Publications by authors named "Peter Hillemanns"

263 Publications

Challenges and Controversies in the Surgical Treatment of Cervical Cancer: Open Radical Hysterectomy versus Minimally Invasive Radical Hysterectomy.

J Clin Med 2021 Aug 24;10(17). Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany.

Objective: The aim of the study was to perform a systematic assessment of disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival, and morbidity rates after open radical hysterectomy (ORH) and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for early-stage cervical cancer and discuss with experts the consequences of the LACC trial (published by Ramirez et al. in 2018) on clinical routine.

Methods: A total of 5428 records were retrieved. After exclusion based on text screening, four records were identified for inclusion. Five experts from three independent large-volume medical centers in Europe were interviewed for their interpretation of the LACC trial.

Results: The LACC trial showed a significantly higher risk of disease progression with MIS compared to ORH (HR 3.74, 95% CI 1.63 to 8.58). This was not seen in one epidemiological study and was contradicted by one prospective cohort study reported by Greggi et al. A systematic review by Zhang et al. mentioned a similar DFS for robot-assisted radical hysterectomy (RRH) and LRH. Recurrence rates were significantly higher with MIS compared to ORH in the LACC trial (HR 4.26, 95% CI 1.44 to 12.60). In contrast, four studies presented by Greggi reported no significant difference in recurrence rates between LRH/RRH and ORH, which concurred with the systematic reviews of Zhang and Zhao. The experts mentioned various limitations of the LACC trial and stated that clinicians were obliged to provide patients with detailed information and ensure a shared decision-making process.

Conclusions: The surgical treatment of early-stage cervical cancer remains a debated issue. More randomized controlled trials (RCT) will be needed to establish the most suitable treatment for this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10173761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432133PMC
August 2021

Pleiotropy-guided transcriptome imputation from normal and tumor tissues identifies candidate susceptibility genes for breast and ovarian cancer.

HGG Adv 2021 Jul 16;2(3). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Virus, Lifestyle, and Genes, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Familial, sequencing, and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and genetic correlation analyses have progressively unraveled the shared or pleiotropic germline genetics of breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, we aimed to leverage this shared germline genetics to improve the power of transcriptome-wide association studies (TWASs) to identify candidate breast cancer and ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. We built gene expression prediction models using the PrediXcan method in 681 breast and 295 ovarian tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas and 211 breast and 99 ovarian normal tissue samples from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project and integrated these with GWAS meta-analysis data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (122,977 cases/105,974 controls) and the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (22,406 cases/40,941 controls). The integration was achieved through application of a pleiotropy-guided conditional/conjunction false discovery rate (FDR) approach in the setting of a TWASs. This identified 14 candidate breast cancer susceptibility genes spanning 11 genomic regions and 8 candidate ovarian cancer susceptibility genes spanning 5 genomic regions at conjunction FDR < 0.05 that were >1 Mb away from known breast and/or ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We also identified 38 candidate breast cancer susceptibility genes and 17 candidate ovarian cancer susceptibility genes at conjunction FDR < 0.05 at known breast and/or ovarian susceptibility loci. The 22 genes identified by our cross-cancer analysis represent promising candidates that further elucidate the role of the transcriptome in mediating germline breast and ovarian cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2021.100042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312632PMC
July 2021

Association of preoperative cone biopsy with recurrences after radical hysterectomy.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625, Hanover, Germany.

Objective: To evaluate association of preoperative cone biopsy with the probability of recurrent disease after radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer.

Methods: This is a retrospective single-center study. Patients with cervical cancer stage IA1 with LVSI to IIA2 and squamous, adenosquamous and adenocarcinoma subtype were included. Patients were analyzed for general characteristics and recurrence-free survival (RFS).

Results: In total, of 480 patients with cervical cancer, 183 patients met the inclusion criteria (117 with laparoscopic and 66 with open surgery). The median tumor diameter was 25.0 mm (range 4.6-70.0 mm) with 66 (36.2%) patients having tumors smaller than 2 cm. During median follow-up of 54.0 months (range 0-166.0 months), the RFS for the laparoscopic cohort was 93.2% and 87.5% at 3 and 4.5 years, and 79.3% for the open cohort after 3 and 4.5 years, respectively. In total, 17 (9.3%) patients developed recurrent disease, 9 (7.3%) after laparoscopic, and 8 (12.1%) after open surgery. No preoperative cone biopsy (OR 9.60, 95% CI 2.14-43.09) as well as tumor diameter > 2 cm (OR 5.39, 95% CI 1.20-24.25) were significantly associated with increased risk for recurrence. In multivariate analysis, only missing preoperative cone biopsy was significantly associated with increased risk for recurrence (OR 5.90, 95% CI 1.11-31.29) CONCLUSION: There appears to be a subgroup of patients (preoperative cone biopsy, tumor diameter < 2 cm) with excellent survival and low risk for recurrence after radical hysterectomy which might benefit from the advantages of laparoscopic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-06145-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Evaluation of Integrated HPV DNA as Individualized Biomarkers for the Detection of Recurrent CIN2/3 during Post-Treatment Surveillance.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 1;13(13). Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

Purpose: Post-treatment follow-up in women with cervical pre-cancers (CIN3) is mandatory due to relapse in up to 10% of patients. Standard follow-up based on hrHPV-DNA/cytology co-testing has high sensitivity but limited specificity. The aim of our prospective, multicenter, observational study was to test the hypothesis that an individualized viral-cellular-junction test (vcj-PCR) combined with cytology has a lower false positive rate for the prediction of recurrence compared to standard co-testing.

Methods: Pre-surgical cervical swabs served for the identification of HPV16/18 DNA integration sites by next-generation-sequencing (NGS). Samples taken at 6, 12 and 24 months post-surgery were evaluated by cytology, hrHPV-DNA and the patients' individual HPV-integration sites (vcj-PCR on the basis of NGS).

Results: Integration sites were detected in 48 of 445 patients (10.8%), 39 of them had valid follow-up data. The false positive rate was 18.2% (95% CI 8.6-34.4%) for standard hrHPV/cytology at six months compared to 12.1% (95% CI 4.8-27.3%) for vcj-PCR/cytology, respectively (McNemar = 0.50). Six patients developed recurrences (1 CIN2, 5 CIN3) during follow-up. Standard co-testing detected all, whereas vcj-PCR/cytology detected only five patients with recurrences. Data of 269 patients without evidence of HPV16/18 integration were subject to post-hoc analyses. Standard co-testing revealed a false positive rate of 15.7% (95% CI 11.7-20.7%) and predicted ten of fourteen recurrences at six months.

Conclusions: Although highly specific on its own vcj-PCR could not detect all recurrent CIN2/3. Possible reasons for this unexpected result may be multifocal lesions, intratumoral heterogeneity with respect to HPV integration and/or incident CIN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8269020PMC
July 2021

[Vaccination against human papillomavirus].

Internist (Berl) 2021 Aug 14;62(8):816-826. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Klinik für Frauenheilkunde und Geburtshilfe, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH), Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Deutschland.

Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), which has been proven to be highly effective and safe, is recommended as part of standard vaccination by the German Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) for 9‑ to 14-year-old girls and boys. Up to 90% of cervical cancer and its precancerous lesions can be prevented with timely vaccination (before first intercourse). In addition, the effectiveness extends to the primary prevention of HPV-associated neoplasms of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis and oropharynx. The HPV vaccination is the focus of the global initiative of the WHO calling on German health policymakers to significantly increase the immunization coverage of the German population, which is currently only 45-60%. Due to the high immunogenicity and the convincing long-term effects, the goals of eliminating cervical cancer and significantly reducing other HPV-associated cancers are theoretically achievable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00108-021-01102-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Performance of a six-methylation-marker assay on self-collected cervical samples - A feasibility study.

J Virol Methods 2021 Sep 24;295:114219. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Objectives: In high-income countries, a high proportion of cervical cancers is diagnosed in screening non-attendees. One approach to improve screening coverage is to offer self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. However, especially young women are often HPV positive without having a precancerous lesion in need of treatment. To improve the rather low specificity of HPV testing additional markers such as DNA-methylation can be used. The aim of this feasibility study was to examine the performance of the methylation marker assay GynTect®, comprising six methylation markers, on dry self-collected cervico-vaginal samples compared to physician-taken samples.

Methods: We recruited 89 patients from our colposcopy clinic of whom 87 qualified for the study. The women took a self-sample with the Evalyn-Brush. Afterwards the planned colposcopy was performed and smears for cytology and reference HPV testing were taken as well as a biopsy in cases of abnormalities. Physician-taken and self-collected samples were tested for HPV DNA and were analyzed with GynTect®.

Results: We obtained 95.5 % valid results for the self-collected samples which was very close to the physician-taken samples. Only about half of the self-collected samples were GynTect® positive in comparison to the physician-taken samples. GynTect® scores were significantly lower for self-collected than for physician-taken samples (p = 0.001, paired t-test). The overall concordance for GynTect® results was moderate (kappa 0.394; p < 0.001). For HPV testing we obtained a good concordance (kappa 0.586; p < 0.001). The GynTect® results for the self-collected samples showed a sensitivity for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or worse (CIN2+) of 26.1 % (95 %-CI: 0.13-0.46) and a specificity of 95.6 % (95 %-CI: 0.85-0.99), in comparison to a sensitivity of 45.5 % (95 %-CI: 0.27-0.65) and a specificity of 78.3 % (95 %-CI: 0.64-0.88) for the physician-taken samples.

Conclusions: GynTect® methylation marker testing has a satisfactory amount of valid results on self-collected samples. However, the results of the self-collected samples differed clearly in comparison to the reference samples. To justify an application in screening, a larger study with more cases of high-grade cervical dysplasia and HPV positive patients will be needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2021.114219DOI Listing
September 2021

2020 list of human papillomavirus assays suitable for primary cervical cancer screening.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2021 Aug 8;27(8):1083-1095. Epub 2021 May 8.

Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Only clinically validated HPV assays can be accepted in cervical cancer screening.

Objectives: To update the list of high-risk HPV assays that fulfil the 2009 international validation criteria (Meijer-2009).

Data Sources: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, references from selected studies; published in January 2014 to August 2020.

Study Eligibility Criteria: HPV test validation studies and primary screening studies, involving testing with an index HPV test and a comparator HPV test with reporting of disease outcome (occurrence of histologically confirmed cervical precancer; CIN2+).

Participants: Women participating in cervical cancer screening.

Interventions: Testing with an index and a comparator HPV test of clinician-collected cervical specimens and assessment of disease outcome (
Methods: Assessment of relative clinical accuracy (including non-inferiority statistics index vs comparator assay) and test reproducibility in individual studies; random effects meta-analyses of the relative clinical sensitivity and specificity of index vs comparator tests.

Results: Seven hrHPV DNA tests consistently fulfilled all validation criteria in multiple studies using predefined test positivity cut-offs (Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV, Anyplex II HPV HR Detection, BD Onclarity HPV Assay, Cobas 4800 HPV Test, HPV-Risk Assay, PapilloCheck HPV-Screening Test and Xpert HPV). Another assay (Alinity m HR HPV Assay) was fully validated in one validation study. The newer Cobas 6800 HPV Test, was validated in two studies against Cobas 4800. Other tests partially fulfilled the international validation criteria (Cervista HPV HR Test, EUROArray HPV, Hybribio's 14 High-Risk HPV, LMNX Genotyping Kit GP HPV, MALDI-TOF, RIATOL qPCR and a number of other in-house developed assays) since the non-inferior accuracy was reached after a posteriori cut-off optimization, inconsistent accuracy findings in different studies, and/or insufficient reproducibility assessment. The APTIMA HPV Assay targeting E6/E7 mRNA of hrHPV was fully validated in one formal validation study and showed slightly lower pooled sensitivity but higher specificity than the standard comparator tests in seven screening studies. However, the current international validation criteria relate to DNA assays. The additional requirement for longitudinal performance data required for non-DNA based HPV assays was not assessed in this review.

Conclusions: Eleven hrHPV DNA assays fulfil all requirements for use in cervical cancer screening using clinician-collected specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2021.04.031DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of genomic variants at PAX8 and PBX2 with cervical cancer risk.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Gynaecology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Cervical malignancy is triggered by human papillomavirus infection but the risk for cervical cancer has a hereditary component. From a recent Genome Wide Association Study meta-analysis, 2q14.1 (PAX8) and 6p21.32 (PBX2) have been proposed as novel cervical cancer susceptibility loci. We investigated the two main signals at these loci in an independent case-control series of 2578 cases with cervical dysplasia or carcinoma and 1483 healthy females. We find significant associations for both variants, rs10175462 at PAX8 and rs2856437 at PBX2, with overall cervical disease (rs10175462: odds ratio [OR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.91, P = 2.4 × 10 ; rs2856437: OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.14-2.02, P = .004). Both variants showed evidence of association with invasive squamous cervical cancer (rs10175462: OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.94, P = .006; rs2856437: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03-2.36, P = .036) and with high-grade dysplasia (rs10175462: OR 0.79, 95%CI 0.70-0.90, P = 1.9 × 10 ; rs2856437: OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.15-2.17, P = .005). A combined analysis of high-grade dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer also showed significant associations for both variants (rs10175462: OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.73-0.91, P = 2.4 × 10 ; rs2856437: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.10, P = .002). No association was detected for rs2856437 with low-grade dysplasia, while rs10175462 showed weak evidence of association (P = .05). RNA analyses in cervical samples revealed that PAX8 transcripts were upregulated in HPV-positive lesions (P = .008) but this was not observed in the presence of the protective minor allele of rs10175462. The rs10175462 genotype also correlated with reduced levels of the lncRNA PAX8-AS1 (P < .001). Taken together, our results extend the evidence for a link between genomic risk variants at the HLA region (PBX2) with cervical disease and support PAX8 as the first consistent non-HLA cervical cancer susceptibility locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33614DOI Listing
April 2021

[Predictors of the Utilization and Waiting Period Before Starting an Oncological Rehabilitation after Breast Cancer].

Rehabilitation (Stuttg) 2021 Apr 15;60(2):86-94. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Forschungs- und Lehreinheit Medizinische Soziologie, Med. Hochschule Hannover.

Purpose: This study explores the sociodemographic, medical and work-related factors leading to a participation in an in-house rehabilitation measure after primary treatment for breast cancer.

Methods: The prospective multi-center study is based on a written survey with employed breast cancer patients who were recruited at 11 breast cancer centers in Lower Saxony, Germany. Predictors of participation were examined by logistic regression, predictors of the time period before starting the rehabilitation by linear regression.

Results: 409 patients returned their questionnaires at all three time-points. Response rates were 80,1% 3 weeks after surgery (t0), 95,2% 6 months after surgery (t1) and 89,9% one year after surgery (t2). Altogether, 294 patients (72%) participated in the rehabilitation measure. Respondents, 90% of whom participated in rehabilitation before returning to work, began their rehabilitation on average 21 weeks after primary surgery. They showed an increased probability of participation if they had indicated the need to clarify their job situation (OR=2,74, p<0,01), or if their answers displayed a detrimental relation between effort and reward at work (OR=3,89, p<0,05). At the same time, higher age, a higher level of school education (OR=4,23) and reduced physical health (OR=0,94, p<0,01) increased the chance for breast cancer patients to take part in oncological rehabilitation. The starting point of rehabilitation was only predictable by medical treatments: adjuvant chemotherapy (β=0,492, p≤0,001), additional surgery (β=0,112, p<0,05), and radiation therapy within the second half year after primary surgery (β=0,20; p<0,001) led to a postponement.

Conclusion: This study shows that an increased need of breast cancer patients for medical and socio-psychological support leads to their participation in an in-house rehabilitation and thus underlines the necessity of these institutions. Women with an impaired psychological health should be given extra attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1361-4028DOI Listing
April 2021

Classification of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia by p16 , Ki-67, HPV E4 and FAM19A4/miR124-2 methylation status demonstrates considerable heterogeneity with potential consequences for management.

Int J Cancer 2021 08 11;149(3):707-716. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pathology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

High-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2 and CIN3) represents a heterogeneous disease with varying cancer progression risks. Biomarkers indicative for a productive human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (HPV E4) and a transforming HPV infection (p16 , Ki-67 and host-cell DNA methylation) could provide guidance for clinical management in women with high-grade CIN. This study evaluates the cumulative score of immunohistochemical expression of p16 (Scores 0-3) and Ki-67 (Scores 0-3), referred to as the "immunoscore" (IS), in 262 CIN2 and 235 CIN3 lesions derived from five European cohorts in relation to immunohistochemical HPV E4 expression and FAM19A4/miR124-2 methylation in the corresponding cervical scrape. The immunoscore classification resulted in 30 lesions within IS group 0-2 (6.0%), 151 lesions within IS group 3-4 (30.4%) and 316 lesions within IS group 5-6 (63.6%). E4 expression decreased significantly from CIN2 to CIN3 (P < .001) and with increasing immunoscore group (P < .001). Methylation positivity increased significantly from CIN2 to CIN3 (P < .001) and with increasing immunoscore group (P < .001). E4 expression was present in 9.8% of CIN3 (23/235) and in 12.0% of IS group 5-6 (38/316). Notably, in a minority (43/497, 8.7%) of high-grade lesions, characteristics of both transforming HPV infection (DNA hypermethylation) and productive HPV infection (E4 expression) were found simultaneously. Next, we stratified all high-grade CIN lesions, based on the presumed cancer progression risk of the biomarkers used, into biomarker profiles. These biomarker profiles, including immunoscore and methylation status, could help the clinician in the decision for immediate treatment or a "wait and see" policy to reduce overtreatment of high-grade CIN lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252755PMC
August 2021

Role of Pelvic Lymph Node Resection in Vulvar Squamous Cell Cancer: A Subset Analysis of the AGO-CaRE-1 Study.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Background: As the population at risk for pelvic nodal involvement remains poorly described, the role of pelvic lymphadenectomy (LAE) in vulvar squamous cell cancer (VSCC) has been a matter of discussion for decades.

Methods: In the AGO-CaRE-1 study, 1618 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IB or higher primary VSCC treated at 29 centers in Germany between 1998 and 2008 were documented. In this analysis, only patients with pelvic LAE (n = 70) were analyzed with regard to prognosis and correlation between inguinal and pelvic lymph node involvement.

Results: The majority of patients had T1b/T2 tumors (n = 47; 67.1%), with a median diameter of 40 mm (2-240 mm); 54/70 patients (77.1%) who received pelvic LAE had positive groin nodes. For 42 of these 54 patients, the number of affected groin nodes had been documented as a median of 3; 14/42 (33.3%) of these patients had histologically confirmed pelvic nodal metastases (median number of affected pelvic nodes 3 [1-12]). In these 14 patients, the median number of affected groin nodes was 7 (1-30), with a groin metastases median maximum diameter of 42.5 mm (12-50). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.85, with 83.3% sensitivity and 92.6% specificity for the prediction of pelvic involvement in cases of six or more positive groin nodes. No cases of pelvic nodal involvement without groin metastases were observed. Prognosis in cases of pelvic metastasis was poor, with a median progression-free survival of only 12.5 months.

Conclusion: For the majority of node-positive patients with VSCC, pelvic nodal staging appears unnecessary since a relevant risk for pelvic nodal involvement only seems to be present in highly node-positive disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-021-09744-yDOI Listing
March 2021

Age, treatment and prognosis of patients with squamous cell vulvar cancer (VSCC) - analysis of the AGO-CaRE-1 study.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 May 26;161(2):442-448. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Despite an increasing incidence with simultaneous decreasing age of onset, vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is still a disease that mainly effects the elderly population. Data on the association of age with prognosis and treatment patterns in VSCC are sparse.

Methods: This is an analysis of the AGO-CaRE-1 cohort. Patients with VSCC (FIGO stage ≥1B), treated at 29 cancer centers in Germany from 1998 to 2008, were included in a centralized database (n = 1618). In this subgroup analysis patients were analyzed according to age [<50 yrs. (n = 220), 50-69 yrs. (n = 506), ≥70 yrs. (n = 521)] with regard to treatment patterns and prognosis. Only patients with documented age, surgical groin staging and known nodal status were included (n = 1247). Median follow-up was 27.5 months.

Results: At first diagnosis, women ≥70 yrs. presented with more advanced tumor stages (<0.001), larger tumor diameter (<0.001), poorer ECOG status (<0.001), more frequent HPV negative tumors (p = 0.03) as well as a higher rate of nodal involvement (<0.001). Disease recurrence occurred significantly more often in elderly patients (p = 0.001) and age as well as ECOG status, microscopic residual resection, tumor stage, grading, and (chemo)radiation were independent prognostic factors for death or recurrence in multivariate analysis. 2-year disease-free survival rates were 59.3% (≥70 yrs), 65.8% (50-69 yrs) and 81.1% (<50 yrs), respectively (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Older women with VSCC present with advanced tumor stages at first diagnosis and have an increased risk of recurrence as well as a decreased 2-year DFS in comparison to younger patients. Potential reasons could be self-awareness and/or more aggressive tumor biology due to HPV independent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.02.025DOI Listing
May 2021

German evidence and consensus-based (S3) guideline: Vaccination recommendations for the prevention of HPV-associated lesions.

J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2021 03 26;19(3):479-494. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

National Reference Center for Papilloma and Polyoma Viruses, Institute of Virology, University Hospital of Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Anogenital and oropharyngeal infections with human papilloma viruses (HPV) are common. Clinically manifest disease may significantly impact quality of life; the treatment of HPV-associated lesions is associated with a high rate of recurrence and invasive neoplasms, such as cervical, anal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers, which are characterized by significant morbidity and mortality. Vaccination against HPV is an effective and safe measure for the primary prevention of HPV-associated lesions, but immunization rates are still low in Germany. The present publication is an abridged version of the German evidence and consensus-based guideline "Vaccination recommendations for the prevention of HPV-associated lesions", which is available on the website of the German Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF). On the basis of a systematic review with meta-analyses, a representative panel developed and agreed upon recommendations for the vaccination of different populations against HPV. In addition, consensus-based recommendations were developed for specific issues relevant to everyday practice. Based on current evidence and a representative expert consensus, these recommendations are intended to provide guidance in a field in which there is often uncertainty and in which both patients and health care providers are sometimes confronted with controversial and emotionally charged points of view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ddg.14438DOI Listing
March 2021

CRBP-TS - evaluation of a home-based training and health care program for colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer using telemonitoring and self-management: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2021 Feb 23;13(1):15. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Institute of Sport Medicine and Prevention, University Leipzig, Marschnerstraße 29a, 04109, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Physical training is recommended in various national and international guidelines for patients with cancer. Observational studies have shown that physical activity leads to reduced recurrence and mortality rates by 20-40% in colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. Despite existing evidence, a systematic care structure is still lacking. The primary aim of this study is to implement and evaluate an online training platform to strengthen physical performance and patient empowerment after cancer surgery.

Methods: The evaluation will be conducted as a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial with three subgroups (colorectal-, breast-, and prostate cancer). Each group will include 100 patients (total 300 patients including dropouts; clinical stages T1-3 and/or N+; M0 after surgery intervention) and the primary endpoint (13% increase in the maximal oxygen consumption during exercise) will be examined. The intervention group will receive a 6-month home-based online training (2-3 times per week strength-endurance training using video presentations), bidirectional activity feedback information, online communication, and online counseling. The control group (usual care) will be advised lifestyle improvement. In-hospital testing will be performed before, during, and after the intervention. In addition to cardiopulmonary capacity, tumor specific diagnostics (liquid biopsy, depression and fatigue assessment, metabolic and endothelial screening) will be applied.

Discussion: Due to the increasing incidence of cancer, associated with considerable mortality, morbidity and impaired quality of life, there is an imperative requirement for improved cancer care, of which structured physical training may become an integral component.

Trial Registration: DRKS-ID: DRKS00020499 ; Registered 17 March 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13102-021-00244-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901214PMC
February 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Genes - Association Analysis in More than 113,000 Women.

N Engl J Med 2021 02 20;384(5):428-439. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

The authors' affiliations are as follows: the Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Departments of Public Health and Primary Care (L.D., S. Carvalho, J.A., K.A.P., Q.W., M.K.B., J.D., B.D., N. Mavaddat, K. Michailidou, A.C.A., P.D.P.P., D.F.E.) and Oncology (C.L., P.A.H., C. Baynes, D.M.C., L.F., V.R., M. Shah, P.D.P.P., A.M.D., D.F.E.), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, the Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine (A. Campbell, D.J.P.), and the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology (D.J.P.), University of Edinburgh, the Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre (D.A.C., J.F.), and the Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh Medical School (A. Campbell, J.F.), Edinburgh, the Divisions of Informatics, Imaging, and Data Sciences (E.F.H.), Cancer Sciences (A. Howell), Population Health, Health Services Research, and Primary Care (A. Lophatananon, K. Muir), and Evolution and Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), University of Manchester, the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Unit (E.F.H.) and the Nightingale Breast Screening Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital (E.F.H., H.I.), Academic Health Science Centre and North West Genomics Laboratory Hub, and the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), Manchester, the School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London (E.J.S.), the Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (I.T.), and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford (I.T.) - all in the United Kingdom; the Human Genotyping-CEGEN Unit, Human Cancer Genetic Program (A.G.-N., M.R.A., N.Á., B.H., R.N.-T.), and the Human Genetics Group (V.F., A.O., J.B.), Spanish National Cancer Research Center, Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras (A.O., J.B.), Servicio de Oncología Médica, Hospital Universitario La Paz (M.P.Z.), and Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (M. de la Hoya), Madrid, the Genomic Medicine Group, Galician Foundation of Genomic Medicine, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (A. Carracedo, M.G.-D.), and Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras y Centro Nacional de Genotipado, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (A. Carracedo), Santiago de Compostela, the Oncology and Genetics Unit, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Galicia Sur, Xerencia de Xestion Integrada de Vigo-Servizo Galeo de Saúde, Vigo (J.E.C.), and Servicio de Cirugía General y Especialidades, Hospital Monte Naranco, Oviedo (J.I.A.P.) - all in Spain; the Division of Oncology and Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund (C. Wahlström, J.V., M.L., T. Törngren, Å.B., A.K.), the Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro (C. Blomqvist), and the Departments of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (K.C., M.E., M.G., P. Hall, W.H., K.H.), Oncology, Södersjukhuset (P. Hall, S. Margolin), Molecular Medicine and Surgery (A. Lindblom), and Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset (S. Margolin, C. Wendt), Karolinska Institutet, and the Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital (A. Lindblom), Stockholm - all in Sweden; the Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD (M.T.P., C.F., G.C.-T., A.B.S.), the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), the Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), and the Department of Clinical Pathology (M.C.S.), University of Melbourne, Anatomical Pathology, Alfred Hospital (C.M.), and the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (M.C.S.), Melbourne, VIC, and Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (G.G.G., M.C.S., R.L.M.) - all in Australia; the Division of Molecular Pathology (R.K., S. Cornelissen, M.K.S.), Family Cancer Clinic (F.B.L.H., L.E.K.), Department of Epidemiology (M.A.R.), and Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology (M.K.S.), the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Division Laboratories, Pharmacy and Biomedical Genetics, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center, Utrecht (M.G.E.M.A.), the Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center (J.M.C., A.M.W.O.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Family Cancer Clinic, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute (B.A.M.H.-G., A. Hollestelle, M.J.H.), Rotterdam, the Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (E.B.G.G.), the Departments of Human Genetics (I.M.M.L., M.P.G.V., P.D.), Clinical Genetics (C.J.A.), and Pathology (P.D.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (A.R.M.), and the Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (J.C.O.) - all in the Netherlands; the Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute (B.D.), and the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute (T.A., S.J.C., X.R.Y., M.G.-C.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; the Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (B.D.), and the Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (R.M.V.D.), Boston; the Departments of Clinical Genetics (K.A.), Oncology (C. Blomqvist), and Obstetrics and Gynecology (H.N., M. Suvanto), Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, and the Unit of Clinical Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital (P. Auvinen), the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oncology (P. Auvinen), the Translational Cancer Research Area (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology, and Forensic Medicine (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), University of Eastern Finland, and the Biobank of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital (V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), Kuopio - both in Finland; the N.N. Alexandrov Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Minsk, Belarus (N.N.A., N.V.B.); the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel (N.A.), the Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology (H. Becher) and Cancer Epidemiology Group (T.M., J.C.-C.), University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics (M.W.B., P.A.F., L.H.) and Institute of Human Genetics (A.B.E.), University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-European Metropolitan Region of Nuremberg, Erlangen, the Division of Cancer Epidemiology (S.B., A. Jung, P.M.K., J.C.-C.), Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080 (B. Burwinkel, H.S.), Division of Pediatric Neurooncology (A.F.), and Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer (U.H., M.M., M.U.R., D.T.), German Cancer Research Center, Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer, University Women's Clinic Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg (B. Burwinkel, A.S., H.S.), Hopp Children's Cancer Center (A.F.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg (P.M.K.), and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital and German Cancer Research Center (A.S., C.S.), Heidelberg, the Department of Radiation Oncology (N.V.B., M. Bremer, H.C.) and the Gynecology Research Unit (N.V.B., T.D., P. Hillemanns, T.-W.P.-S., P.S.), Hannover Medical School, Hannover, the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Münster, Münster (N.B.-M.), Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart (H. Brauch, W.-Y.L.), iFIT-Cluster of Excellence, University of Tübingen, and the German Cancer Consortium, German Cancer Research Center, Partner Site Tübingen (H. Brauch), and the University of Tübingen (W.-Y.L.), Tübingen, Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum (T.B.), Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (C.E.), Center for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (E.H., R.K.S.) and Center for Integrated Oncology (E.H., R.K.S.), Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, the Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn (Y.-D.K.), the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Munich, Campus Großhadern, Munich (A. Meindl), and the Institute of Pathology, Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (T.R.) - all in Germany; the Gynecological Cancer Registry, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (P. Arveux), and the Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Team Exposome and Heredity, INSERM, University Paris-Saclay, Villejuif (E.C.-D., P.G., T. Truong) - both in France; the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (M. Bermisheva, E.K.), the Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University (E.K., D.P., Y.V.), and the Ufa Research Institute of Occupational Health and Human Ecology (Y.V.), Ufa, Russia; the Department of Genetics and Pathology (K.B., A. Jakubowska, J. Lubiński, K.P.) and the Independent Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Diagnostics (A. Jakubowska), Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Department of Clinical Biochemistry (S.E.B., B.G.N.), and the Department of Breast Surgery (H.F.), Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (S.E.B., B.G.N.) - both in Denmark; the Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) (B. Bonanni), the Unit of Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano (S. Manoukian), the Genome Diagnostics Program, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (P.P.), and the Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing, Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (P.R.), Milan; the Department of Cancer Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital-Radiumhospitalet (A.-L.B.-D., G.I.G.A., V.N.K.), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo (A.-L.B.-D., V.N.K.), Oslo; Medical Faculty, Universidad de La Sabana (I.B.), and the Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department (F.G.) and Institute of Human Genetics (D.T.), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia; the Department of Internal Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah (N.J.C., M.J.M., J.A.W.), and the Intermountain Healthcare Biorepository and Department of Pathology, Intermountain Healthcare (M.H.C.), Salt Lake City; the David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles (P.A.F.), and Moores Cancer Center (M.G.-D., M.E.M.) and the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (M.E.M.), University of California San Diego, La Jolla; the Departments of Medical Oncology (V.G., D.M.) and Pathology (M.T.), University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, and the Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (E.S.) - both in Greece; the Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital (G.G., I.L.A.), the Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (A.M.M.) and Molecular Genetics (I.L.A.), University of Toronto, and the Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network (A.M.M.), Toronto, and the Genomics Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec-Université Laval Research Center, Québec City, QC (J.S.) - both in Canada; the Department of Electron Microscopy and Molecular Pathology (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L.), the Cyprus School of Molecular Medicine (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L., K. Michailidou), and the Biostatistics Unit (K. Michailidou), Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus; the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health (M. Hartman, R.M.V.D.) and the Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (R.M.V.D.), National University of Singapore, the Department of Surgery, National University Health System (M. Hartman, J. Li), and the Human Genetics Division, Genome Institute of Singapore (J. Li), Singapore; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia (W.K.H.), and the Breast Cancer Research Programme, Cancer Research Malaysia (W.K.H., P.S.N., S.-Y.Y., S.H.T.), Selangor, and the Breast Cancer Research Unit, Cancer Research Institute (N.A.M.T.), and the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (N.A.M.T., P.S.N., S.H.T.), University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur - both in Malaysia; Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (M.J.K., N. Miller); the Department of Surgery, Daerim Saint Mary's Hospital (S.-W.K.), the Department of Surgery, Ulsan University College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center (J.W.L.), the Department of Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine and Soonchunhyang University Hospital (M.H.L.), Integrated Major in Innovative Medical Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (S.K.P.), and the Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University (S.K.P.), Seoul, South Korea; the Department of Basic Sciences, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Lahore, Pakistan (M.U.R.); and the National Cancer Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (S.T.).

Background: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking.

Methods: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity.

Results: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (, , , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (, , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in and , odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in , , , , , and , odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in , , and were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For , , and , missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants.

Conclusions: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1913948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611105PMC
February 2021

Effect of SSRI exposure on the proliferation rate and glucose uptake in breast and ovary cancer cell lines.

Sci Rep 2021 01 13;11(1):1250. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Biochemistry and Tumor Biology Lab, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy amongst women worldwide while ovarian cancer represents the leading cause of death among gynecological malignancies. Women suffering from these cancers displayed heightened rates of major depressive disorder, and antidepressant treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is frequently recommended. Recently, narrative reviews and meta-analyses showed increased recurrence risks and mortality rates in SSRI-treated women with breast and ovarian cancer. We therefore examined whether three commonly prescribed SSRIs, fluoxetine, sertraline and citalopram, affect proliferation or glucose uptake of human breast and ovarian cancer cell lines characterized by different malignancies and metastatic potential. SSRI treatment or serotonin stimulation with therapeutically relevant concentrations over various time periods revealed no consistent dose- or time-dependent effect on proliferation rates. A marginal, but significant increase in glucose uptake was observed in SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells upon fluoxetine or sertraline, but not citalopram treatment. In three breast cancer cell lines and in two additional ovarian cancer cell lines no significant effect of SSRIs on glucose uptake was observed. Our data suggest that the observed increase in recurrence- and mortality rates in SSRI-treated cancer patients is unlikely to be linked to antidepressant therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80850-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806821PMC
January 2021

Germline variation of Ribonuclease H2 genes in ovarian cancer patients.

J Ovarian Res 2020 Dec 22;13(1):146. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Gynaecology Research Unit (OE 6411), Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, D-30625, Hannover, Germany.

Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a genetically heterogeneous disease that is partly driven by molecular defects in mismatch repair (MMR) or homology-directed DNA repair (HDR). Ribonuclease H2 serves to remove mis-incorporated ribonucleotides from DNA which alleviates HDR mechanisms and guides the MMR machinery. Although Ribonuclease H2 has been implicated in cancer, the role of germline variants for ovarian cancer is unknown. In the present case-control study, we sequenced the coding and flanking untranslated regions of the RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B and RNASEH2C genes, encoding all three subunits of Ribonuclease H2, in a total of 602 German patients with EOC and of 940 healthy females from the same population. We identified one patient with a truncating variant in RNASEH2B, p.C44X, resulting in a premature stop codon. This patient had high-grade serous EOC with an 8 years survival after platinum/taxane-based therapy. Subsequent analysis of TCGA data similarly showed a significantly longer progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients with low RNASEH2B or RNASEH2C expression levels. In conclusion, loss-of-function variants in Ribonuclease H2 genes are not common predisposing factors in ovarian cancer but the possibility that they modulate therapeutic platinum response deserves further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13048-020-00753-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756920PMC
December 2020

Pelvic Lymphadenectomy in Vulvar Cancer - Does it make sense?

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2020 Dec 3;80(12):1221-1228. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, University Medical Center Köln, Köln, Germany.

Since the publication of the updated German guideline in 2015, the recommendations for performing pelvic lymphadenectomy (LAE) in patients with vulvar cancer (VSCC) have changed considerably. The guideline recommends surgical lymph node staging in all patients with a higher risk of pelvic lymph node involvement. However, the current data do not allow the population at risk to be clearly defined, therefore, the indication for pelvic lymphadenectomy is still not clear. There are currently two published German patient populations who had pelvic LAE which can be used to investigate both the prognostic effect of histologically verified pelvic lymph node metastasis and the relation between inguinal and pelvic lymph node involvement. A total of 1618 patients with primary FIGO stage ≥ IB VSCC were included in the multicenter AGO CaRE-1 study (1998 - 2008), 70 of whom underwent pelvic LAE. During a retrospective single-center evaluation carried out at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf (UKE), a total of 514 patients with primary VSCC treated between 1996 - 2018 were evaluated, 21 of whom underwent pelvic LAE. In both cohorts, around 80% of the patients who underwent pelvic LAE were inguinally node-positive, with a median number of three affected groin lymph nodes. There were no cases of pelvic lymph node metastasis without inguinal lymph node metastasis in either of the two cohorts. Between 33 - 35% of the inguinal node-positive patients also had pelvic lymph node metastasis; the median number of affected groin lymph nodes in these patients was high (> 4), and the maximum median diameter of the largest inguinal metastasis was > 40 mm in both cohorts. Pelvic lymph node staging and pelvic radiotherapy is therefore probably not necessary for the majority of node-positive patients with VSCC, as the relevant risk of pelvic lymph node involvement was primarily found in node-positive patients with high-grade disease. More, ideally prospective data collections are necessary to validate the relation between inguinal and pelvic lymph node involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1120-0138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7714620PMC
December 2020

Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Association Study of Endometrial Cancer and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Identifies Genetic Risk Regions Associated with Risk of Both Cancers.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 01 3;30(1):217-228. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers.

Methods: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e., inverse-variance meta-analysis, colocalization, and M-values) and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data.

Results: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers ( = 0.43, = 2.66 × 10). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers ( < 2.4 × 10). In addition, four novel subgenome-wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12, and 11q13.3 were identified ( < 5 × 10). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines and expression quantitative trait loci data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation.

Conclusions: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis.

Impact: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0739DOI Listing
January 2021

LION-PAW (lymphadenectomy in ovarian neoplasm) sexual function assessment: a prospective sub-study of the LION trial.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2020 10 16;30(10):1548-1553. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology, KEM, Kliniken Essen Mitte, Essen, Germany.

Background: There is limited information about the impact of radical surgery including pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy and subsequent platinum-based chemotherapy on sexuality in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of radical surgery including pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy and subsequent platinum-based chemotherapy on sexuality in patients with advanced ovarian cancer as a sub-protocol of the prospectively randomized LION trial.

Methods: The Sexual Activity Questionnaire was applied to assess sexual function according to its sub-scales activity, pleasure, and discomfort. The 'orgasm' sub-scale from the Female Sexual Function Index was also added. The questionnaire was administered in combination with the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire at baseline prior surgery, after 6, 12, and 24 months. The primary endpoint was changes in sexual function.

Results: Overall, 495 patients received the questionnaires. 254 (51%) responded at baseline. Of these, 55 (22%) patients were sexually active, 182 (72%) were sexually inactive, and for 17 (7%) patients' data were not available. There was a total of 55/495 (11%) patients at 6 months, 139 (28%) patients at 12 months, and 81 (16%) patients at 24 months. Median age was 60.5 years (range 21.4-75.8). At baseline, sexually active responders were significantly younger (median age 51.5 years,) than sexually inactive responders (median age 61.8 years) and tended to have a better performance status. Discomfort evaluated as dryness of the vagina and pain during sexual intercourse was significantly worse at 12 months than at baseline (p<0.001); however, the surgical variable, lymphadenectomy, did not have any impact on this. The orgasm sub-scale showed diverging results with a deterioration from baseline to 12 months in the lymphadenectomy group compared with the no-lymphadenectomy group (p=0.02).

Conclusion: The majority of patients were sexually inactive; however, in those who were sexually active, pain during intercourse was worse at 12 months. In addition, the orgasm sub-scale demonstrated worse results in patients who underwent complete lymphadenectomy. The study suggests that surgery in the retroperitoneal space may influence sexual function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-001551DOI Listing
October 2020

Genetic Susceptibility to Endometrial Cancer: Risk Factors and Clinical Management.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Aug 25;12(9). Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Witten/Herdecke, 42283 Wuppertal, Germany.

Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common cancer affecting the female reproductive organs in higher-income states. Apart from reproductive factors and excess weight, genetic predisposition is increasingly recognized as a major factor in endometrial cancer risk. Endometrial cancer is genetically heterogeneous: while a subgroup of patients belongs to cancer predisposition syndromes (most notably the Lynch Syndrome) with high to intermediate lifetime risks, there are also several common genomic polymorphisms contributing to the spectrum of germline predispositions. Germline variants and somatic events may act in concert to modulate the molecular evolution of the tumor, where mismatch-repair deficiency is common in endometrioid endometrial tumors whereas homologous recombinational repair deficiency has been described for non-endometrioid endometrial tumors. In this review, we will survey the currently known genomic predispositions for endometrial cancer and discuss their relevance for clinical management in terms of counseling, screening and novel treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7565375PMC
August 2020

Mendelian randomization analyses suggest a role for cholesterol in the development of endometrial cancer.

Int J Cancer 2021 01 7;148(2):307-319. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Behavioral and Epidemiology Research Group, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Blood lipids have been associated with the development of a range of cancers, including breast, lung and colorectal cancer. For endometrial cancer, observational studies have reported inconsistent associations between blood lipids and cancer risk. To reduce biases from unmeasured confounding, we performed a bidirectional, two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate the relationship between levels of three blood lipids (low-density lipoprotein [LDL] and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and triglycerides) and endometrial cancer risk. Genetic variants associated with each of these blood lipid levels (P < 5 × 10 ) were identified as instrumental variables, and assessed using genome-wide association study data from the Endometrial Cancer Association Consortium (12 906 cases and 108 979 controls) and the Global Lipids Genetic Consortium (n = 188 578). Mendelian randomization analyses found genetically raised LDL cholesterol levels to be associated with lower risks of endometrial cancer of all histologies combined, and of endometrioid and non-endometrioid subtypes. Conversely, higher genetically predicted HDL cholesterol levels were associated with increased risk of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. After accounting for the potential confounding role of obesity (as measured by genetic variants associated with body mass index), the association between genetically predicted increased LDL cholesterol levels and lower endometrial cancer risk remained significant, especially for non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. There was no evidence to support a role for triglycerides in endometrial cancer development. Our study supports a role for LDL and HDL cholesterol in the development of non-endometrioid endometrial cancer. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757859PMC
January 2021

Statement of the AGO and AG-CPC on the Aftercare/Follow-up for Surgical Procedures of the Lower Genital Tract after the Introduction of a New Cancer Screening Guideline.

Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2020 Aug 14;80(8):809-812. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Sekretariat der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Zervixpathologie & Kolposkopie, Stralsund, Germany.

The new guideline on organized cancer screening programs has been in force in Germany since January 1st, 2020. The guideline has amended earlier recommendations on cytological examinations, which were previously carried out annually during screening. The guidelines-based recommendations on the appropriate follow-up for preinvasive and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix and endometrium are briefly outlined and differentiated from screening cytology and Pap/HPV co-testing as described in the guideline on organized cancer screening programs (oKFE-RL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1193-5136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428371PMC
August 2020

Sentinel lymph node biopsy in vulvar cancer: status, level of knowledge, and counseling in outpatient setting.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2020 10 18;302(4):1001-1007. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hanover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Street 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Purpose: Evaluating the counseling of patients with vulvar cancer in outpatient setting regarding the application of sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND), the selection of hospitals for further treatment, and level of knowledge.

Methods: A questionnaire containing 29 questions about SLND in vulvar cancer was sent to gynecologists in Lower Saxony. The questionnaire contained multiple choice questions and open questions. The study was approved by the local ethics committee.

Results: The median age of the 86 respondents was 54 (26-66) years. Most participants (83.1%) reported to only treat one to five patients with vulvar cancer per year. Interestingly, 70.5% of the gynecologists send their patients to university hospitals and 64.1% to hospitals offering maximum care, respectively. Of all, 32.7% replied that SLND was performed rarely or never in their patients. The gynecologists answered that only 36.7% of the patients are well informed about advantages and possible disadvantages of SLND. Most (84%) felt responsible to counsel patients on treatment decisions independently from or additionally to the hospital. Of all, 72% replied that they are not completely sure about the exact recurrence rates after SLND. Of notice, 66% believe that SLND for vulvar cancer is safe if applied in specialized centers and 92% stated that focusing treatment on specialized centers is required for best results.

Conclusion: SLND for vulvar cancer is widely accepted and regularly recommended among gynecologists. Outpatient doctors report to send most patients to specialized centers. However, it appears that patients remain uninformed after counseling in the clinics and that there is a lack of detailed knowledge about risks and complication rates of groin treatment in the outpatient setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-020-05701-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7471199PMC
October 2020

Reproductive capacity and recurrence of disease after surgery for moderate and severe endometriosis - a retrospective single center analysis.

BMC Womens Health 2020 07 13;20(1):144. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hanover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Endometriosis can be associated with considerable pain and sterility. After surgical excision of moderate or severe endometriosis lesions, the rate of recurrence reaches up to 67%. The objective of this retrospective study was to establish the recurrence and pregnancy rates following surgical resection of stage III/IV endometriosis lesions. Indications for operation were endometriosis symptoms, sonographic findings and/or infertility.

Methods: A total of 456 patients who underwent stage III/IV endometriosis surgery between 2004 and 2014 were sent a questionnaire relating to their postoperative medical treatment, pregnancies, relief of symptoms and recurrence. Responses of 206 patients (45.2%) and their clinical data were analysed for this study.

Results: A total of 66.5% (N = 137) of patients had stage III disease, and 33.5% (N = 69) had stage IV disease. The average age was 37 years (17-59). A total of 63.1% (N = 130) of surgeries were performed by laparoscopy, 21.8% (N = 45) were performed by laparotomy and 15% (N = 31) were performed by conversion. Complete resection of endometriosis lesions was achieved in 90.8% of patients (N = 187). After surgery, 48.5% (N = 100) of the women did not receive hormonal treatment; the main reason was the desire for children in 53%. Complete or partial relief in complaints was achieved in 93.2% (N = 192). The rate of recurrence was 21.8% (N = 45). The statistically significant factors that was associated with a higher risk to develop recurrence was an age < 35 (p < 0.005). After surgery, 65.8% (79/120) of patients who wished to have children became pregnant. There was a statistically significant association among a higher postoperative pregnancy rate and age < 35 (p < 0.003) in multivariate logistic regression analysis and laparoscopic surgical access in univariate logistic regression analysis (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: We assessed the high percentage of complete or partial relief of symptoms of 93.2%, the high postoperative pregnancy rate of 65.8% and the low rate of recurrence of 21.8% compared to international literature to be very encouraging for women suffering from moderate and severe endometriosis. Though laparoscopy is considered the 'gold standard'of endometriosis surgery, laparotomy still may be indicated in patients with extensive endometriosis especially to preserve reproductive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-01016-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358195PMC
July 2020

Association of genomic variants at the human leukocyte antigen locus with cervical cancer risk, HPV status and gene expression levels.

Int J Cancer 2020 11 10;147(9):2458-2468. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Gynaecology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) locus on chromosome 6 has been reported to be associated with cervical cancer. We investigated two independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a large case-control series of cervical dysplasia and carcinoma that has been newly established by the German Cervigen Consortium, comprising a total of 2481 cases and 1556 healthy females. We find significant associations for both variants, rs9272117 at HLA-DQA1 and rs2844511 at MICA and HCP5, with cervical disease. Both variants showed evidence of association with invasive cervical cancer (rs9272117: OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.79-0.99, P = .036; rs2844511: OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31, P = .008) and with high-grade dysplasia (rs9272117: OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.70-0.87, P = 7.1 × 10 ; rs2844511: OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26, P = .035), as well as in a combined analysis of both groups (rs9272117: OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10 ; rs2844511: OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.04-1.26, P = .005). Variant rs2844511, but not rs9272117, also showed modest evidence of association with low-grade dysplasia (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.54, P = .019). In case-only analyses, rs2844511 tended to predict HPV status (P = .044) and rs9272117 tended to associate with HPV16 (P = .022). RNA studies in cervical samples showed a significant correlation in the transcript levels of MICA, HCP5 and HLA-DQA1, suggesting extensive co-regulation. All three genes were upregulated in HPV16-positive samples. In stratified analyses, rs9272117 was associated with HLA-DQA1 levels, specifically in HPV-positive samples, while rs2844511 was associated with MICA and HCP5 levels. The risk allele of rs2844511 was required for correlations between MICA or HCP5 with HLA-DQA1. Altogether, our results support 6p21.32-33 as the first consistent cervical cancer susceptibility locus and provide evidence for a link between genetic risk variants, HPV16 status and transcript levels of HLA-DQA1, HCP5 and MICA, which may contribute to tumor immune evasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33171DOI Listing
November 2020

Germline HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C do not confer an increased breast cancer risk.

Sci Rep 2020 06 16;10(1):9688. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65665-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297796PMC
June 2020

Radical hysterectomy for early cervical cancer: what shall we do after the LACC trial?

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2020 08;302(2):289-292

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hanover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany.

Surgical treatment of cervical cancer has led to one of the greatest controversies in gynecological oncology in recent years. After laparoscopic radical hysterectomy became increasingly widespread worldwide, it lost its importance dramatically when the data from the LACC study were published. In contrast to previous assumptions, there was a significantly reduced survival after laparoscopic hysterectomy compared to the open abdominal procedure. Multiple studies were subsequently published. Some confirm these results some do not. Some consider further studies to be unethical, others point to their own non-randomized results and call for a new LACC study. This article gives an overview of the current data situation and the possible criticisms of the individual studies. And, finally, calls for new RCT's under defined criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-020-05627-xDOI Listing
August 2020
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