Publications by authors named "Peter F Lebowitz"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Moving upstream in anticancer drug development.

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2019 03;18(3):159-160

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41573-018-00006-3DOI Listing
March 2019

Disease Interception: Myths, Mountains, and Mole Hills.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2016 Aug 2;9(8):635-7. Epub 2016 May 2.

Janssen Research and Development LLC., Spring House, Pennsylvania.

Malignant diseases develop slowly over time and are often preceded by identifiable premalignancies. As malignancy progresses, so does genomic complexity and the ability of cancers to evade most therapeutic interventions. Accordingly, with some notable exceptions, a relatively low percentage of advanced cancers are effectively treated and even fewer are cured. Despite this appreciation, much less attention has been paid to intercepting the disease process compared with that of treating well-established and refractory disease. One frequently cited reason is that the pharmaceutical industry is not interested in these pursuits. In this commentary, we attempt to define the true hurdles, the degree of difficulty inherent in each, and some important approaches to be considered. Cancer Prev Res; 9(8); 635-7. ©2016 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-16-0049DOI Listing
August 2016

Tumor genetic analyses of patients with metastatic melanoma treated with the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib (GSK2118436).

Clin Cancer Res 2013 Sep 5;19(17):4868-78. Epub 2013 Jul 5.

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Purpose: Dabrafenib is a selective inhibitor of V600-mutant BRAF kinase, which recently showed improved progression-free survival (PFS) as compared with dacarbazine, in metastatic melanoma patients. This study examined potential genetic markers associated with response and PFS in the phase I study of dabrafenib.

Experimental Design: Baseline (pretreatment or archival) melanoma samples were evaluated in 41 patients using a custom genotyping melanoma-specific assay, sequencing of PTEN, and copy number analysis using multiplex ligation amplification and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Nine patients had on-treatment and/or progression samples available.

Results: All baseline patient samples had BRAF(V600E/K) confirmed. Baseline PTEN loss/mutation was not associated with best overall response to dabrafenib, but it showed a trend for shorter median PFS [18.3 (95% confidence interval, CI, 9.1-24.3) vs. 32.1 weeks (95% CI, 24.1-33), P=0.059]. Higher copy number of CCND1 (P=0.009) and lower copy number of CDKN2A (P=0.012) at baseline were significantly associated with decreased PFS. Although no melanomas had high-level amplification of BRAF, the two patients with progressive disease as their best response had BRAF copy gain in their tumors.

Conclusions: Copy number changes in CDKN2A, CCND1, and mutation/copy number changes in PTEN correlated with the duration of PFS in patients treated with dabrafenib. The results suggest that these markers should be considered in the design and interpretation of future trials with selective BRAF inhibitors in advanced melanoma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924894PMC
September 2013

(18)F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) heterogeneity of response is prognostic in dabrafenib treated BRAF mutant metastatic melanoma.

Eur J Cancer 2013 Jan 14;49(2):395-402. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Westmead Millennium Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Little is known about the prevalence and clinical significance of heterogeneity of positron emission tomography with (18)F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) response. We aim to determine the prevalence, and clinicopathologic correlates of intra-patient heterogeneity of FDG-PET response in metastatic melanoma treated with dabrafenib, and to determine whether heterogeneity predicts clinical outcome.

Methods: Patients with BRAF mutant metastatic melanoma and ≥ 2 FDG avid lesions treated on the Phase I trial of dabrafenib at a single institution (n=23) were included. FDG-PET response was assessed by comparing baseline PET scans with scans at day 15. A heterogeneous response was defined as responding and new or metabolically progressing lesion(s) in a patient, or >10% of lesions with a stable metabolic response and responding lesions in a patient.

Results: Six (26%) patients had a heterogeneous PET response. The median time to progression (TTP) was 7.4 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 6.5-8.3) for PET homogeneous responders and 3.0 months (95%CI: 0.6-5.4) for PET heterogeneous responders. There were no homogeneous non-responders. Age, BRAF mutation genotype, dose, and lactate dehydrogenase, did not predict for heterogeneity of PET response. Heterogeneity did not correlate with tumour response. Lung metastases were more likely to respond than other visceral metastatic sites.

Conclusions: Heterogeneous FDG-PET responses are common in metastatic melanoma treated with dabrafenib, and heterogeneity is associated with a shorter TTP. FDG-PET heterogeneity may predict molecular heterogeneity, and FDG-PET directed biopsies may facilitate investigation into mechanisms of resistance to signal pathway inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2012.08.018DOI Listing
January 2013

Activity of the oral MEK inhibitor trametinib in patients with advanced melanoma: a phase 1 dose-escalation trial.

Lancet Oncol 2012 Aug 16;13(8):782-9. Epub 2012 Jul 16.

Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, Division of Cancer Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: MEK is a member of the MAPK signalling cascade that is commonly activated in melanoma. Direct inhibition of MEK blocks cell proliferation and induces apoptosis. We aimed to analyse safety, efficacy, and genotyping data for the oral, small-molecule MEK inhibitor trametinib in patients with melanoma.

Methods: We undertook a multicentre, phase 1 three-part study (dose escalation, cohort expansion, and pharmacodynamic assessment). The main results of this study are reported elsewhere; here we present data relating to patients with melanoma. We obtained tumour samples to assess BRAF mutational status, and available tissues underwent exploratory genotyping analysis. Disease response was measured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, and adverse events were defined by common toxicity criteria. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00687622.

Findings: 97 patients with melanoma were enrolled, including 81 with cutaneous or unknown primary melanoma (36 BRAF mutant, 39 BRAF wild-type, six BRAF status unknown), and 16 with uveal melanoma. The most common treatment-related adverse events were rash or dermatitis acneiform (n=80; 82%) and diarrhoea (44; 45%), most of which were grade 2 or lower. No cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas were recorded. Of 36 patients with BRAF mutations, 30 had not received a BRAF inhibitor before; two complete responses (both confirmed) and ten partial responses (eight confirmed) were noted in this subgroup (confirmed response rate, 33%). Median progression-free survival of this subgroup was 5·7 months (95% CI 4·0-7·4). Of the six patients who had received previous BRAF inhibition, one unconfirmed partial response was recorded. Of 39 patients with BRAF wild-type melanoma, four partial responses were confirmed (confirmed response rate, 10%).

Interpretation: Our data show substantial clinical activity of trametinib in melanoma and suggest that MEK is a valid therapeutic target. Differences in response rates according to mutations indicate the importance of mutational analyses in the future.

Funding: GlaxoSmithKline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70269-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4109286PMC
August 2012

Deep sequencing of gastric carcinoma reveals somatic mutations relevant to personalized medicine.

J Transl Med 2011 Jul 25;9:119. Epub 2011 Jul 25.

Cancer Research, Oncology R&D, Glaxosmithkline R&D, Collegeville, USA.

Background: Globally, gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death, with the majority of the health burden borne by economically less-developed countries.

Methods: Here, we report a genetic characterization of 50 gastric adenocarcinoma samples, using affymetrix SNP arrays and Illumina mRNA expression arrays as well as Illumina sequencing of the coding regions of 384 genes belonging to various pathways known to be altered in other cancers.

Results: Genetic alterations were observed in the WNT, Hedgehog, cell cycle, DNA damage and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition pathways.

Conclusions: The data suggests targeted therapies approved or in clinical development for gastric carcinoma would be of benefit to ~22% of the patients studied. In addition, the novel mutations detected here, are likely to influence clinical response and suggest new targets for drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-9-119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3152520PMC
July 2011

Effect of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of casopitant, a NK-1 receptor antagonist.

Invest New Drugs 2012 Apr 29;30(2):662-71. Epub 2010 Dec 29.

Discovery Operations & Clinical Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Inc, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Two studies were conducted in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic or renal impairment and subjects with normal organ function to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of casopitant and to assess its safety in these populations. A total of 26 subjects were enrolled in the hepatic impairment study and 18 subjects in the renal impairment study. All subjects received oral casopitant 100 mg once-daily for 5 days. Casopitant area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) increased 11% and 24% in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, respectively, on Day 1, compared with subjects with normal hepatic function; a similar increase was observed on Day 5. The AUC of the active major metabolite, GSK525060, was reduced 29% and 19% on Days 1 and 5, respectively, in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, but not altered by mild hepatic impairment. Casopitant AUC increased 34% and 22% on Day 1 in subjects with mild or moderate renal impairment, respectively, and 28% and 11% on Day 5, respectively, compared with subjects with normal renal function. GSK525060 AUC was increased 17% and 24% on Days 1 and 5, respectively, in subjects with mild renal impairment; but did not significantly change in subjects with moderate renal impairment. Further age-adjusted analysis showed no meaningful effect of renal impairment on casopitant or GSK525060 AUC. Plasma protein binding of casopitant and GSK525060 was similar in all subjects. The pharmacokinetics of casopitant is not altered to a clinically significant extent in subjects with mild or moderate, hepatic or renal impairment. The impact of severe hepatic or renal impairment was not evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-010-9604-2DOI Listing
April 2012

Ketoconazole and rifampin significantly affect the pharmacokinetics, but not the safety or QTc interval, of casopitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist.

J Clin Pharmacol 2010 Aug 2;50(8):951-9. Epub 2010 Feb 2.

PhD 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

Casopitant, an antiemetic, is a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist metabolized primarily by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Three phase 1 studies with 131 healthy subjects examined the impact of a strong CYP3A inhibitor (ketoconazole) and inducer (rifampin) on the pharmacokinetics and safety of casopitant. Oral casopitant was administered alone (study 1, 100-mg single dose; study 2, 150 mg on day 1, 50 mg on days 2 and 3; study 3, 150-mg single dose) with either 400 mg daily of oral ketoconazole or 600 mg daily of oral rifampin. Ketoconazole increased the maximum observed plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration time curve to the last sampling time, t (AUC(0-t)) of single-dose casopitant 2.7-fold and 12-fold and increased the C(max) of 3-day casopitant 2.5-fold on day 1 and 2.9-fold on day 3, whereas AUC((0-tau)) increased 4.3-fold on day 1 and 5.8-fold on day 3. Neither safety signals nor prolongation of Fredericia-corrected QT was observed at these increased exposures in study 2. Repeat-dose rifampin reduced the C(max) and AUC((0-t)) of casopitant 96% and 90%, respectively. These clinical studies confirmed the role of CYP3A in the metabolism and disposition of casopitant. Coadministration of casopitant with strong inhibitors of CYP3A is likely to increase plasma exposure of casopitant, whereas coadministration with strong inducers of CYP3A is likely to decrease casopitant exposure and compromise efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0091270009353761DOI Listing
August 2010

Gene expression pathway analysis to predict response to neoadjuvant docetaxel and capecitabine for breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010 Feb;119(3):685-99

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine University of Washington/Seattle Cancer Care Alliance, G3639, 825 Eastlake Ave, E, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been shown to be equivalent to post-operative treatment for breast cancer, and allows for assessment of chemotherapy response. In a pilot trial of docetaxel (T) and capecitabine (X) neoadjuvant chemotherapy for Stage II/III BC, we assessed correlation between baseline gene expression and tumor response to treatment, and examined changes in gene expression associated with treatment. Patients received four cycles of TX. Tumor tissue obtained from Mammotome core biopsies pretreatment (BL) and post-cycle 1 (C1) of TX was FLash frozen and stored at -70 degrees C until processing. Gene expression analysis utilized Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChip arrays. Statistical analysis was performed using BRB Array Tools after RMA normalization. Gene ontology (GO) pathway analysis used random variance t tests with a significance level of P\0.005. For gene categories identified byGO pathway analysis as significant, expression levels of individual genes within those pathways were compared between classes using univariate t tests; those genes with significance level of P\0.05 were reported. PAM50 analyses were performed on tumor samples to investigate biologic subtype and risk of relapse (ROR). Using GO pathway analysis, 39 gene categories discriminated between responders and non-responders,most notably genes involved in microtubule assembly and regulation. When comparing pre- and post-chemotherapy specimens, we identified 71 differentially expressed gene categories, including DNA repair and cell proliferation regulation. There were 45 GO pathways in which the change in expression after one cycle of chemotherapy was significantly different among responders and nonresponders. The majority of tumor samples fell into the basal like and luminal B categories. ROR scores decreased in response to chemotherapy; this change was more evident in samples from patients classified as responders by clinical criteria. GO pathway analysis identified a number of gene categories pertinent to therapeutic response, and may be an informative method for identifying genes important in response to chemotherapy. Larger studies using the methods described here are necessary to fully evaluate gene expression changes in response to chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-009-0651-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5892182PMC
February 2010

A phase I study to characterize the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of topotecan at 4 mg/m2 administered weekly as a 30-minute intravenous infusion in patients with cancer.

J Clin Pharmacol 2010 Mar 6;50(3):268-75. Epub 2009 Oct 6.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona 85259, USA.

Topotecan pharmacokinetics at higher infusion rates (4 mg/m2 over 30 minutes) have not been studied. The authors report a pharmacokinetics and safety study of this dose in advanced cancer patients. Sixteen patients were given a 4-mg/m2 topotecan infusion intravenously (IV) over 30 minutes weekly for 3 weeks, repeated every 28 days. Pharmacokinetics were determined after the first dose. Plasma concentrations of total topotecan were measured to derive CL, V(ss), C(max), t(max), t(1/2), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity). Plasma total topotecan concentrations decreased biexponentially, with a mean CL value of 20.6 L/h, V(ss) value of 101 L, and t(1/2) value of 5.0 h. Nine significant adverse events (all hematologic) were topotecan related. Grade 3 or less adverse events included anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and fatigue. Pharmacokinetics of the 4-mg/m2 infusion of topotecan over 30 minutes are comparable to findings from studies of lower and higher doses. Toxicities are similar to previous reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0091270009343699DOI Listing
March 2010

Phase I dose escalation and pharmacokinetic study of lapatinib in combination with trastuzumab in patients with advanced ErbB2-positive breast cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2008 Jul 19;26(20):3317-23. Epub 2008 May 19.

Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, 535 Barnhill Dr, Room 473, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Purpose: The combination of lapatinib and trastuzumab has been observed to have a synergistic, antiproliferative effect against ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells in vitro. This phase I study assessed the safety, clinical feasibility, optimally tolerated regimen (OTR), pharmacokinetics (PK), and preliminary clinical activity of this combination in patients with ErbB2-positive advanced breast cancer.

Patients And Methods: Cohorts of three patients with ErbB2-positive advanced breast cancer were treated with escalating doses of lapatinib (750 to 1,500 mg) administered once daily (continuous) in combination with trastuzumab (4 mg/kg loading dose then 2 mg/kg weekly) to determine the OTR. Once the OTR was determined, additional patients were enrolled to provide the PK profile of both agents alone and in combination.

Results: A total of 54 patients were treated: 27 in the dose-escalation group and 27 in the PK group. Overall, adverse events were mild to moderate in severity, with no drug-related grade 4 events. The most frequent drug-related grade 3 events included diarrhea (17%), fatigue (11%), and rash (6%). The OTR was 1,000 mg lapatinib with standard weekly trastuzumab. One patient had a complete response and seven patients had partial responses. The PK parameters (maximum concentration in plasma and area under the curve) of lapatinib and trastuzumab in combination were not significantly different than when either was administered alone.

Conclusion: The OTR of the lapatinib/trastuzumab combination was lapatinib 1,000 mg per day with standard weekly trastuzumab. At these doses, the regimen was well tolerated and clinically active in this heavily pretreated ErbB2-positive breast cancer population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2007.13.5202DOI Listing
July 2008

The needle in the haystack: application of breast fine-needle aspirate samples to quantitative protein microarray technology.

Cancer 2007 Jun;111(3):173-84

Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: There is an unmet clinical need for economic, minimally invasive procedures that use a limited number of cells for the molecular profiling of tumors in individual patients. Reverse-phase protein microarray (RPPM) technology has been applied successfully to the quantitative analysis of breast, ovarian, prostate, and colorectal cancers using frozen surgical specimens.

Methods: For this report, the authors investigated the novel use of RPPM technology for the analysis of both archival cytology aspirate smears and frozen fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples. RPPMs were printed with 63 breast FNA samples that were obtained before, during, and after treatment from 21 patients who were enrolled in a Phase II trial of neoadjuvant capecitabine and docetaxel therapy for breast cancer.

Results: Based on an MCF7 cell line model of breast adenocarcinoma, the sensitivity of the RPPM detection method was in the femtomolar range with a coefficient of variance <13.5% for the most dilute sample. Assay linearity was noted from 1.0 microg/microL to 7.8 ng/microL total protein/array spot (R(2) = 0.9887) for a membrane receptor protein (epidermal growth factor receptor; R(2) = 0.9935).

Conclusions: The results from this study indicated that low-abundance analytes and phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated proteins in specimens that consist of a few thousand cells obtained through FNA can be quantified with RPPM technology. The ability to monitor the in vivo state of cell-signaling proteins before and after treatment potentially will augment the ability to design individualized therapy regimens through the mapping of aberrant cell-signaling phenotypes. The mapping of these protein pathways will further the development of rational drug targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22686DOI Listing
June 2007

Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB and target genes during combined therapy with proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and reirradiation in patients with recurrent head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005 Dec 11;63(5):1400-12. Epub 2005 Jul 11.

Head and Neck Surgery Branch, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Purpose: To examine the effects the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (VELCADE) on transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and target genes and the feasibility of combination therapy with reirradiation in patients with recurrent head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

Methods And Materials: The tolerability and response to bortezomib 0.6 mg/m2 and 0.9 mg/m2 given twice weekly concurrent with daily reirradiation to 50-70 Gy was explored. Blood proteasome inhibition and NF-kappaB-modulated cytokines and factors were measured. Proteasome inhibition, nuclear localization of NF-kappaB phospho-p65, apoptosis, and expression of NF-kappaB-modulated mRNAs were compared in serial biopsies from accessible tumors.

Results: The maximally tolerated dose was exceeded, and study was limited to 7 and 2 patients, respectively, given bortezomib 0.6 mg/m2 and 0.9 mg/m2/dose with reirradiation. Grade 3 hypotension and hyponatremia were dose limiting. Mucositis was Grade 3 or less and was delayed. The mean blood proteasome inhibition at 1, 24, and 48 h after 0.6 mg/m2 was 32%, 16%, and 7% and after 0.9 mg/m2 was 56%, 26%, and 14%, respectively. Differences in proteasome and NF-kappaB activity, apoptosis, and expression of NF-kappaB-modulated cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis factor mRNAs were detected in 2 patients with minor tumor reductions and in serum NF-kappaB-modulated cytokines in 1 patient with a major tumor reduction.

Conclusions: In combination with reirradiation, the maximally tolerated dose of bortezomib was exceeded at a dose of 0.6 mg/m2 and the threshold of proteasome inhibition. Although this regimen with reirradiation is not feasible, bortezomib induced detectable differences in NF-kappaB localization, apoptosis, and NF-kappaB-modulated genes and cytokines in tumor and serum in association with tumor reduction, indicating that other schedules of bortezomib combined with primary radiotherapy or reirradiation may merit future investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2005.05.007DOI Listing
December 2005

A phase I trial and pharmacokinetic study of tipifarnib, a farnesyltransferase inhibitor, and tamoxifen in metastatic breast cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2005 Feb;11(3):1247-52

Medical Oncology Clinical Research Unit, National Cancer Institute/NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Purpose: Farnesyltransferase (FTase) inhibitors, which were designed to inhibit oncogenic Ras, act synergistically with tamoxifen in preclinical breast cancer models. We studied the safety and toxicity of tipifarnib in combination with tamoxifen in metastatic breast cancer. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tipifarnib were also assessed.

Patients And Methods: Patients with metastatic, hormone receptor-positive breast cancer were enrolled. Two cohorts of patients were treated with tipifarnib at either 200 or 300 mg p.o. twice daily for 21 of 28 days. Tamoxifen (20 mg once daily) was started after 1 week of tipifarnib monotherapy to perform pharmacokinetics and FTase inhibition levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells with tipifarnib alone and with tipifarnib and tamoxifen.

Results: A total of 12 heavily pretreated patients with prior progression on hormonal therapy were enrolled. Minimal toxicity was observed at the 200-mg dose level of tipifarnib. At the 300-mg dose, all six patients required dose reduction of tipifarnib due to toxicities that included grade 2 nausea, rash, and fatigue and grade 3 diarrhea and neutropenia. Tipifarnib pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variables were similar in the presence and absence of tamoxifen. Average FTase inhibition was 42% at 200 mg and 54% at 300 mg in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Of the 12 patients treated, there were two partial responses and one stable disease for >6 months.

Conclusions: Tipifarnib (200 mg twice daily for 21 of 28 days) and tamoxifen (20 mg once daily) can be given safely with minimal toxicity. Tamoxifen does not have a significant effect on tipifarnib pharmacokinetics.
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February 2005

A phase II trial of neoadjuvant docetaxel and capecitabine for locally advanced breast cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2004 Oct;10(20):6764-9

Medical Oncology Clinical Research Unit, Cancer Therapeutics Branch, Laboratory of Pathology, Biostatistics and Data Management, and Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

Purpose: This study evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of docetaxel/capecitabine as neoadjuvant treatment for stage 2/3 breast cancer.

Experimental Design: Subjects with newly diagnosed invasive stage 2 and 3 breast cancer were eligible. The first cohort of patients was treated at dose A with neoadjuvant docetaxel (75 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1) and capecitabine (1000 mg/m(2) orally twice daily days 2-15) for four cycles. A second cohort of subjects was treated with a reduced dose, dose B, of docetaxel (60 mg/m(2) i.v. day 1) and capecitabine (937.5 mg/m(2) orally twice daily days 2-15).

Results: Thirty patients were enrolled. Eight of 10 patients treated at dose A required dose reductions of either docetaxel or capecitabine secondary to grade 3 or 4 toxicities: mucositis (1), hand-foot syndrome (3), diarrhea (2), perirectal abscess (1), and neutropenia (2). Because of a high rate of dose reductions, the next 20 patients were treated at dose B. The mean cumulative administered dose of docetaxel was 285 and 231 mg/m(2) at dose A and dose B, respectively. For capecitabine, the mean cumulative dose at dose A and B were similar at 1585 and 1627 mg/m(2)/day, respectively. The overall clinical response rate was 90% with 31% of patients having a complete response and 59% having a partial response. A pathological complete response in the breast was achieved in 10% of patients after four cycles of docetaxel/capecitabine.

Conclusions: Docetaxel/capecitabine is a highly active regimen in the neoadjuvant setting. Neoadjuvant therapy with 75 mg/m(2) docetaxel and 1600 mg/m(2)/day days 2-15 is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0976DOI Listing
October 2004

Hormonal therapy of breast cancer.

Curr Probl Cancer 2003 Nov-Dec;27(6):279-331

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0147-0272(03)00049-7DOI Listing
March 2004