Publications by authors named "Peter Elfferich"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Comparison of the functional and structural characteristics of rare TSC2 variants with clinical and genetic findings.

Hum Mutat 2020 04 19;41(4):759-773. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The TSC1 and TSC2 gene products interact to form the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an important negative regulator of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). Inactivating mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 cause TSC, and the identification of a pathogenic TSC1 or TSC2 variant helps establish a diagnosis of TSC. However, it is not always clear whether TSC1 and TSC2 variants are inactivating. To determine whether TSC1 and TSC2 variants of uncertain clinical significance affect TSC complex function and cause TSC, in vitro assays of TORC1 activity can be employed. Here we combine genetic, functional, and structural approaches to try and classify a series of 15 TSC2 VUS. We investigated the effects of the variants on the formation of the TSC complex, on TORC1 activity and on TSC2 pre-mRNA splicing. In 13 cases (87%), the functional data supported the hypothesis that the identified TSC2 variant caused TSC. Our results illustrate the benefits and limitations of functional testing for TSC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7154745PMC
April 2020

Heterogeneous clinical phenotypes and cerebral malformations reflected by rotatin cellular dynamics.

Brain 2019 04;142(4):867-884

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center (Erasmus MC), CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Recessive mutations in RTTN, encoding the protein rotatin, were originally identified as cause of polymicrogyria, a cortical malformation. With time, a wide variety of other brain malformations has been ascribed to RTTN mutations, including primary microcephaly. Rotatin is a centrosomal protein possibly involved in centriolar elongation and ciliogenesis. However, the function of rotatin in brain development is largely unknown and the molecular disease mechanism underlying cortical malformations has not yet been elucidated. We performed both clinical and cell biological studies, aimed at clarifying rotatin function and pathogenesis. Review of the 23 published and five unpublished clinical cases and genomic mutations, including the effect of novel deep intronic pathogenic mutations on RTTN transcripts, allowed us to extrapolate the core phenotype, consisting of intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly, lissencephaly, periventricular heterotopia, polymicrogyria and other malformations. We show that the severity of the phenotype is related to residual function of the protein, not only the level of mRNA expression. Skin fibroblasts from eight affected individuals were studied by high resolution immunomicroscopy and flow cytometry, in parallel with in vitro expression of RTTN in HEK293T cells. We demonstrate that rotatin regulates different phases of the cell cycle and is mislocalized in affected individuals. Mutant cells showed consistent and severe mitotic failure with centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation, leading to aneuploidy and apoptosis, which could relate to depletion of neuronal progenitors often observed in microcephaly. We confirmed the role of rotatin in functional and structural maintenance of primary cilia and determined that the protein localized not only to the basal body, but also to the axoneme, proving the functional interconnectivity between ciliogenesis and cell cycle progression. Proteomics analysis of both native and exogenous rotatin uncovered that rotatin interacts with the neuronal (non-muscle) myosin heavy chain subunits, motors of nucleokinesis during neuronal migration, and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived bipolar mature neurons rotatin localizes at the centrosome in the leading edge. This illustrates the role of rotatin in neuronal migration. These different functions of rotatin explain why RTTN mutations can lead to heterogeneous cerebral malformations, both related to proliferation and migration defects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6439326PMC
April 2019

Complete APTX deletion in a patient with ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1.

BMC Med Genet 2015 Aug 19;16:61. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam, 3000 CA, The Netherlands.

Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 is an autosomal-recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a childhood onset of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, followed by oculomotor apraxia and a severe primary motor peripheral axonal motor neuropathy. Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 is caused by bi-allelic mutations in APTX (chromosome 9p21.1).

Case Presentation: Our patient has a clinical presentation that is typical for ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 with no particularly severe phenotype. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification analysis resulted in the identification of a homozygous deletion of all coding APTX exons (3 to 9). SNP array analysis using the Illumina Infinium CytoSNP-850 K microarray indicated that the deletion was about 62 kb. Based on the SNP array results, the breakpoints were found using direct sequence analysis: c.-5 + 1225_*44991del67512, p.0?. Both parents were heterozygous for the deletion. Homozygous complete APTX deletions have been described in literature for two other patients. We obtained a sample from one of these two patients and characterized the deletion (156 kb) as c.-23729_*115366del155489, p.0?, including the non-coding exons 1A and 2 of APTX. The more severe phenotype reported for this patient is not observed in our patient. It remains unclear whether the larger size of the deletion (156 kb vs 62 kb) plays a role in the phenotype (no extra genes are deleted).

Conclusion: Here we described an ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 patient who has a homozygous deletion of the complete coding region of APTX. In contrast to the patient with the large deletion, our patient does not have a severe phenotype. More patients with deletions of APTX are required to investigate a genotype-phenotype effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-015-0213-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4593195PMC
August 2015

Breakpoint mapping of 13 large parkin deletions/duplications reveals an exon 4 deletion and an exon 7 duplication as founder mutations.

Neurogenetics 2011 Nov 13;12(4):263-71. Epub 2011 Oct 13.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) has been associated with recessive mutations in parkin (PARK2). About half of the mutations found in parkin are genomic rearrangements, i.e., large deletions or duplications. Although many different rearrangements have been found in parkin before, the exact breakpoints involving these rearrangements are rarely mapped. In the present study, the exact breakpoints of 13 different parkin deletions/duplications, detected in 13 patients out of a total screened sample of 116 EOPD patients using Multiple Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis, were mapped using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), long-range PCR and sequence analysis. Deletion/duplication-specific PCR tests were developed as a rapid and low cost tool to confirm MLPA results and to test family members or patients with similar parkin deletions/duplications. Besides several different deletions, an exon 3 deletion, an exon 4 deletion and an exon 7 duplication were found in multiple families. Haplotype analysis in four families showed that a common haplotype of 1.2 Mb could be distinguished for the exon 7 duplication and a common haplotype of 6.3 Mb for the deletion of exon 4. These findings suggest common founder effects for distinct large rearrangements in parkin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10048-011-0302-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3215878PMC
November 2011

Identification of a large rearrangement in CYLD as a cause of familial cylindromatosis.

Fam Cancer 2011 Mar;10(1):127-32

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Pathogenic mutations in CYLD can be identified in patients affected with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome, (Familial) Cylindromatosis or multiple familial trichoepithelioma. To date, only technologies which are able to identify small point mutations in CYLD, such as sequence and WAVE analysis, were used. Here we describe the identification of a larger rearrangement identified by Quantitative PCR analysis of CYLD, indicating that a combination of these technologies is necessary when searching for pathogenic mutations in CYLD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-010-9393-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3036809PMC
March 2011

Characterisation of TSC1 promoter deletions in tuberous sclerosis complex patients.

Eur J Hum Genet 2011 Feb 29;19(2):157-63. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), an autosomal dominant disorder, is a multisystem disease with manifestations in the central nervous system, kidneys, skin and/or heart. Most TSC patients carry a pathogenic mutation in either TSC1 or TSC2. All types of mutations, including large rearrangements, nonsense, missense and frameshift mutations, have been identified in both genes, although large rearrangements in TSC1 are scarce. In this study, we describe the identification and characterisation of eight large rearrangements in TSC1 using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in a cohort of 327 patients, in whom no pathogenic mutation was identified after sequence analysis of both TSC1 and TSC2 and MLPA analysis of TSC2. In four families, deletions only affecting the non-coding exon 1 were identified. In one case, loss of TSC1 mRNA expression from the affected allele indicated that exon 1 deletions are inactivating mutations. Although the number of TSC patients with large rearrangements of TSC1 is small, these patients tend to have a somewhat milder phenotype compared with the group of patients with small TSC1 mutations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2010.156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3025786PMC
February 2011

Mucopolysaccharidosis type IIID: 12 new patients and 15 novel mutations.

Hum Mutat 2010 May;31(5):E1348-60

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Mucopolysaccharidosis III D (Sanfilippo disease type D, MPS IIID) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder previously described in only 20 patients. MPS IIID is caused by a deficiency of N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulphate sulphatase (GNS), one of the enzymes required for the degradation of heparan sulphate. So far only seven mutations in the GNS gene have been reported. The clinical phenotype of 12 new MPS IIID patients from 10 families was studied. Mutation analysis of GNS was performed in 16 patients (14 index cases). Clinical signs and symptoms of the MPS IIID patients appeared to be similar to previously described patients with MPS III. Early development was normal with onset of behavioral problems around the age of 4 years, followed by developmental stagnation, deterioration of verbal communication and subsequent deterioration of motor functions. Sequence analysis of the coding regions of the gene encoding GNS (GNS) resulted in the identification of 15 novel mutations: 3 missense mutations, 1 nonsense mutation, 4 splice site mutations, 3 frame shift mutations, 3 large deletions and 1 in-frame small deletion. They include the first missense mutations and a relatively high proportion of large rearrangements, which warrants the inclusion of quantitative techniques in routine mutation screening of the GNS gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.21234DOI Listing
May 2010

A DGGE system for comprehensive mutation screening of BRCA1 and BRCA2: application in a Dutch cancer clinic setting.

Hum Mutat 2006 Jul;27(7):654-66

Department of Genetics, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Rapid and reliable identification of deleterious changes in the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 has become one of the major issues in most DNA services laboratories. To rapidly detect all possible changes within the coding and splice site determining sequences of the breast cancer genes, we established a semiautomated denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) mutation scanning system. All exons of both genes are covered by the DGGE scan, comprising 120 amplicons. We use a semiautomated approach, amplifying all individual amplicons with the same PCR program, after which the amplicons are pooled. DGGE is performed using three slightly different gel conditions. Validation was performed using DNA samples with known sequence variants in 107 of the 120 amplicons; all variants were detected. This DGGE mutation scanning, in combination with a PCR test for two Dutch founder deletions in BRCA1 was then applied in 431 families in which 52 deleterious changes and 70 unclassified variants were found. Fifteen unclassified variants were not reported before. The system was easily adopted by five other laboratories, where in another 3,593 families both exons 11 were analyzed by the protein truncation test (PTT) and the remaining exons by DGGE. In total, a deleterious change (nonsense, frameshift, splice-site mutation, or large deletion) was found in 661 families (16.4%), 462 in BRCA1 (11.5%), 197 in BRCA2 (4.9%), and in two index cases a deleterious change in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 was identified. Eleven deleterious changes in BRCA1 and 36 in BRCA2 had not been reported before. In conclusion, this DGGE mutation screening method for BRCA1 and BRCA2 is proven to be highly sensitive and is easy to adopt, which makes screening of large numbers of patients feasible. The results of screening of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in more than 4,000 families present a valuable overview of mutations in the Dutch population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.20340DOI Listing
July 2006

Mutational analysis of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes in a diagnostic setting: genotype--phenotype correlations and comparison of diagnostic DNA techniques in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

Eur J Hum Genet 2005 Jun;13(6):731-41

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the development of hamartomas in multiple organs and tissues. TSC is caused by mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 gene. We searched for mutations in both genes in a cohort of 490 patients diagnosed with or suspected of having TSC using a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, single-strand conformational polymorphism, direct sequencing, fluorescent in situ hybridisation and Southern blotting. We identified pathogenic mutations in 362 patients, a mutation detection rate of 74%. Of these 362 patients, 276 had a definite clinical diagnosis of TSC and in these patients 235 mutations were identified, a mutation detection rate of 85%. The ratio of TSC2:TSC1 mutations was 3.4:1. In our cohort, both TSC1 mutations and mutations in familial TSC2 cases were associated with phenotypes less severe than de novo TSC2 mutations. Interestingly, consistent with other studies, the phenotypes of the patients in which no mutation was identified were, overall, less severe than those of patients with either a known TSC1 or TSC2 mutation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201402DOI Listing
June 2005

High level expression and secretion of truncated forms of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 glycoprotein D by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

Protein Expr Purif 2002 Aug;25(3):400-8

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ Groningen, The Netherlands.

Herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and -2) glycoproteins D (gD-1 and gD-2) play a role in the entry of the virus into the host cell. Availability of substantial amounts of these proteins, or large fragments thereof, will be needed to allow studies at the molecular level. We studied the potency of the Pichia pastoris yeast expression system to produce soluble forms of gD. The DNA sequences encoding the extracellular domains of gD [amino acids 1-314 (gD-1(1-314)) and amino acids 1-254 (gD-1(1-254)) of gD-1 and amino acids 1-314 of gD-2 (gD-2(1-314))] were cloned into the P. pastoris yeast expression vector pPIC9. Two truncated forms of gD-1 were fitted with a His tail (designated as gD-1(1-314His) and gD-1(1-254His)) to facilitate their purification. Large amounts of gD-1(1-314) and gD-1(1-314His) (280-300mg/L induction medium) were produced. The yields of recombinant gD-1(1-254) and gD-1(1-254His) were lower: 20-36mg/L, and the yield of the gD-2(1-314) fragment was much lower: 6mg/L. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed multiple glycosylated species of the larger gD fragments, ranging in apparent molecular weight from 31 to 78kDa. The smaller gD-1(1-254) fragment appeared as two bands with molecular weights of 33 and 31kDa. All recombinant proteins produced by P. pastoris were recognized, as expected, by a panel of MAbs (A16, DL6, A18, DL11, HD1, ABDI, and AP7). In addition, we showed that gD-1(1-314), gD-2(1-314), and gD-1(1-254His) were able to interfere with binding of HSV to susceptible cells. These results indicate that the conformations of the recombinant proteins closely resemble those of native gD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1046-5928(02)00034-7DOI Listing
August 2002