Publications by authors named "Peter Ekblom"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Laminin isoforms in development and disease.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2007 Aug 11;85(8):825-36. Epub 2007 Apr 11.

Section for Cell and Matrix Biology, BMC B12, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Sölvegatan 19, 22184, Lund, Sweden.

The members of the laminin family of heterotrimers are major constituents of all basement membranes, sheet-like extracellular structures, present in almost all organs. The laminins bind to cell surface receptors and thereby tightly connect the basement membrane to the adjacent cell layer. This provides for the specific basement membrane functions to stabilize cellular structures, to serve as effective physical barriers, and furthermore, to govern cell fate by inducing intracellular signalling cascades. Many different types of diseases involve basement membranes and laminins. Metastasizing solid tumors must pass through basement membranes to reach the vascular system, and various microbes and viruses enter the cells through direct interaction with laminins. Furthermore, whereas mutations in one specific laminin chain lead to a muscular disorder, mutations of other laminin chains cause skin blistering and kidney defects, respectively. This review summarizes recent progress concerning the molecular mechanisms of laminins in development and disease. The current knowledge may lead to clinical treatment of lamininopathies and may include stem-cell approaches as well as gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-007-0182-5DOI Listing
August 2007

Gene expression profiling of differentiating embryonic stem cells expressing dominant negative fibroblast growth factor receptor 2.

Matrix Biol 2007 Apr 7;26(3):197-205. Epub 2006 Nov 7.

Department of Experimental Medical Science, Division for Cell and Matrix Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and can be cultured as three-dimensional embryoid bodies (EBs) in which embryonic pregastrulation stages are faithfully mimicked. Fibroblast growth factor receptors (mainly FGFR2) are involved in the first differentiation events during early mammalian embryogenesis. It has been demonstrated that the presence of FGFR2 is a prerequisite for laminin-111 and collagen type IV synthesis and subsequently basement membrane formation in EBs. To identify genes that are influenced by FGFR signalling, we performed global gene expression profiling of differentiating EBs expressing dominant negative FGFR2 (dnFGFR2), acquiring an extensive catalogue of down- and up-regulated genes. We show a strong down-regulation of endodermal and basement membrane related genes, which strengthen the view that the FGFR signalling pathway is a main stimulator of basement membrane synthesis in EBs. We further present down-regulation of genes previously not linked to FGFR signalling, and in addition an active transcription of some mesodermal related genes in differentiating dnFGFR2 EBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2006.10.013DOI Listing
April 2007

Monoclonal anti-mouse laminin antibodies: AL-1 reacts with laminin alpha1 chain, AL-2 with laminin beta1 chain, and AL-4 with the coiled-coil domain of laminin beta1 chain.

Matrix Biol 2006 Jul 21;25(5):301-5. Epub 2006 Apr 21.

Department of Experimental Medical Science, BMC B12, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

We analyzed the reactivity of three different commercially available rat monoclonal antibodies raised against mouse laminin-alpha1beta1gamma1 (laminin-111), AL-1, AL-2, and AL-4. Using ELISA assays, Western blot analysis and immunostainings we present refined epitope maps for these three laminin monoclonals. AL-1 reacted, as predicted with laminin alpha1 chain. AL-4 has also been marketed as an alpha1 chain specific probe, but we show here that AL-4 detects mouse laminin beta1 chain, in the distal part of the coiled-coil region. AL-2 was predicted to react with all three chains near the cross-region, but seems to primarily react with laminin beta1 chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2006.03.004DOI Listing
July 2006

Laminin alpha1 chain mediated reduction of laminin alpha2 chain deficient muscular dystrophy involves integrin alpha7beta1 and dystroglycan.

FEBS Lett 2006 Mar 21;580(7):1759-65. Epub 2006 Feb 21.

Department of Experimental Medical Science, Division for Cell and Matrix Biology, University of Lund, BMC B12 221 84 Lund, Sweden.

Transgenically introduced laminin (LN) alpha1 chain prevents muscular dystrophy in LNalpha2 chain deficient mice. We now report increased integrin alpha7Bbeta1D synthesis in dystrophic LNalpha2 chain deficient muscle. Yet, immunofluorescence demonstrated a reduced expression of integrin alpha7B subunit at the sarcolemma. Transgenic expression of LNalpha1 chain reconstituted integrin alpha7B at the sarcolemma. Expression of alpha- and beta-dystroglycan is enhanced in LNalpha2 chain deficient muscle and normalized by transgenic expression of LNalpha1 chain. We suggest that LNalpha1 chain in part ameliorates the development of LNalpha2 chain deficient muscular dystrophy by retaining the binding sites for integrin alpha7Bbeta1D and alpha-dystroglycan, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2006.02.027DOI Listing
March 2006

A simplified laminin nomenclature.

Matrix Biol 2005 Aug;24(5):326-32

Center for Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

A simplification of the laminin nomenclature is presented. Laminins are multidomain heterotrimers composed of alpha, beta and gamma chains. Previously, laminin trimers were numbered with Arabic numerals in the order discovered, that is laminins-1 to -5. We introduce a new identification system for a trimer using three Arabic numerals, based on the alpha, beta and gamma chain numbers. For example, the laminin with the chain composition alpha5beta1gamma1 is termed laminin-511, and not laminin-10. The current practice is also to mix two overlapping domain and module nomenclatures. Instead of the older Roman numeral nomenclature and mixed nomenclature, all modules are now called domains. Some domains are renamed or renumbered. Laminin epidermal growth factor-like (LE) domains are renumbered starting at the N-termini, to be consistent with general protein nomenclature. Domain IVb of alpha chains is named laminin 4a (L4a), domain IVa of alpha chains is named L4b, domain IV of gamma chains is named L4, and domain IV of beta chains is named laminin four (LF). The two coiled-coil domains I and II are now considered one laminin coiled-coil domain (LCC). The interruption in the coiled-coil of beta chains is named laminin beta-knob (Lbeta) domain. The chain origin of a domain is specified by the chain nomenclature, such as alpha1L4a. The abbreviation LM is suggested for laminin. Otherwise, the nomenclature remains unaltered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2005.05.006DOI Listing
August 2005

Laminin alpha1 globular domains 4-5 induce fetal development but are not vital for embryonic basement membrane assembly.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2005 Feb 24;102(5):1502-6. Epub 2005 Jan 24.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Lund University, 22184 Lund, Sweden.

During early mouse embryogenesis, each laminin (Lm) chain of the first described Lm, a heterotrimer of alpha1, beta1, and gamma1 chains (Lm-1), is essential for basement membrane (BM) assembly, which is required for pregastrulation development. Individual domains may have other functions, not necessarily structural. The cell binding C terminus of Lm alpha1 chain contains five Lm globular (LG) domains. In vitro, alpha1LG1-3 domains bind integrins, and alpha1LG4 binds dystroglycan, heparin, and sulfatides. A prevailing hypothesis is that alpha1LG4 is crucial as a structural domain for BM assembly, whereas integrin-binding sites conduct signaling. The in vivo role of alpha1LG4-5 (also called E3) has not been studied. Mice lacking alpha1LG4-5 were therefore made. Null embryos implanted, but presumptive epiblast cells failed to polarize and did not survive past day 6.5. BM components including truncated Lm alpha1 were detected in Reichert's membrane. Surprisingly, embryonic BM assembly between visceral endoderm and stem cells was normal in null embryos and in embryoid bodies of alpha1LG4-5-null embryonic stem cells. Yet, stem cells could not develop into polarized epiblast cells. Thus, alpha1LG4-5 provides vital signals for the conversion of stem cells to polarized epithelium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0405095102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC545491PMC
February 2005

Despite WT1 binding sites in the promoter region of human and mouse nucleoporin glycoprotein 210, WT1 does not influence expression of GP210.

J Negat Results Biomed 2004 Dec 21;3. Epub 2004 Dec 21.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Section for Cell and Developmental Biology, Lund University, Sweden.

Background: Glycoprotein 210 (GP210) is a transmembrane component of the nuclear pore complex of metazoans, with a short carboxyterminus protruding towards the cytoplasm. Its function is unknown, but it is considered to be a major structural component of metazoan nuclear pores. Yet, our previous findings showed pronounced differences in expression levels in embryonic mouse tissues and cell lines. In order to identify factors regulating GP210, the genomic organization of human GP210 was analyzed in silico.

Results: The human gene was mapped to chromosome 3 and consists of 40 exons spread over 102 kb. The deduced 1887 amino acid showed a high degree of alignment homology to previously reported orthologues. Experimentally we defined two transcription initiation sites, 18 and 29 bp upstream of the ATG start codon. The promoter region is characterized by a CpG island and several consensus binding motifs for gene regulatory transcription factors, including clustered sites associated with Sp1 and the Wilms' tumor suppressor gene zinc finger protein (WT1). In addition, distal to the translation start we found a (GT)n repetitive sequence, an element known for its ability to bind WT1. Homologies for these motifs could be identified in the corresponding mouse genomic region. However, experimental tetracycline dependent induction of WT1 in SAOS osteosarcoma cells did not influence GP210 transcription.

Conclusion: Although mouse GP210 was identified as an early response gene during induced metanephric kidney development, and WT1 binding sites were identified in the promoter region of the human GP210 gene, experimental modulation of WT1 expression did not influence expression of GP210. Therefore, WT1 is probably not regulating GP210 expression. Instead, we suggest that the identified Sp binding sites are involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1477-5751-3-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC544869PMC
December 2004

Distinct GATA6- and laminin-dependent mechanisms regulate endodermal and ectodermal embryonic stem cell fates.

Development 2004 Nov 29;131(21):5277-86. Epub 2004 Sep 29.

Department of Molecular Genetics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

This study investigates the establishment of alternative cell fates during embryoid body differentiation when ES cells diverge into two epithelia simulating the pre-gastrulation endoderm and ectoderm. We report that endoderm differentiation and endoderm-specific gene expression, such as expression of laminin 1 subunits, is controlled by GATA6 induced by FGF. Subsequently, differentiation of the non-polar primitive ectoderm into columnar epithelium of the epiblast is induced by laminin 1. Using GATA6 transformed Lamc1-null endoderm-like cells, we demonstrate that laminin 1 exhibited by the basement membrane induces epiblast differentiation and cavitation by cell-to-matrix/matrix-to-cell interactions that are similar to the in vivo crosstalk in the early embryo. Pharmacological and dominant-negative inhibitors reveal that the cell shape change of epiblast differentiation requires ROCK, the Rho kinase. We also show that pluripotent ES cells display laminin receptors; hence, these stem cells may serve as target for columnar ectoderm differentiation. Laminin is not bound by endoderm derivatives; therefore, the sub-endodermal basement membrane is anchored selectively to the ectoderm, conveying polarity to its assembly and to the differentiation induced by it. Unique to these interactions is their flow through two cell layers connected by laminin 1 and their involvement in the differentiation of two epithelia from the same stem cell pool: one into endoderm controlled by FGF and GATA6; and the other into epiblast regulated by laminin 1 and Rho kinase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.01415DOI Listing
November 2004

Laminin isoforms differentially regulate adhesion, spreading, proliferation, and ERK activation of beta1 integrin-null cells.

Exp Cell Res 2004 Oct;300(1):94-108

Section for Cell and Developmental Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Lund University, SE-22184 Lund, Sweden.

The presence of many laminin receptors of the beta1 integrin family on most cells makes it difficult to define the biological functions of other major laminin receptors such as integrin alpha6beta4 and dystroglycan. We therefore tested the binding of a beta1 integrin-null cell line GD25 to four different laminin variants. The cells were shown to produce dystroglycan, which based on affinity chromatography bound to laminin-1, -2/4, and -10/11, but not to laminin-5. The cells also expressed the integrin alpha6Abeta4A variant. GD25 beta1 integrin-null cells are known to bind poorly to laminin-1, but we demonstrate here that these cells bind avidly to laminin-2/4, -5, and -10/11. The initial binding at 20 min to each of these laminins could be inhibited by an integrin alpha6 antibody, but not by a dystroglycan antibody. Hence, integrin alpha6Abeta4A of GD25 cells was identified as a major receptor for initial GD25 cell adhesion to three out of four tested laminin isoforms. Remarkably, cell adhesion to laminin-5 failed to promote cell spreading, proliferation, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, whereas all these responses occurred in response to adhesion to laminin-2/4 or -10/11. The data establish GD25 cells as useful tools to define the role integrin alpha6Abeta4A and suggest that laminin isoforms have distinctly different capacities to promote cell adhesion and signaling via integrin alpha6Abeta4A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.06.031DOI Listing
October 2004

Laminin alpha1 chain reduces muscular dystrophy in laminin alpha2 chain deficient mice.

Hum Mol Genet 2004 Aug 22;13(16):1775-84. Epub 2004 Jun 22.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Lund, Sweden.

Laminin (LN) alpha2 chain deficiency in humans and mice leads to severe forms of congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD). Here, we investigated whether LNalpha1 chain in mice can compensate for the absence of LNalpha2 chain and prevent the development of muscular dystrophy. We generated mice expressing a LNalpha1 chain transgene in skeletal muscle of LNalpha2 chain deficient mice. LNalpha1 is not normally expressed in muscle, but the transgenically produced LNalpha1 chain was incorporated into muscle basement membranes, and normalized the compensatory changes of expression of certain other laminin chains (alpha4, beta2). In 4-month-old mice, LNalpha1 chain could fully prevent the development of muscular dystrophy in several muscles, and partially in others. The LNalpha1 chain transgene not only reversed the appearance of histopathological features of the disease to a remarkable degree, but also greatly improved health and longevity of the mice. Correction of LNalpha2 chain deficiency by LNalpha1 chain may serve as a paradigm for gene therapy of CMD in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddh190DOI Listing
August 2004

Laminin-1 promotes angiogenesis in synergy with fibroblast growth factor by distinct regulation of the gene and protein expression profile in endothelial cells.

J Biol Chem 2004 May 25;279(22):23766-72. Epub 2004 Mar 25.

Department of Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala University, Dag Hammarskjöldsvaüg 20, S-751 85 Uppsala, Sweden.

Laminins are widely distributed extracellular matrix proteins. Certain laminin isoforms are predominant in vascular basement membranes and may be critical in maintaining the stability of the mature vessel. On the other hand, formation of new vessels during angiogenesis requires degradation of the basement membrane, exposing the endothelial cells to other laminin isoforms in the surrounding extracellular matrix. We studied the effects of laminin-1 (LN-1) in different in vitro and in vivo models for angiogenesis. LN-1 induced angiogenesis in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane to the same extent as fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and vascular development in embryoid bodies was stimulated in a synergistic manner by FGF-2 and LN-1. LN-1 promoted differentiation of endothelial cells in three-dimensional collagen gels, both in the absence and presence of FGF-2. Formation of tubular structures induced by LN-1 was accompanied by increased expression of Jagged-1, a marker of endothelial differentiation, and increased levels of FGF-2 and FGFR-1 transcripts. LN-1 did not regulate signal transduction pathways known to operate down stream of FGF-2. Thus, phosphorylation of ERK was detected in FGF-2- but not in LN-1-treated cells. Taken together, this suggests that laminins may play a fundamental role in angiogenesis by directly affecting gene and protein expression profiles in endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M311675200DOI Listing
May 2004

Limited expression of nuclear pore membrane glycoprotein 210 in cell lines and tissues suggests cell-type specific nuclear pores in metazoans.

Exp Cell Res 2004 Jan;292(2):359-70

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, BMC B12, Lund University, SE-221 84, Lund, Sweden.

The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the only known gateway for nucleocytoplasmic traffic. The nuclear pore membrane glycoprotein 210 (POM210/gp210) is considered to be important for the assembly and structure of pore complexes in metazoan cells. However, here we demonstrate cell-type specific expression of the gp210 protein during mouse organogenesis. As shown previously for its mRNA, distinct expression of the gp210 was seen in developing epithelia and some other cell types, whereas it was undetectable in nuclei of several other embryonic tissue compartments. In sharp contrast, monoclonal antibody 414 recognizing four non-membrane nucleoporins, stained the nuclear envelope of all cell types. In four cultured mouse cell lines, gp210 mRNA and protein were below detection levels, in contrast to some other nucleoporins tested. Distinct expression of gp210 mRNA and protein was seen in cultured mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. These findings support the view of cell-type specific NPCs in metazoans and that the gp210 gene is regulated by cell-type specific control elements not shared by other nucleoporins. Although it cannot be excluded that very low expression levels of gp210 are sufficient to allow attachment of NPCs, a more likely alternative is that it has cell-type specific functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2003.09.014DOI Listing
January 2004

Opposing roles of integrin alpha6Abeta1 and dystroglycan in laminin-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.

Mol Biol Cell 2003 May 6;14(5):2088-103. Epub 2003 Feb 6.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Lund University, Sweden.

Laminin-integrin interactions can in some settings activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) but the control mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein, we studied ERK activation in response to two laminins isoforms (-1 and -10/11) in two epithelial cell lines. Both cell lines expressed beta1-containing integrins and dystroglycan but lacked integrin alpha6beta4. Antibody perturbation assays showed that both cell lines bound to laminin-10/11 via the alpha3beta1and alpha6beta1 integrins. Although laminin-10/11 was a stronger adhesion complex than laminin-1 for both cell lines, both laminins activated ERK in only one of the two cell lines. The ERK activation was mediated by integrin alpha6beta1 and not by alpha3beta1 or dystroglycan. Instead, we found that dystroglycan-binding domains of both laminin-1 and -10/11 suppressed integrin alpha6beta1-mediated ERK activation. Moreover, the responding cell line expressed the two integrin alpha6 splice variants, alpha6A and alpha6B, whereas the nonresponding cell line expressed only alpha6B. Furthermore, ERK activation was seen in cells transfected with the integrin alpha6A subunit, but not in alpha6B-transfected cells. We conclude that laminin-1 and -10/11 share the ability to induce ERK activation, that this is regulated by integrin alpha6Abeta1, and suggest a novel role for dystroglycan-binding laminin domains as suppressors of this activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e03-01-0852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC165099PMC
May 2003

Expression and biological role of laminin-1.

Matrix Biol 2003 Mar;22(1):35-47

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, BMC B12, Lund University, Sweden.

Of the approximately 15 laminin trimers described in mammals, laminin-1 expression seems to be largely limited to epithelial basement membranes. It appears early during epithelial morphogenesis in most tissues of the embryo, and remains present as a major epithelial laminin in some adult tissues. Previous organ culture studies with embryonic tissues have suggested that laminin-1 is important for epithelial development. Recent data using genetically manipulated embryonic stem (ES) cells grown as embryoid bodies provide strong support for the view of a specific role of laminin-1 in epithelial morphogenesis. One common consequence of genetic ablation of FGF signaling, beta1-integrin or laminin gamma1 chain expression in ES cells is the absence of laminin-1, which correlates with failure of BM assembly and epiblast differentiation. Partial but distinct rescue of epiblast differentiation has been achieved in all three mutants by exogenously added laminin-1. Laminin-1 contains several biologically active modules, but several are found in beta1 or gamma1 chains shared by at least 11 laminins. However, the carboxytermini of the alpha chains contain five laminin globular (LG) modules, distinct for each alpha chain. There is increasing evidence for a particular role of alpha1LG4 binding to its receptors for epithelial tubulogenesis. The biological roles of this and other domains of laminin-1 are currently being explored by genetic means. The pathways controlling laminin-1 synthesis have remained largely unknown, but recent advances raise the possibility that laminin-1 and collagen IV synthesis can be regulated by pro-survival kinases of the protein kinase B/Akt family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0945-053x(03)00015-5DOI Listing
March 2003

Integrin alphavbeta3 binding to human alpha5-laminins facilitates FGF-2- and VEGF-induced proliferation of human ECV304 carcinoma cells.

Eur J Cell Biol 2003 Mar;82(3):105-17

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Lund University, Lund/Sweden.

Human ECV304 cells respond reproducibly by tube formation to complex basement membrane matrices. Laminins are major glycoproteins of basement membranes. We therefore studied the ability of ECV304 cells to attach to defined laminin isoforms and to fibronectin, and identified the involved laminin receptors. The cells bound poorly to fibronectin, to some extent to laminin-1, whereas laminin-2/4 and -10/11 were strong adhesive substrates. Antibody perturbation assays showed that adhesion to laminin-1 was mediated by integrin alpha6beta1, and adhesion to laminin-2/4 by cooperative activity of integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1. Adhesion of ECV 304 cells to laminin-10/11 was mainly mediated by integrins alpha3beta1, with minor involvement of alpha6beta1/4 and alphavbeta3. Solid-phase binding assays confirmed that integrin alphavbeta3 binds human laminin-10/11 and -10, in an RGD-dependent fashion. Although integrin alphavbeta3 played a very minor role in cell adhesion to laminin-10/11, this interaction facilitated growth factor-induced proliferation of ECV304 cells. In response to FGF-2 or VEGF, the cells proliferated better when attached on laminin-10/11 than on laminin-1, -2/4, or gelatin. The proliferation induced by the joint application of laminin-10/11 and either one of the growth factors could be blocked by antibodies against integrin alphavbeta3. Fragments of several other basement membrane components are known to interact with alphavbeta3. The current data show that that integrin alphavbeta3 can bind intact alpha5-containing laminin trimers. Since the laminin alpha5 chain is broadly expressed in adult basement membranes, this interaction could be physiologically important. Our data suggest that this interaction is involved in the regulation of cellular responses to growth factors known to be involved in epithelial and endothelial development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0171-9335-00297DOI Listing
March 2003

Laminin isoform-specific promotion of adhesion and migration of human bone marrow progenitor cells.

Blood 2003 Feb 19;101(3):877-85. Epub 2002 Sep 19.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institute and BioStratum AB, Stockholm, Sweden.

Laminins are alphabetagamma heterotrimeric extracellular proteins that regulate cellular functions by adhesion to integrin and nonintegrin receptors. Laminins containing alpha4 and alpha5 chains are expressed in bone marrow, but their interactions with hematopoietic progenitors are unknown. We studied human bone marrow cell adhesion to laminin-10/11 (alpha5beta1gamma1/alpha5beta2gamma1), laminin-8 (alpha4beta1gamma1), laminin-1 (alpha1beta1gamma1), and fibronectin. About 35% to 40% of CD34(+) and CD34(+)CD38(-) stem and progenitor cells adhered to laminin-10/11, and 45% to 50% adhered to fibronectin, whereas they adhered less to laminin-8 and laminin-1. Adhesion of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells to laminin-10/11 was maximal without integrin activation, whereas adhesion to other proteins was dependent on protein kinase C activation by 12-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS) analysis showed expression of integrin alpha6 chain on most CD34(+) and CD34(+)CD38(-) cells. Integrin alpha6 and beta1 chains were involved in binding of both cell fractions to laminin-10/11 and laminin-8. Laminin-10/11 was highly adhesive to lineage-committed myelomonocytic and erythroid progenitor cells and most lymphoid and myeloid cell lines studied, whereas laminin-8 was less adhesive. In functional assays, both laminin-8 and laminin-10/11 facilitated stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha)-stimulated transmigration of CD34(+) cells, by an integrin alpha6 receptor-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, we demonstrate laminin isoform-specific adhesive interactions with human bone marrow stem, progenitor, and more differentiated cells. The cell-adhesive laminins affected migration of hematopoietic progenitors, suggesting a physiologic role for laminins during hematopoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-03-0796DOI Listing
February 2003

Binding of mouse nidogen-2 to basement membrane components and cells and its expression in embryonic and adult tissues suggest complementary functions of the two nidogens.

Exp Cell Res 2002 Oct;279(2):188-201

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Nidogen-1 binds several basement membrane components by well-defined, domain-specific interactions. Organ culture and gene targeting approaches suggest that a high-affinity nidogen-binding site of the laminin gamma1 chain (gamma1III4) is important for kidney development and for nerve guidance. Other proteins may also bind gamma1III4, although human nidogen-2 binds poorly to the mouse laminin gamma1 chain. We therefore characterized recombinant mouse nidogen-2 and its binding to basement membrane proteins and cells. Mouse nidogen-1 and -2 interacted at comparable levels with collagen IV, perlecan, and fibulin-2 and, most notably, also with laminin-1 fragments P1 and gamma1III3-5, which both contain the gamma1III4 module. In embryos, nidogen-2 mRNA was produced by mesenchyme at sites of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, but the protein was deposited on epithelial basement membranes, as previously shown for nidogen-1. Hence, binding of both nidogens to the epithelial laminin gamma1 chain is dependent on epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Epidermal growth factor stimulated expression of both nidogens in embryonic submandibular glands. Both nidogens were found in all studied embryonic and adult basement membranes. Nidogen-2 was more adhesive than nidogen-1 for some cell lines and was mainly mediated by alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1 integrins as shown by antibody inhibition. These findings revealed extensive coregulation of nidogen-1 and -2 expression and much more complementary functions of the two nidogens than previously recognized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/excr.2002.5611DOI Listing
October 2002

Nulp1, a novel basic helix-loop-helix protein expressed broadly during early embryonic organogenesis and prominently in developing dorsal root ganglia.

Cell Tissue Res 2002 Jun 26;308(3):361-70. Epub 2002 Apr 26.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Section for Cell and Developmental Biology, Lund University, BMC, B12, Sölvegatan 19, 221 84 Lund, Sweden.

The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins control differentiation and development of a variety of organs. We have isolated the complementary DNA (cDNA) of a novel class of bHLH transcription factors. The previously uncharacterized bHLH messenger RNA (mRNA) was identified by RNA fingerprinting by comparing embryonic and adult mRNA. The reading frame sequence predicts a new class of bHLH family. Northern blotting of embryonic stages demonstrated a 3.2-kb transcript present in several embryonic tissues, including kidney, brain, heart, and lung, in a fashion confirmatory with the RNA-fingerprinting data. In situ hybridization of cryosections detected strong signals in the dorsal root ganglia of 14-day-old mouse embryos (E14). Transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells with Nulp1-EGFP demonstrated nuclear localization. The complex expression pattern and unique protein sequence, including an acidic amino terminal and putative transcription activation domain, suggests that Nulp1 may have a distinct role in embryonic development of many organs, including the adult brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-002-0544-9DOI Listing
June 2002

Differentiation of metanephric tubules following a short transfilter induction pulse.

Wilehm Roux Arch Dev Biol 1983 May;192(3-4):145-151

Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 3, SF-00290, Helsinki 29, Finland.

Undifferentiated metanephric mesenchymes, when grown in transfilter contact with an inductor tissue, differentiate into epithelial kidney tubules. The segregation of these tubules into the different segments of the nephron was studied.In explants grown in continuous transfilter contact with the inductor, immunohistological and histochemical markers specific for the glomerular epithelial, proximal tubule, and distal tubule cells appeared by 4 1/2 to 5 days, 4 days, and 5 days of culture, respectively. Electron microscopy confirmed segmentation of the tubules: Avascular glomeruli with glomerular basement membrane material, proximal tubules with brush border formation, and distal tubules were revealed in the explants after 5 days of culture.A short (18 h) transfilter induction pulse, followed by a prolonged subculture in the absence of the inductor, resulted sulted in the formation of only a small number of tubules in about half of the explants while the rest remained undifferentiated. These scarce tubules showed the markers specific for the proximal tubules only. The segregation of all three aspects of the nephron seems to be programmed during the transfilter culture, but apparently the time needed for the induction of the different segments varies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00848683DOI Listing
May 1983