Publications by authors named "Peter H van der Laan"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Do Extremely Violent Juveniles Respond Differently to Treatment?

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2018 03 27;62(4):958-977. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

3 Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

This study increases knowledge on effectiveness of treatment for extremely violent (EV) youth by investigating their response to multisystemic therapy (MST). Using data of a randomized controlled trial on effectiveness of MST, we investigated differences in treatment response between EV youth and not extremely violent (NEV) youth. Pre- to post-treatment comparison indicated MST was equally effective for EV and NEV youth, whereas treatment as usual was not effective for either group. Growth curves of within-treatment changes indicated EV youth responded differently to MST than NEV youth. The within-treatment change was for EV youth non-linear: Initially, they show a deterioration; however, after one month, EV juveniles respond positively to MST, indicating longer lasting, intensive programs may be effective in treating extreme violence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X16670951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5808822PMC
March 2018

The Influence of Treatment Motivation on Outcomes of Social Skills Training for Juvenile Delinquents.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2018 Jan 24;62(1):108-128. Epub 2016 May 24.

1 University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

This study examined the influence of treatment motivation on posttreatment effectiveness of an outpatient, individual social skills training for juvenile delinquents imposed as a penal sanction. Propensity score matching was used to match a control group of juveniles receiving treatment as usual ( n = 108 of total N = 354) to a treatment group of juveniles receiving Tools4U, a social skills training with a parental component ( N = 115). Treatment motivation was examined as a moderator and predictor of treatment effects on impulsivity, social perspective-taking, social problem-solving, lack of critical reasoning, developmental task-related skills, and parenting skills. Treatment effects were mostly consistent across juveniles with different levels of treatment motivation. Only one moderating effect was found on active tackling (i.e., actively addressing problems), and predictive effects were found on seeking social support, cognitive empathy, hostile intent attribution, and self-centeredness. Implications for further research are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X16648130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5734383PMC
January 2018

The Effectiveness of Aftercare for Juvenile and Young Adult Offenders.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2016 Aug 31;60(10):1159-84. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether NPAP was effective in decreasing cognitive distortions and criminal thinking patterns and increasing prosocial skills of the juveniles compared with TAU. No direct intervention effects were found on any of the outcome measures. Moderator analyses, however, showed several interaction effects of ethnicity and coping skills for both NPAP and TAU youths. Furthermore, NPAP dropouts displayed significantly more indirect aggression at posttest compared with youths dropping out from TAU. Possible explanations for the mostly null effects are discussed, including implications for further research, policy, and practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X15576884DOI Listing
August 2016

The effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy (MST): a meta-analysis.

Clin Psychol Rev 2014 Aug 27;34(6):468-81. Epub 2014 Jun 27.

Criminology, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is a well-established intervention for juvenile delinquents and/or adolescents showing social, emotional and behavioral problems. A multilevel meta-analysis of k=22 studies, containing 332 effect sizes, consisting of N=4066 juveniles, was conducted to examine the effectiveness of MST. Small but significant treatment effects were found on delinquency (primary outcome) and psychopathology, substance use, family factors, out-of-home placement and peer factors, whereas no significant treatment effect was found for skills and cognitions. Moderator analyses showed that study characteristics (country where the research was conducted, efficacy versus effectiveness, and study quality), treatment characteristics (single versus multiple control treatments and duration of MST treatment), sample characteristics (target population, age, gender and ethnicity) and outcome characteristics (non-specific versus violent/non-violent offending, correction for pretreatment differences, and informant type) moderated the effectiveness of MST. MST seems most effective with juveniles under the age of 15, with severe starting conditions. Furthermore, the effectiveness of MST may be improved when treatment for older juveniles is focused more on peer relationships and risks and protective factors in the school domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2014.06.006DOI Listing
August 2014

Neurobiological changes after intervention in individuals with anti-social behaviour: a literature review.

Crim Behav Ment Health 2015 Feb 3;25(1):10-27. Epub 2014 Jun 3.

Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR), Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Research and Documentation Centre (WODC), Ministry of Security and Justice, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Background: A neurobiological perspective has become accepted as a valuable approach for understanding anti-social behaviour. There is literature to suggest that, in non-offending populations, psychological treatments affect both neurobiological measures and clinical presentation. A theoretical position to this effect has been adopted with respect to offender treatment, but there has been no systematic review of empirical literature on this point.

Aims: This study aimed to ascertain from published literature firstly whether there is evidence of change in neuropsychological or physiological measures after behavioural treatments/programmes for people with anti-social behaviour and secondly whether these neurobiological changes are associated with behavioural change.

Method: A systematic search strategy was formulated to include studies considering 'neurobiological factors', 'anti-social population', 'treatment' and 'treatment outcome'. The Maryland Scientific Methods Scale was used to select relevant studies of sufficient methodological quality.

Results: Eleven studies were found, only one with adults. Overall, the values of specific neurobiological risk factors, particularly of basal cortisol, become less abnormal following intervention. There was some evidence for a link between change in neurobiological functioning and behavioural improvement.

Conclusions: Findings, although provisional, may provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms of interventions for anti-social behaviour. Future studies that include pre-treatment neurobiological assessment could help reveal physical vulnerabilities that interventions should target to improve treatment efficacy, and provide for objective, independent corroboration of change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbm.1915DOI Listing
February 2015

Procedural justice in prison: the importance of staff characteristics.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2015 Apr 12;59(4):337-58. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Leiden University, The Netherlands Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

A humane and fair treatment of prisoners is of intrinsic value in itself, and is generally acclaimed to reduce prisoners' psychological distress and misconduct in prison, and their criminal behavior after release from prison. To create a more just prison climate, scholars have emphasized the importance of correctional staff. However, there is a lack of empirical research on the relationship between correctional officers' characteristics and prisoners' perceptions of a just treatment in prison. Our study fills this gap in knowledge. Data were used from (a) the Prison Project, a large-scale study in which prisoners held in all Dutch remand centers were surveyed (n = 1,610) and (b) the Dutch Correctional Staff Survey 2011 (n = 690). Multilevel analyses showed that prisoners perceived their treatment in prison as more procedurally just in units where there are more female officers, where officers held more positive attitudes toward rehabilitation, and where there is a higher officer-to-inmate ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X13512767DOI Listing
April 2015

Reconviction rates after suspended sentences: comparison of the effects of different types of suspended sentences on reconviction in the Netherlands.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2015 Feb 31;59(2):143-58. Epub 2013 Oct 31.

Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Previous research has focused mainly on determining the effectiveness of suspended sentences compared with other sentences, and seldom on understanding to what extent the different types of suspended sentences reduce recidivism rates. This study examined reconviction rates of offenders (N = 1,258) who received fully or partly suspended prison sentences, with or without special conditions, in 2006 in two of the largest court districts in the Netherlands. Cox proportional hazard models revealed no difference in reconviction rates between fully and partly suspended prison sentences, with and without special conditions. However, suspended sentences without special conditions had significantly lower reconviction rates compared with special conditions that were solely control-orientated. Although there are indications that certain types of suspended sentences reduced reconviction rates more than other types, more rigorous research is still required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X13508929DOI Listing
February 2015

Procedural justice and prisoners' mental health problems: a longitudinal study.

Crim Behav Ment Health 2014 Apr 5;24(2):100-12. Epub 2013 Sep 5.

Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR), Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking.

Aim: The aims of this study were to examine (1) the longitudinal relationship between prisoners' perceptions of procedural justice--including fairness, respect, humanity and relationships with officers--and their mental health and (2) the moderating role of coping style in this relationship.

Methods: Data were obtained from the Prison Project, a longitudinal study of adult male prisoners in the Netherlands, interviewed both 3 weeks and 3 months after their reception into pre-trial detention (N = 824). A cross-lagged structural equation model was employed to investigate associations.

Results: Prisoners who reported experiencing a higher level of procedural justice 3 weeks after their arrival in custody reported fewer mental health problems after 3 months. No evidence was found that coping style moderated this relationship.

Conclusions: These findings suggest a causal relationship between procedural justice and psychological well-being. Fair and respectful treatment of prisoners is a predictor not only of prison order and prisoners' compliance but also of prisoners' psychological well-being.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbm.1881DOI Listing
April 2014

Neurobiological factors as predictors of cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome in individuals with antisocial behavior: a review of the literature.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2014 Nov 9;58(11):1279-96. Epub 2013 Jul 9.

The Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NSCR), Amsterdam, The Netherlands Faculty of Law, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

This review focuses on the predictive value of neurobiological factors in relation to cognitive-behavioral therapy outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Ten relevant studies were found. Although the literature on this topic is scarce and diverse, it appears that specific neurobiological characteristics, such as physiological arousal levels, can predict treatment outcome. The predictive value of neurobiological factors is important as it could give more insight into the causes of variability in treatment outcome among individuals with antisocial behavior. Furthermore, results can contribute to improvement in current treatment selection procedures and to the development of alternative treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X13494694DOI Listing
November 2014

Psychopathy as predictor and moderator of multisystemic therapy outcomes among adolescents treated for antisocial behavior.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2013 Oct;41(7):1121-32

Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine whether psychopathic traits act as a predictor and/or moderator of the effectiveness of Multisystemic Therapy (MST).

Method: The sample included N = 256 adolescents (188 boys and 68 girls) referred for conduct problems, randomized to MST or Treatment As Usual (TAU). The mean age was 16 years (SD = 1.31). Assessments were carried out before and immediately after treatment (6 months later). Three psychopathic traits (callous/unemotional traits, narcissism, and impulsiveness) were assessed with parent reports. Adolescents and parents were informants on externalizing problems.

Results: MST was more effective than TAU in decreasing externalizing problems for the "lower callous/unemotional" and "lower narcissism" group, but not for the "high callous/unemotional" and "high narcissism" group (moderators). Impulsiveness was found to predict more post-treatment externalizing problems rated by adolescents (predictor), but not more post-treatment externalizing problems rated by parents.

Conclusions: These findings point out the clinical relevance of adequately assessing psychopathic traits in adolescents referred for treatment of antisocial behaviour, and identifying those adolescents who show high levels of these traits. It is important to tailor MST specifically to meet the needs of juveniles with high levels of callous/unemotional traits and high levels of narcissism to obtain the same level of effectiveness as with juveniles scoring lower on these traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9749-5DOI Listing
October 2013

Aftercare programs for reducing recidivism among juvenile and young adult offenders: a meta-analytic review.

Clin Psychol Rev 2013 Mar 8;33(2):263-74. Epub 2012 Nov 8.

Forensic Child & Youth Care Sciences, University of Amsterdam (UvA), Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The aim of this meta-analytic study, including 22 studies and 5764 participants, was to examine the effects of aftercare programs on recidivism in juvenile and young adult offenders released from correctional institutions. The studies had to be (quasi-)experimental, with the control group receiving 'care as usual' or no treatment. Recidivism was measured by re-arrests and/or reconvictions and was based on official reports. Although the overall effect size for aftercare programs was generally small (d=.12), moderator analyses indicated more substantial effects and showed that aftercare is most effective if it is well-implemented and consists of individual instead of group treatment, and if it is aimed at older and high-risk youth. Whereas the treatment duration and moment of starting the aftercare program were not related to the program's effectiveness, more intensive aftercare programs were associated with lower recidivism rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.10.013DOI Listing
March 2013

Recidivism after treatment in a forensic youth-psychiatric setting: the effect of treatment characteristics.

Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2013 Sep 18;57(9):1120-39. Epub 2012 Jul 18.

Department of Forensic Child and Youth Care Sciences, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94208, 1090 GE Amsterdam, Netherlands.

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of treatment characteristics on recidivism in a forensic youth-psychiatric outpatient clinic. The treatment offered comprised functional family therapy (FFT), individual cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), or CBT in combination with parent training. Some of the youth additionally participated in aggression replacement training (ART). FFT and ART were implemented as a trial version, meaning that most therapists had not received formal training yet. Treatment characteristics related to recidivism were length of treatment, type of treatment, number of sessions, and the therapist. The longer the period of treatment and the greater the number of sessions, the higher the recidivism, even after controlling for risk of recidivism based on static risk factors. Juveniles who participated in ART reoffended more often than juveniles who had not participated in such training. Given the fact that FFT and ART were not well-implemented trial versions, it can be concluded that poorly implemented treatment leads to poor outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X12452389DOI Listing
September 2013

Differences in the prevalence and impact of risk factors for general recidivism between different types of juveniles who have committed sexual offenses (JSOs) and juveniles who have committed nonsexual offenses (NSOs).

Sex Abuse 2013 Feb 11;25(1):41-68. Epub 2012 Jul 11.

University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Department of Forensic Child and Youth Care Sciences, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

To date, there is surprisingly little research on differences in the prevalence and impact of risk factors for general recidivism between juveniles who have committed sexual offenses (JSO) and juveniles who have committed nonsexual offenses (NSO). Therefore, we examined differences in the prevalence and impact of dynamic risk factors for general delinquency between youth with nonsexual offenses (NSO, n = 504), youth with misdemeanor sexual offenders (MSO, n = 136), youth with felony sexual offenders (FSO, n = 116) and youth with offenses against much younger children (CSO, n = 373). The sample consisted of boys with a mean age of 15.3 years (SD = 1.5). The prevalence of dynamic risk factors for general delinquency was significantly lower in JSOs than in NSOs. More serious sexual offenses were associated with a lower prevalence of dynamic risk factors. In contrast, the impact of most dynamic risk factors on general recidivism proved to be significantly larger among JSOs compared to NSOs. The relative importance of the dynamic risk factors varied for each type of JSO, resulting in differences in the dynamic risk profiles of the various types of JSOs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063212452615DOI Listing
February 2013

Predictive validity of the Washington State Juvenile Court Pre-Screen Assessment in the Netherlands: the development of a new scoring system.

Assessment 2014 Feb 14;21(1):92-107. Epub 2012 Feb 14.

University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

This study examined the predictive validity of the Washington State Juvenile Pre-Screen Assessment (WSJCA pre-screen) in the Netherlands. Previous research conducted in the United States showed the predictive validity of the WSJCA pre-screen to be modest, as is the case with the predictive validity of most other risk assessment instruments for juveniles. Therefore, it was also examined whether the predictive validity of the WSJCA pre-screen can be improved by modifying the scoring procedure. The sample consisted of 520 youths who had been referred to the juvenile probation service by court. The present study showed the predictive validity of the WSJCA pre-screen in the Netherlands to be modest too, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of .625. Modifying the scoring procedure by means of chi-squared automatic interaction detector analyses significantly improved the predictive validity to an AUC of .702. The modified scoring procedure is time-saving because only variables that uniquely contribute to the prediction of recidivism are included, which at the same time leads to a more accurate prediction of recidivism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191112436666DOI Listing
February 2014

A meta-analysis of attachment to parents and delinquency.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2012 Jul;40(5):771-85

Research Institute Child Development and Education, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

To investigate the link between attachment to parents and delinquency, and the potential moderating effects of age and sex, 74 published and unpublished manuscripts (N = 55,537 participants) were subjected to a multilevel meta-analysis. A mean small to moderate effect size was found (r = 0.18). Poor attachment to parents was significantly linked to delinquency in boys and girls. Stronger effect sizes were found for attachment to mothers than attachment to fathers. In addition, stronger effect sizes were found if the child and the parent had the same sex compared to cross-sex pairs of children and parents. Age of the participants moderated the link between attachment and delinquency: larger effect sizes were found in younger than in older participants. It can be concluded that attachment is associated with juvenile delinquency. Attachment could therefore be a target for intervention to reduce or prevent future delinquent behavior in juveniles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9608-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3375078PMC
July 2012

Maternal and paternal parenting styles: unique and combined links to adolescent and early adult delinquency.

J Adolesc 2011 Oct 11;34(5):813-27. Epub 2011 Mar 11.

Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NWO-NSCR), P.O. Box 792, 2300 AT Leiden, The Netherlands.

The present study examines the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between fathers' and mothers' parenting styles and male and female delinquency using a sample of 330 Dutch families with a mid or late adolescent son or daughter (ages 14-22), followed across two measurement waves with a 5-year interval. Parenting styles of fathers and mothers were linked to delinquency. A significant parenting style by sex interaction was found: neglectful parenting was related to higher levels of delinquency in males and permissive parenting was linked to delinquency in females. A long term relationship was found between fathers' neglectful parenting style and delinquency in males. Furthermore, results revealed that levels of delinquency were the lowest in families with at least one authoritative parent and highest in families with two neglectful parents, indicating that the level of delinquency was dependent on the combination of mother's and father's parenting styles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.02.004DOI Listing
October 2011

The relationship between parenting and delinquency: a meta-analysis.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2009 Aug;37(6):749-75

The Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

This meta-analysis of 161 published and unpublished manuscripts was conducted to determine whether the association between parenting and delinquency exists and what the magnitude of this linkage is. The strongest links were found for parental monitoring, psychological control, and negative aspects of support such as rejection and hostility, accounting for up to 11% of the variance in delinquency. Several effect sizes were moderated by parent and child gender, child age, informant on parenting, and delinquency type, indicating that some parenting behaviors are more important for particular contexts or subsamples. Although both dimensions of warmth and support seem to be important, surprisingly very few studies focused on parenting styles. Furthermore, fewer than 20% of the studies focused on parenting behavior of fathers, despite the fact that the effect of poor support by fathers was larger than poor maternal support, particularly for sons. Implications for theory and parenting are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-009-9310-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2708328PMC
August 2009

Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2008 Feb 5;36(2):223-35. Epub 2007 Sep 5.

Netherlands Institute for the Study of Crime and Law Enforcement (NWO-NSCR), Leiden, The Netherlands.

We investigated trajectories of adolescent delinquent development using data from the Pittsburgh Youth Study and examined the extent to which these different trajectories are differentially predicted by childhood parenting styles. Based on self-reported and official delinquency seriousness, covering ages 10-19, we identified five distinct delinquency trajectories differing in both level and change in seriousness over time: a nondelinquent, minor persisting, moderate desisting, serious persisting, and serious desisting trajectory. More serious delinquents tended to more frequently engage in delinquency, and to report a higher proportion of theft. Proportionally, serious persistent delinquents were the most violent of all trajectory groups. Using cluster analysis we identified three parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian (moderately supportive), and neglectful (punishing). Controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood delinquency, neglectful parenting was more frequent in moderate desisters, serious persisters, and serious desisters, suggesting that parenting styles differentiate non- or minor delinquents from more serious delinquents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-007-9172-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2206247PMC
February 2008
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