Publications by authors named "Peter Elisha Ghamba"

8 Publications

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The pattern of human papillomavirus infection and genotypes among Nigerian women from 1999 to 2019: a systematic review.

Ann Med 2021 Dec;53(1):944-959

WHO National Polio Reference Laboratory, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Background: There are no robust national prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in Nigerian women despite the high burden of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality.

The Objective Of Study: This study aims to determine the pooled prevalence and risk factors of genital HPV infection in Nigeria through a systemic review protocol.

Methods: Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and AJOL were searched between 10 April to 28 July 2020. HPV studies on Nigerian females and published from April 1999 to March 2019 were included. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence.

Results: The pooled prevalence of cervical HPV was 20.65% (95%CI: 19.7-21.7). Genotypes 31 (70.8%), 35 (69.9%) and 16 (52.9%) were the most predominant HPV in circulation. Of the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria, northeast had the highest pooled prevalence of HPV infection (48.1%), while the least was in the north-west (6.8%). After multivariate logistic regression, duration (years) of sexual exposure (OR = 3.24, 95%CI: 1.78-9.23]), history of other malignancies (OR = 1.93, 95%CI: 1.03-2.97]), history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.31-3.55]), coital frequency per week (OR = 5.11, 95%CI: 3.86-14.29), the status of circumcision of the sexual partner (OR = 2.71, 95%CI: 1.62-9.05), and marital status (OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.16-4.72), were significant risk factors of HPV infection ( < 0.05). Irregular menstruation, post-coital bleeding and abdominal vaginal discharge were significantly associated with HPV infection ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: HPV prevalence is high in Nigeria and was significantly associated with several associated risk factors. Rapid screening for high-risk HPV genotypes is recommended and multivalent HPV vaccines should be considered for women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.1938201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205070PMC
December 2021

Humoral immunological kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and diagnostic performance of serological assays for coronavirus disease 2019: an analysis of global reports.

Int Health 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to rise and second waves are reported in some countries, serological test kits and strips are being considered to scale up an adequate laboratory response. This study provides an update on the kinetics of humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and performance characteristics of serological protocols (lateral flow assay [LFA], chemiluminescence immunoassay [CLIA] and ELISA) used for evaluations of recent and past SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thorough and comprehensive review of suitable and eligible full-text articles was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Wordometer and medRxiv from 10 January to 16 July 2020. These articles were searched using the Medical Subject Headings terms 'COVID-19', 'Serological assay', 'Laboratory Diagnosis', 'Performance characteristics', 'POCT', 'LFA', 'CLIA', 'ELISA' and 'SARS-CoV-2'. Data from original research articles on SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection ≥second day postinfection were included in this study. In total, there were 7938 published articles on humoral immune response and laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. Of these, 74 were included in this study. The detection, peak and decline period of blood anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgG and total antibodies for point-of-care testing (POCT), ELISA and CLIA vary widely. The most promising of these assays for POCT detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 3 postinfection and peaked on the 15th day; ELISA products detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG at days 2 and 6 then peaked on the eighth day; and the most promising CLIA product detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 1 and peaked on the 30th day. The most promising LFA, ELISA and CLIA that had the best performance characteristics were those targeting total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies followed by those targeting anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG then IgM. Essentially, the CLIA-based SARS-CoV-2 tests had the best performance characteristics, followed by ELISA then POCT. Given the varied performance characteristics of all the serological assays, there is a need to continuously improve their detection thresholds, as well as to monitor and re-evaluate their performances to assure their significance and applicability for COVID-19 clinical and epidemiological purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihab005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928871PMC
February 2021

Sero-epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses-1 and -2 infection among pregnant women attending Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Hum Antibodies 2021 ;29(1):101-108

WHO National Polio Laboratory, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Background: There is the paucity of HTLV-1/-2 studies on Nigerian pregnant women despite the medical and public health significance of maternal-to-child transmission of HTLV-1/-2.

Objective: This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of HTLV-1/-2 infections among pregnant women attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Abuja, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples were collected from consented pregnant women and analysed for ant-HTLV-1/-2 total antibodies using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. Pretested structured questionnaires were used to collate participants' socio-demographic variables and risk factors of HTLV infection.

Results: Out of the 156 pregnant women tested for HTLV-1/-2 antibodies, 16 (10.3%) were seropositive. There was no significant association between the socio-demographic variables collated and seroprevalence of HTLV-1/-2 infection among pregnant women (p> 0.05). Pregnant women with HIV infection had a lower prevalence of HLTV-1/-2 infection than those without HIV infections (7.5% versus 11.7%). Pregnant women with multiple sexual partners had a higher risk of HTLV-1/-2 infection than those who had single (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 0.53-8.18). Women with a history of needles injury had a higher risk of HTLV-1/-2 infection than those who do not (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.38-4.08). The history of blood transfusion was significantly associated with HTLV-1/-2 infection (p= 0.027). However, no significant association existed between other risk factors of HTLV-1/-2 infection among pregnant women (p> 0.05).

Conclusion: Considering the 3% pooled national prevalence of HTLV-1/-2 infection in Nigeria, the seroprevalence reported in this study is relatively high. Thus, there is a need for more large cohort studies and routine screening of population at increased risk of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-200435DOI Listing
January 2021

Understanding the implications of SARS-CoV-2 re-infections on immune response milieu, laboratory tests and control measures against COVID-19.

Heliyon 2021 Jan 9;7(1):e05951. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Nursing Sciences, Maryam Abacha American University of Niger, Maradi, Nigeria.

Several months after the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), cases of re-infection after recovery were reported. The extent and duration of protective immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection is not fully understood. As such, the possibility of re-infection with SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, cases of re-infection were mainly due to different variants or mutant SARS-CoV-2. Following the fast and pandemic-scale spread of COVID-19, mutations in SARS-CoV-2 have raised new diagnostic challenges which include the redesign of the oligonucleotide sequences used in RT-PCR assays to avoid potential primer-sample mismatches, and decrease sensitivities. Since the initial wave of the pandemic, some regions had experienced fresh outbreaks, predisposing people to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 re-infection. Hence, this article sought to offer detailed biology of SARS-CoV-2 re-infections and their implications on immune response milieu, diagnostic laboratory tests and control measures against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e05951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810769PMC
January 2021

Distribution pattern and prevalence of West Nile virus infection in Nigeria from 1950 to 2020: a systematic review.

Epidemiol Health 2020 26;42:e2020071. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Solina Center for International Development and Research, Abuja, Nigeria.

Objectives: West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne viral infection. This study investigated the pooled prevalence pattern and risk factors of WNV infection among humans and animals in Nigeria.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted of eligible studies published in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from January 1, 1950 to August 30, 2020. Peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies describing WNV infections in humans and animals were systematically reviewed. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochrane Q statistic.

Results: Eighteen out of 432 available search output were eligible and included for this study. Of which 13 and 5 were WNV studies on humans and animals, respectively. Although 61.5% of the human studies had a low risk of bias, they all had high heterogeneity. The South West geopolitical zone of Nigeria had the highest pooled prevalence of anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM; 7.8% in humans). The pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG) was 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9 to 8.3) and 76.5% (95% CI, 74.0 to 78.8), respectively. The WNV RNA prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.9), while 14.3% (95% CI, 12.9 to 15.8) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. In animals, the pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and IgG was 90.3% (95% CI, 84.3 to 94.6) and 3.5% (95% CI, 1.9 to 5.8), respectively, while 20.0% (95% CI, 12.9 to 21.4) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Age (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 1.87 to 7.45; p<0.001) and level of education (no formal education: OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 17.2; p<0.05; primary: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.80 to 29.6; p<0.01) were significant risk factors for WNV IgM seropositivity in humans.

Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the endemicity of WNV in animals and humans in Nigeria and underscore the need for the One Health prevention and control approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137371PMC
February 2021

Leveraging on the genomics and immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 for vaccines development: prospects and challenges.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 03 16;17(3):620-637. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

The incidence and case-fatality rates (CFRs) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the etiological agent for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), have been rising unabated. Even though the entire world has been implementing infection prevention and control measures, the pandemic continues to spread. It has been widely accepted that preventive vaccination strategies are the public health measures for countering this pandemic. This study critically reviews the latest scientific advancement in genomics, replication pattern, pathogenesis, and immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and how these concepts could be used in the development of vaccines. We also offer a detailed discussion on the anticipated potency, efficacy, safety, and pharmaco-economic issues that are and will be associated with candidate COVID-19 vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1812313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993231PMC
March 2021

Roles and challenges of coordinated public health laboratory response against COVID-19 pandemic in Africa.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2020 07 31;14(7):691-695. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja Nigeria.

As the incidence of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) continues to rise, many countries have been seeking for medical assistance such as donation or procurement of laboratory test kits and strips. These consumables are largely intended for use in the laboratory investigations of COVID-19 cases, suspected contacts, asymptomatic persons and in discharging cured persons. Thus, this article was instigated to update and remind healthcare providers and policymakers (especially those in developing countries) on the principles of sample collections, storage, transportation, laboratory protocols and networks needed for appropriate public health response against COVID-19 pandemic in Africa and other developing countries. In addition, this article presents challenges that hinder adequate COVID-19 laboratory response and discuss some possible solutions that could ameliorate these constrains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12813DOI Listing
July 2020