC than in those without GC ( = .042); higher GC was associated with shorter PFS. Higher MRD positivity rates were seen with and mutations at EOCT and with , , , and mutations at EOT.

Conclusion: Efficacy benefits with fixed-duration VenR are sustained and particularly durable in patients who achieve uMRD. Salvage therapy with ibrutinib after VenR achieved high response rates. Genetic mutations and GC affected MRD rates and PFS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768340PMC
December 2020

Ibrutinib restores immune cell numbers and function in first-line and relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Leuk Res 2020 10 11;97:106432. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Translational Medicine, Pharmacyclics LLC, an AbbVie Company, Sunnyvale, CA, United States. Electronic address:

Ibrutinib positively modulates many T-cell subsets in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To understand ibrutinib's effects on the broader landscape of immune cell populations, we comprehensively characterized changes in circulating counts of 21 immune blood cell subsets throughout the first year of treatment in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) CLL (n = 55, RESONATE) and previously untreated CLL (n = 50, RESONATE-2) compared with untreated age-matched healthy donors (n = 20). Ibrutinib normalized abnormal immune cell counts to levels similar to those of age-matched healthy donors. Ibrutinib significantly decreased pathologically high circulating B cells, regulatory T cells, effector/memory CD4 and CD8 T cells (including exhausted and chronically activated T cells), natural killer (NK) T cells, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells; preserved naive T cells and NK cells; and increased circulating classical monocytes. T-cell function was assessed in response to T-cell receptor stimulation in patients with R/R CLL (n = 21) compared with age-matched healthy donors (n = 18). Ibrutinib significantly restored T-cell proliferative ability, degranulation, and cytokine secretion. Over the same period, ofatumumab or chlorambucil did not confer the same spectrum of normalization as ibrutinib in multiple immune subsets. These results establish that ibrutinib has a significant and likely positive impact on circulating malignant and nonmalignant immune cells and restores healthy T-cell function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2020.106432DOI Listing
October 2020

How We Manage Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia During the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic.

Hemasphere 2020 Aug 30;4(4):e432. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Division of Experimental Oncology, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). These can be exacerbated by anti-leukemic treatments. In addition, the typical patients with CLL already have fragilities and background risk factors that apply to the general population for severe COVID-19. On these bases, patients with CLL may experience COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. Recurrent seasonal epidemics of SARS-CoV-2 are expected, and doctors taking care of patients with CLL must be prepared for the possibility of substantial resurgences of infection and adapt their approach to CLL management accordingly. In this Guideline Article, we aim at providing clinicians with a literature-informed expert opinion on the management of patients with CLL during SARS-CoV-2 epidemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000432DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410019PMC
August 2020

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of ravulizumab and eculizumab on complement component 5 in adults with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria: results of two phase 3 randomised, multicentre studies.

Br J Haematol 2020 11 24;191(3):476-485. Epub 2020 May 24.

Clinical Haematology at Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, The Royal Melbourne Hospital and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Ravulizumab, a novel long-acting complement component 5 (C5) inhibitor administered every 8 weeks (q8w), was non-inferior to eculizumab for all efficacy outcomes in two randomised, open-label, phase 3 trials in C5 inhibitor-naïve (Study 301) and eculizumab-experienced (Study 302) adult patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). This pre-specified analysis characterised ravulizumab pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD; free C5 levels), and PD differences between medications (Study 301, n = 246; Study 302, n = 195). Ravulizumab PK parameters were determined using non-compartmental analysis. Serum free C5 was quantified with a Gyros-based fluorescence assay (ravulizumab) and an electrochemiluminescence ligand-binding assay (eculizumab). Ravulizumab PK parameters were numerically comparable in both studies; the median time to maximum concentrations ranged from 2·3 to 2·8 and 2·3 to 2·6 h in studies 301 and 302, respectively. Ravulizumab steady-state serum concentrations were achieved immediately after the first dose and sustained throughout treatment. For ravulizumab, the mean (SD) post hoc terminal elimination half-life was 49·7 (8·9) days. Serum free C5 concentrations <0·5 µg/ml were achieved after the first ravulizumab dose and sustained throughout treatment in both studies. In a minority of patients, free C5 concentrations <0·5 µg/ml were not consistently achieved with eculizumab in either study. Ravulizumab q8w was more consistent in providing immediate, complete, sustained C5 inhibition than eculizumab every-2-weeks in patients with PNH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16711DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7687070PMC
November 2020

SAMHD1 Limits the Efficacy of Forodesine in Leukemia by Protecting Cells against the Cytotoxicity of dGTP.

Cell Rep 2020 05;31(6):107640

Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, Medical Research Council Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK. Electronic address:

The anti-leukemia agent forodesine causes cytotoxic overload of intracellular deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP) but is efficacious only in a subset of patients. We report that SAMHD1, a phosphohydrolase degrading deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP), protects cells against the effects of dNTP imbalances. SAMHD1-deficient cells induce intrinsic apoptosis upon provision of deoxyribonucleosides, particularly deoxyguanosine (dG). Moreover, dG and forodesine act synergistically to kill cells lacking SAMHD1. Using mass cytometry, we find that these compounds kill SAMHD1-deficient malignant cells in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Normal cells and CLL cells from patients without SAMHD1 mutation are unaffected. We therefore propose to use forodesine as a precision medicine for leukemia, stratifying patients by SAMHD1 genotype or expression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225753PMC
May 2020

Patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria demonstrate a prothrombotic clotting phenotype which is improved by complement inhibition with eculizumab.

Am J Hematol 2020 08 11;95(8):944-952. Epub 2020 May 11.

Discovery and Translational Science Department, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare hematological disorder, characterized by complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis and thrombosis. The increased incidence of PNH-driven thrombosis is still poorly understood, but unlike other thrombotic disorders, is thought to largely occur through complement-mediated mechanisms. Treatment with a C5 inhibitor, eculizumab, has been shown to significantly reduce the number of thromboembolic events in these patients. Based on previously described links between changes in fibrin clot structure and thrombosis in other disorders, our aim was to investigate clot structure as a possible mechanism of thrombosis in patients with PNH and the anti-thrombotic effects of eculizumab treatment on clot structure. Clot structure, fibrinogen levels and thrombin generation were examined in plasma samples from 82 patients from the National PNH Service in Leeds, UK. Untreated PNH patients were found to have increased levels of fibrinogen and thrombin generation, with subsequent prothrombotic changes in clot structure. No link was found between increasing disease severity and fibrinogen levels, thrombin generation, clot formation or structure. However, eculizumab treated patients showed decreased fibrinogen levels, thrombin generation and clot density, with increasing time spent on treatment augmenting these antithrombotic effects. These data suggest that PNH patients have a prothrombotic clot phenotype due to increased fibrinogen levels and thrombin generation, and that the antithrombotic effects of eculizumab are, in-part, due to reductions in fibrinogen and thrombin generation with downstream effects on clot structure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25841DOI Listing
August 2020

DAPK3 participates in the mRNA processing of immediate early genes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

Mol Oncol 2020 06 3;14(6):1268-1281. Epub 2020 May 3.

Division of Haematology and Immunology, Leeds Institute of Medical Research at St. James's, University of Leeds, UK.

Cross-linking of the B-cell receptor (BCR) induces transcriptional activation of immediate early genes (IEGs) including EGR1 and DUSP2 in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Here, we have shown that this transcriptional activation correlated with histone H3 threonine 6 and 11 phosphorylation. Both transcription and histone post-translational modifications are repressed by ibrutinib, a small molecule inhibitor used in CLL treatment. Moreover, we have identified the death-associated protein kinase 3 (DAPK3), as the kinase mediating these histone phosphorylation marks in response to activation of the BCR signalling pathway with this kinase being recruited to RNA polymerase II in an anti-IgM-dependent manner. DAPK inhibition mimics ibrutinib-induced repression of both IEG mRNA and histone H3 phosphorylation and has anti-proliferative effect comparable to ibrutinib in CLL in vitro. DAPK inhibitor does not repress transcription itself but impacts on mRNA processing and has a broader anti-tumour effect than ibrutinib, by repressing both anti-IgM- and CD40L-dependent activation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266284PMC
June 2020

A five-year follow-up of untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia treated with ofatumumab and chlorambucil: final analysis of the Complement 1 phase 3 trial.

Br J Haematol 2020 09 31;190(5):736-740. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Haematology, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK.

The Complement 1 trial investigated the efficacy and safety of ofatumumab + chlorambucil with chlorambucil monotherapy in patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). On long-term follow-up in the chemoimmunotherapy arm vs. the chemotherapy arm there was an estimated 12% (not significant) and 39% risk reduction in overall survival and progression-free survival, respectively. A high rate (61%) of treatment with next-line therapies in both the treatment arms may dilute any potential OS difference and confound the interpretation of the OS results. Addition of ofatumumab to chlorambucil demonstrated clinical benefit and tolerability as a frontline treatment option in patients unfit for fludarabine-containing therapy, with no new safety concerns.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16625DOI Listing
September 2020

ALPINE: zanubrutinib versus ibrutinib in relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma.

Future Oncol 2020 Apr 24;16(10):517-523. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, St Vincent's Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia and University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia.

Treatment standards for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have been transformed with the advent of effective inhibitors of B-cell receptor signaling such as ibrutinib - a first-in-class inhibitor of BTK. Off-target kinase inhibitions by ibrutinib are thought to contribute to its adverse events. Zanubrutinib is a next-generation BTK inhibitor with minimal off-target effects, sustained BTK occupancy in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph nodes from patients with B-cell malignancies and promising responses in patients with CLL. Described here is a head-to-head Phase III study comparing the efficacy and safety of zanubrutinib with those of ibrutinib in patients with CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma in the relapsed/refractory setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2019-0844DOI Listing
April 2020

Phase Ib Study of Tirabrutinib in Combination with Idelalisib or Entospletinib in Previously Treated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 06 10;26(12):2810-2818. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition alone leads to incomplete responses in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Combination therapy may reduce activation of escape pathways and deepen responses. This open-label, phase Ib, sequential dose-escalation and dose-expansion study evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of the selective BTK inhibitor tirabrutinib alone, in combination with the PI3K delta (PI3Kδ) inhibitor idelalisib, or with the spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor entospletinib in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL.

Patients And Methods: Patients received either tirabrutinib monotherapy (80 mg every day) or tirabrutinib 20-150 mg every day in combination with either idelalisib (50 mg twice a day or 100 mg every day) or entospletinib (200 mg or 400 mg every day).

Results: Fifty-three patients were included. Systemic tirabrutinib exposure was comparable between monotherapy and combination therapy. No MTD was identified. Across all treatment groups, the most common adverse event was diarrhea (43%, 1 patient grade ≥3); discontinuation due to adverse events was uncommon (13%). Objective response rates were 83%, 93%, and 100%, and complete responses were 7%, 7%, and 10% in patients receiving tirabrutinib, tirabrutinib/idelalisib, and tirabrutinib/entospletinib, respectively. As of February 21, 2019, 46 of 53 patients continue to receive treatment on study.

Conclusions: Tirabrutinib in combination with idelalisib or entospletinib was well tolerated in patients with CLL, establishing an acceptable safety profile for concurrent selective inhibition of BTK with either PI3Kδ or SYK. This small study did not establish a superior efficacy of the combinations over tirabrutinib alone. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02457598).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-3504DOI Listing
June 2020

Presentation clinical, haematological and immunophenotypic features of 1081 patients with GPI-deficient (paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria) cells detected by flow cytometry.

Br J Haematol 2020 06 27;189(5):954-966. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Section of Experimental Haematology and Immunology, Leeds Institute of Medical Research at St. James's, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

A retrospective analysis of presentation clinical, laboratory and immunophenotypic features of 1 081 patients with paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH) clones [glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-deficient blood cells] identified at our hospital by flow cytometry over the past 25 years was undertaken. Three distinct clusters of patients were identified and significant correlations between presentation disease type and PNH clone sizes were evident. Smaller PNH clones predominate in cytopenic and myelodysplastic subtypes; large PNH clones were associated with haemolytic, thrombotic and haemolytic/thrombotic subtypes. Rare cases with an associated chronic myeloproliferative disorder had either large or small PNH clones. Cytopenia was a frequent finding, highlighting bone marrow failure as the major underlying feature associated with the detection of PNH clones in the peripheral blood. Red cell PNH clones showed significant correlations between the presence of type II (partial GPI deficiency) red cells and thrombotic disease. Haemolytic PNH was associated with type III (complete GPI deficiency) red cell populations of >20%. Those with both haemolytic and thrombotic features had major type II and type III red cell populations. Distinct patterns of presentation age decade were evident for clinical subtypes with a peak incidence of haemolytic PNH in the 30-49 year age group and a biphasic age distribution for the cytopenia group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16427DOI Listing
June 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Duvelisib Following Disease Progression on Ofatumumab in Patients with Relapsed/Refractory CLL or SLL in the DUO Crossover Extension Study.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 05 21;26(9):2096-2103. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Medicine I, Division of Hematology and Hemostaseology, and Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: In the phase III DUO trial, duvelisib, an oral dual PI3K-δ,γ inhibitor, demonstrated significantly improved efficacy versus ofatumumab [median (m) progression-free survival (PFS), 13.3 vs. 9.9 months (HR, 0.52; < 0.0001); overall response rate [ORR], 74% vs. 45% ( < 0.0001)], with a manageable safety profile in patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). We report results from patients with progressive disease (PD) after ofatumumab who crossed over to duvelisib in the DUO trial.

Patients And Methods: Patients with radiographically confirmed PD after ofatumumab received duvelisib 25 mg twice daily in 28-day cycles until PD, intolerance, death, or study withdrawal. The primary endpoint was ORR per investigator. Secondary endpoints included duration of response (DOR), PFS, and safety.

Results: As of December 14, 2018, 90 ofatumumab-treated patients in the DUO trial prior to crossover had an ORR of 29%, mDOR of 10.4 months, and mPFS of 9.4 months. After crossover, 77% of patients (69/90) achieved a response, with an mDOR of 14.9 months and mPFS of 15.7 months. Patients with del(17p) and/or mutations had similar outcomes [ORR, 77% (20/26); mPFS, 14.7 months]. Notably, 73% of patients (47/64) with disease previously refractory to ofatumumab achieved a response. The most frequent any-grade/grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events were diarrhea (47%/23%), neutropenia (26%/23%), pyrexia (24%/4%), cutaneous reactions (23%/4%), and thrombocytopenia (10%/6%).

Conclusions: Duvelisib demonstrated high response rates with good durability and a manageable safety profile in patients with R/R CLL/SLL who progressed on ofatumumab, including patients with high-risk disease and disease previously refractory to ofatumumab.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-3061DOI Listing
May 2020

Characterization of breakthrough hemolysis events observed in the phase 3 randomized studies of ravulizumab versus eculizumab in adults with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

Haematologica 2021 01 1;106(1):230-237. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

German Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service, Baden-Wurttemberg-Hessen and University Hospital Ulm.

Eculizumab is first-line treatment for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH); however, approximately 11%-27% of patients may experience breakthrough hemolysis (BTH) on approved doses of eculizumab. Ravulizumab, a new long-acting C5 inhibitor with a four-times longer mean half-life than eculizumab, provides immediate, complete, and sustained C5 inhibition over 8-week dosing intervals. In two phase 3 studies, ravulizumab was noninferior to eculizumab (Pinf ≤0.0004) for the BTH endpoint; fewer patients experienced BTH with ravulizumab versus eculizumab in both studies (301 [complement inhibitor-naive patients], 4.0% vs 10.7%; 302 [patients stabilized on eculizumab at baseline], 0% vs 5.1%). In the current analysis, patient-level data were evaluated to assess causes and clinical parameters associated with incidents of BTH reported during the 26-week treatment periods in the ravulizumab phase 3 PNH studies. Of the five BTH events occurring in ravulizumab-treated patients across the studies, none were temporally associated with suboptimal C5 inhibition (free C5 ≥0.5 μg/mL); four (80.0%) were temporally associated with complement-amplifying conditions (CACs). Of the 22 events occurring in eculizumab-treated patients, eleven were temporally associated with suboptimal C5 inhibition, including three events also associated with concomitant infection. Six events were associated with CACs only. Five events were unrelated to free C5 elevation or reported CACs. These results suggest that the immediate, complete, and sustained C5 inhibition achieved through weight-based dosing of ravulizumab reduces the risk of BTH by eliminating BTH associated with suboptimal C5 inhibition in patients with PNH. Clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: Study 301, NCT02946463; Study 302, NCT03056040.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2019.236877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7776354PMC
January 2021

Acalabrutinib monotherapy in patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia: updated phase 2 results.

Blood 2020 04;135(15):1204-1213

Weill Cornell Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY.

Therapeutic targeting of Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) has dramatically improved survival outcomes for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). Acalabrutinib is an oral, highly selective BTK inhibitor that allows for twice-daily dosing due to its selectivity. In this phase 1b/2 study, 134 patients with relapsed/refractory CLL or SLL (median age, 66 years [range, 42-85 years]; median prior therapies, 2 [range, 1-13]) received acalabrutinib 100 mg twice daily for a median of 41 months (range, 0.2-58 months). Median trough BTK occupancy at steady state was 97%. Most adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate, and were most commonly diarrhea (52%) and headache (51%). Grade ≥3 AEs (occurring in ≥5% of patients) were neutropenia (14%), pneumonia (11%), hypertension (7%), anemia (7%), and diarrhea (5%). Atrial fibrillation and major bleeding AEs (all grades) occurred in 7% and 5% of patients, respectively. Most patients (56%) remain on treatment; the primary reasons for discontinuation were progressive disease (21%) and AEs (11%). The overall response rate, including partial response with lymphocytosis, with acalabrutinib was 94%; responses were similar regardless of genomic features (presence of del(11)(q22.3), del(17)(p13.1), complex karyotype, or immunoglobulin variable region heavy chain mutation status). Median duration of response and progression-free survival (PFS) have not been reached; the estimated 45-month PFS was 62% (95% confidence interval, 51% to 71%). BTK mutation was detected in 6 of 9 patients (67%) at relapse. This updated and expanded study confirms the efficacy, durability of response, and long-term safety of acalabrutinib, justifying its further investigation in previously untreated and treated patients with CLL/SLL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02029443.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2018884940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146022PMC
April 2020

Integrative analysis of spontaneous CLL regression highlights genetic and microenvironmental interdependency in CLL.

Blood 2020 02;135(6):411-428

Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Spontaneous regression is a recognized phenomenon in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but its biological basis remains unknown. We undertook a detailed investigation of the biological and clinical features of 20 spontaneous CLL regression cases incorporating phenotypic, functional, transcriptomic, and genomic studies at sequential time points. All spontaneously regressed tumors were IGHV-mutated with no restricted IGHV usage or B-cell receptor (BCR) stereotypy. They exhibited shortened telomeres similar to nonregressing CLL, indicating prior proliferation. They also displayed low Ki-67, CD49d, cell-surface immunoglobulin M (IgM) expression and IgM-signaling response but high CXCR4 expression, indicating low proliferative activity associated with poor migration to proliferation centers, with these features becoming increasingly marked during regression. Spontaneously regressed CLL displayed a transcriptome profile characterized by downregulation of metabolic processes as well as MYC and its downstream targets compared with nonregressing CLL. Moreover, spontaneous regression was associated with reversal of T-cell exhaustion features including reduced programmed cell death 1 expression and increased T-cell proliferation. Interestingly, archetypal CLL genomic aberrations including HIST1H1B and TP53 mutations and del(13q14) were found in some spontaneously regressing tumors, but genetic composition remained stable during regression. Conversely, a single case of CLL relapse following spontaneous regression was associated with increased BCR signaling, CLL proliferation, and clonal evolution. These observations indicate that spontaneously regressing CLL appear to undergo a period of proliferation before entering a more quiescent state, and that a complex interaction between genomic alterations and the microenvironment determines disease course. Together, the findings provide novel insight into the biological processes underpinning spontaneous CLL regression, with implications for CLL treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019001262DOI Listing
February 2020

Long-term efficacy and safety of first-line ibrutinib treatment for patients with CLL/SLL: 5 years of follow-up from the phase 3 RESONATE-2 study.

Leukemia 2020 03 18;34(3):787-798. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

UCSD Moores Cancer Center, San Diego, CA, USA.

RESONATE-2 is a phase 3 study of first-line ibrutinib versus chlorambucil in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). Patients aged ≥65 years (n = 269) were randomized 1:1 to once-daily ibrutinib 420 mg continuously or chlorambucil 0.5-0.8 mg/kg for ≤12 cycles. With a median (range) follow-up of 60 months (0.1-66), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) benefits for ibrutinib versus chlorambucil were sustained (PFS estimates at 5 years: 70% vs 12%; HR [95% CI]: 0.146 [0.098-0.218]; OS estimates at 5 years: 83% vs 68%; HR [95% CI]: 0.450 [0.266-0.761]). Ibrutinib benefit was also consistent in patients with high prognostic risk (TP53 mutation, 11q deletion, and/or unmutated IGHV) (PFS: HR [95% CI]: 0.083 [0.047-0.145]; OS: HR [95% CI]: 0.366 [0.181-0.736]). Investigator-assessed overall response rate was 92% with ibrutinib (complete response, 30%; 11% at primary analysis). Common grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) included neutropenia (13%), pneumonia (12%), hypertension (8%), anemia (7%), and hyponatremia (6%); occurrence of most events as well as discontinuations due to AEs decreased over time. Fifty-eight percent of patients continue to receive ibrutinib. Single-agent ibrutinib demonstrated sustained PFS and OS benefit versus chlorambucil and increased depth of response over time.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0602-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214263PMC
March 2020

Final analysis from RESONATE: Up to six years of follow-up on ibrutinib in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma.

Am J Hematol 2019 12 13;94(12):1353-1363. Epub 2019 Oct 13.

The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Ibrutinib, a once-daily oral inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase, is approved in the United States and Europe for treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). The phase 3 RESONATE study showed improved efficacy of single-agent ibrutinib over ofatumumab in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL, including those with high-risk features. Here we report the final analysis from RESONATE with median follow-up on study of 65.3 months (range, 0.3-71.6) in the ibrutinib arm. Median progression-free survival (PFS) remained significantly longer for patients randomized to ibrutinib vs ofatumumab (44.1 vs 8.1 months; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.148; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.113-0.196; P˂.001). The PFS benefit with ibrutinib vs ofatumumab was preserved in the genomic high-risk population with del(17p), TP53 mutation, del(11q), and/or unmutated IGHV status (median PFS 44.1 vs 8.0 months; HR: 0.110; 95% CI: 0.080-0.152), which represented 82% of patients. Overall response rate with ibrutinib was 91% (complete response/complete response with incomplete bone marrow recovery, 11%). Overall survival, censored for crossover, was better with ibrutinib than ofatumumab (HR: 0.639; 95% CI: 0.418-0.975). With up to 71 months (median 41 months) of ibrutinib therapy, the safety profile remained consistent with prior reports; cumulatively, all-grade (grade ≥3) hypertension and atrial fibrillation occurred in 21% (9%) and 12% (6%) of patients, respectively. Only 16% discontinued ibrutinib because of adverse events (AEs). These long-term results confirm the robust efficacy of ibrutinib in relapsed/refractory CLL/SLL irrespective of high-risk clinical or genomic features, with no unexpected AEs. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01578707).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6899718PMC
December 2019

Trial re-investment to build better research for better impact.

Lancet 2019 Aug;394(10199):635-636

Department of Haematology, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, LS9 7TF, UK. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31363-7DOI Listing
August 2019